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authorChristian Grothoff <christian@grothoff.org>2020-07-12 18:19:17 +0200
committerChristian Grothoff <christian@grothoff.org>2020-07-12 18:19:17 +0200
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downloadexchange-895e24872de95acf255e0746b42f0661697e7f9a.tar.gz
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exchange-895e24872de95acf255e0746b42f0661697e7f9a.zip
initial import of thesis-dold
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+thesis.pdf
+thesis-*.pdf
+thesis.out
+summary/summary-english.pdf
+*-converted-to.pdf
+*.log
+*.toc
+*.run.xml
+*.ind
+*.ilg
+*.fls
+*.fdb_latexmk
+*.aux
+*.idx
+*.bbl
+*.bcf
+*.blg
+*.lof
+*.maf
+*.mt*
+
+bench/results/
+bench/plots/
+bench/stats
diff --git a/doc/system/abstract.tex b/doc/system/abstract.tex
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@@ -0,0 +1,52 @@
+\chapter{Abstract}
+%As our society becomes more and more digitalized, an electronic version of cash
+%becomes inevitable. The design of payment systems is not just a technological
+%matter, but has far-reaching sociopolitical consequences.
+\begin{samepage}
+We describe the design and implementation of GNU Taler, an electronic payment
+system based on an extension of Chaumian online e-cash with efficient change.
+In addition to anonymity for customers, it provides the novel notion of
+\emph{income transparency}, which guarantees that merchants can reliably
+receive a payment from an untrusted payer only when their income from the
+payment is visible to tax authorities.
+
+Income transparency is achieved by the introduction of a \emph{refresh
+protocol}, which gives anonymous change for a partially spent coin without
+introducing a tax evasion loophole. In addition to income transparency, the
+refresh protocol can be used to implement Camenisch-style \emph{atomic swaps}, and to
+preserve anonymity in the presence of protocol \emph{aborts} and crash faults with
+data loss by participants.
+
+Furthermore, we show the provable security of our income-transparent anonymous
+e-cash, which, in addition to the usual \emph{anonymity} and
+\emph{unforgeability} properties of e-cash, also formally models
+\emph{conservation} of funds and income transparency.
+
+Our implementation of GNU Taler is usable by non-expert users and integrates
+with the modern Web architecture. Our payment platform addresses a range of
+practical issues, such as tipping customers, providing refunds, integrating
+with banks and know-your-customer (KYC) checks, as well as Web platform
+security and reliability requirements. On a single machine, we achieve
+transaction rates that rival those of global, commercial credit card
+processors. We increase the robustness of the exchange---the component that
+keeps bank money in escrow in exchange for e-cash---by adding an auditor
+component, which verifies the correct operation of the system and allows to
+detect a compromise or misbehavior of the exchange early.
+
+Just like bank accounts have reason to exist besides bank notes, e-cash only
+serves as part of a whole payment system stack. Distributed ledgers have
+recently gained immense popularity as potential replacement for parts of the
+traditional financial industry. While cryptocurrencies based on proof-of-work
+such as Bitcoin have yet to scale to be useful as a replacement for established
+payment systems, other more efficient systems based on blockchains with more
+classical consensus algorithms might still have promising applications in the
+financial industry.
+
+We design, implement and analyze the performance of \emph{Byzantine Set Union
+Consensus} (BSC), a Byzantine consensus protocol that agrees on a (super-)set
+of elements at once, instead of sequentially agreeing on the individual
+elements of a set. While BSC is interesting in itself, it can also be used as
+a building block for permissioned blockchains, where---just like in
+Nakamoto-style consensus---whole blocks of transactions are agreed upon at once,
+increasing the transaction rate.
+\end{samepage}
diff --git a/doc/system/acknowledgements.tex b/doc/system/acknowledgements.tex
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+\chapter*{Acknowledgements}
+
+The book is based on Florian Dold's PhD thesis. We have removed the parts that
+are not crucial for GNU Taler. Also, unlike the thesis, the GNU Taler project
+continues to be updated, so this books is expected to be kept up-to-date with
+the latest developments. Nevertheless, Florian Dold's contribution to the
+text remains fundamental.
+
+We would like to thank Moritz Bartl for helping with the funding for Florian's
+thesis and GNU Taler in general. Bruno Haible provided generous support for
+the GNU Taler team to visit meetings of the W3C's Web Payment Working Group.
+We also thank Ashoka, the Tor project and the Donaukurier for their support.
+
+This work benefits from the financial support of the Brittany Region (ARED
+9174) and the Renewable Freedom Foundation (RFF).
+
+We thank the Bern University of Applied Sciences for continuing to host the
+GNU Taler servers.
+
+We thank to Cristina Onete and Jeff Burdges for their collaboration on the
+provable security of GNU Taler.
+
+We are grateful to the GNU project, in particular Richard Stallman, for their
+support of this project. We also thank all GNUnet developers and GNU Guix
+developers, especially Hartmut Goebel, Nils Gillmann, Gabor Toth, Ludovic
+Courtès and Andreas Enge.
+
diff --git a/doc/system/conclusions.tex b/doc/system/conclusions.tex
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+\chapter{Future Work}\label{chapter:future-work}
+We now discuss future work that builds upon the results presented so far.
+
+
+\subsection*{Standard Model}
+Our current instantiation of the Taler protocol relies heavily on hash
+functions. Since the result by Canetti and others \cite{canetti2004random}
+about the theoretical impossibility of securely instantiating protocols that
+rely on the random oracle assumption for their security, a vast amount of
+literature has been devoted to find instantiations of interesting protocols in
+the standard model \cite{koblitz2015random}. The Taler protocol syntax could
+likely be also instantiated securely in the standard model, based existing on
+blind signature schemes in the standard model. The trade-off however is that
+while removing the random oracle assumption, typically other less well known
+assumptions must be made.
+
+\subsection*{Post-Quantum security}
+The possibility of post-quantum computers breaking the security of established
+cryptographic primitives has lately received a lot of attention from
+cryptographers. While currently most schemes with post-quantum security are impractical,
+it might be worthwhile to further investigate their application to e-cash, based
+on existing work such as \cite{zhang2018new}.
+
+\subsection*{Applications to network incentives}
+Some peer-to-peer networking protocols (such as onion routing
+\cite{dingledine2004tor}) do not have inherent incentives and rely on
+volunteers to provide infrastructure. In future work, we want to look at
+adding incentives in the form of Taler payments to a peer-to-peer networking
+platform such as GNUnet.
+
+\subsection*{Smart(er) Contracts and Auctions}
+Contract terms in Taler are relatively limited. There are some interesting
+secure multiparty computations, such as privacy-preserving auctions
+\cite{brandt2006obtain} that could be offered by exchanges as a fixed smart
+contract. This would allow a full privacy-preserving auction platform, as
+current auction protocols only output the winner of a privacy-preserving
+auction but do not address the required anonymous payments.
+
+
+\subsection*{Backup and Sync}\label{sec:future-work-backup-sync}
+Synchronization of wallets between multiple devices is a useful feature, but a
+na\"ive implementation endangers privacy. A carefully designed protocol for
+backup and synchronization must make sure that the hosting service for the
+wallet's data cannot collaborate with the exchange and merchants to deanonymize
+users or transactions. Thus when spending coins for a payment, devices should
+not have to synchronously talk to their backup/sync provider. This creates the
+challenge of allocating the total available balance to individual devices in a
+way that fits the customer's spending pattern, and only require synchronous
+communication at fixed intervals or when really necessary to re-allocate coins.
+
+Another possible approach might be to use Private Information Retrieval (PIR)
+\cite{goldberg2007improving} to access backup and synchronization information.
+
+
+\subsection*{Machine-Verified Proofs}
+We currently model only a subset of the GNU Taler protocol formally, and proofs
+are handwritten and verified by humans. A tool such as CryptoVerif
+\cite{blanchet2007cryptoverif} can allow a higher coverage and computer-checked
+proofs, and would allow protocol changes to be validated in shorter time.
+
+\subsection*{Coin Restrictions / ``Taler for Children''}
+By designating certain denominations for different purposes, GNU Taler could be
+used to implement a very simple form of anonymous credentials
+\cite{paquin2011u,camenisch2004signature}, which then could be used to
+implement a Taler wallet specifically aimed at children, in order to teach them
+responsible and autonomous spending behavior, while granting them privacy and
+at the same time preventing them from making age-inappropriate purchases
+online, as the discretion of parents.
+
+%\subsection*{gnunet-blockchain / deployment of the full stack payment system}
+%=> no, talk more about integration with real banks, KYC
+%
+%\subsection*{P2P payments}
+%
+%\subsection*{NFC Wallet}
+%
+%\subsection*{large, scaleable deployment}
+%I.e. sharding, db replication, load balancer(s)
+%
+%\subsection*{Hardware security module for exchange}
+%
+%\subsection*{Bitcoin/Blockchain integration}
+%
+%\subsection*{UX study and improvements}
+%(including tracking/planning of spending)
+%
+%\subsection*{News Distribution}
+
+\chapter{Conclusion}\label{chapter:conclusion}
+
+% sources and inspirations
+% https://www.bis.org/publ/arpdf/ar2018e5.pdf
+% https://www.bis.org/publ/qtrpdf/r_qt1709f.pdf
+% http://andolfatto.blogspot.com/2015/02/fedcoin-on-desirability-of-government.html
+
+% mention eKrona/Riksbank
+
+% bessere ueberleitung
+% effizienz!
+% freie software / commons
+% scalability of blockchains
+% expand on some ideas such as naiveity of blockchains
+% 3 areas for currencies
+
+
+% einleitung: we introduced two systems that solve/address core problems for
+% banking (consensus, transactions, ...) "geld ist kein selbstzweck"
+% reason for having money is: ...
+
+% central banks are the only tool that we know that works
+
+% geld ist politisch, macht, verantwortung, gesellschaften aufbauen oder ruinieren
+% apolitical solution impossible
+
+This book presented GNU Taler, an efficient protocol for
+value-based electronic payment systems with focus on security and
+privacy. While we believe our approach to be socially and economically beneficial, a
+technological impact analysis is in order prior to adopting new
+systems that have broad economic and socio-political implications.
+
+Currencies serve three key functions in society:~\cite{mankiw2010macroeconomics}
+\begin{enumerate}
+\item As a unit for measurement of value,
+\item a medium of exchange, and
+\item a store of value.
+\end{enumerate}
+How do the various methods measure up to these requirements?
+
+\section{Cryptocurrencies vs. Central-Bank-Issued Currencies}
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centering
+\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{diagrams/bitcoin-market-price.png}
+ \caption[Historical market price of Bitcoin.]{Historical market price (in
+ USD) of Bitcoin across major exchanges (Source:~\url{https://blockchain.com}).}
+\label{fig:volatility}
+\end{figure}
+
+Cryptocurrencies generally fail to achieve the required stability to serve as a
+reasonable unit of measurement (Figure~\ref{fig:volatility}). The volatility
+of cyptocurrencies is caused by a combination of a lack of institutions that
+could intervene to dampen fluctuations and a comparatively limited liquidity
+in the respective
+markets. The latter is exacerbated by the limited ability of decentralized
+cryptocurrencies to handle large transaction volumes, despite their extreme
+levels of resource consumption. As a result, the utility of decentralized
+cryptocurrencies is limited to highly speculative investments and to the
+facilitation of criminal transactions.
+
+With respect to privacy, completely decentralized cryptocurrencies
+provide either too much or too little anonymity. Transparent
+cryptocurrencies create the spectre of discriminatory pricing, while
+especially for privacy-enhanced cryptocurrencies the lack of
+regulation creates an attractive environment for fraud and criminal
+activity from tax evasion to financing of terrorism.
+
+These problems are easily addressed by combining the register (or
+ledger) with a central bank providing a regulatory framework and
+monetary policy, including anti-money-laundering and
+know-your-customer enforcement.
+
+\section{Electronic Payments}
+
+Day-to-day payments using registers are expensive and inconvenient.
+Using a register requires users to {\em identify} themselves to {\em
+ authorize} transactions, and the use of register-based banking
+systems tends to be more expensive than the direct exchange of
+physical cash. However, with the ongoing digitalization of daily life
+where a significant number of transactions is realized over networks,
+some form of electronic payments remain inevitable.
+
+The current alternative to (centrally banked) electronic cash are a
+payment systems under full control of oligopoly companies such as
+Google, Apple, Facebook or Visa. The resulting oligopolies are
+anti-competitive. In addition to excessive fees, they sometimes even
+refuse to process payments with certain types of legal businesses,
+which then are often ruined due to lack of alternatives. Combining
+payment services with companies where the core business model is
+advertising is also particularly damaging for privacy. Finally, the
+sheer size of these companies creates systemic risks, just as their
+global scale creates challenges for regulation.
+
+As GNU Taler is free software, even without backing by a central bank,
+Taler would not suffer from these drawbacks arising from the use of
+proprietary technology.
+
+Furthermore, Taler-style electronic cash comes
+with some unique benefits:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item improved income transparency compared to cash and traditional
+ Chaum-style e-cash,
+ \item anonymity for payers,
+ \item avoidance of enticement towards consumer debt --- especially
+ compared to credit cards, and
+ \item support of new business models and Internet security
+ mechanisms which require (anonymous) micro-transactions.
+\end{itemize}
+
+Central banks are carefully considering what might be the right
+technology to implement an electronic version of their centrally
+banked currency, and with Taler we hope to address most of their concerns.
+Nevertheless, all electronic payment systems, including Taler even
+when backed by central-bank-issued currencies, come with their own
+inherent set of risks:~\cite{riksbank2017riksbank}
+
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item increased risk of a bank run: in a banking crisis,
+ as it is easier to withdraw large amounts of digital
+ cash quickly --- even from remote locations;
+ \item increased volatility due to foreign holdings that would
+ not be as easily possible with physical cash;
+ \item increased risk of theft and disruption: while physical
+ cash can also be stolen (and likely with much less effort), it is
+ difficult to transport in volume~\cite{force2015money}, the
+ risk is increased with computers because attacks scale \cite{hammer2018billion}, and
+ generally many small incidents are socially preferable over a
+ tiny number of very large-scale incidents; and
+ \item unavailability in crisis situations without electricity and Internet
+ connectivity.
+\end{itemize}
+
+
+We believe that in the case of Taler, some of the risks mentioned
+above can be mitigated:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item Volatility due to foreign holdings and the resulting increased
+ risk of bank runs can be reduced by putting limits on the amount of
+ electronic coins that customers can withdraw. Limiting the
+ validity periods of coins is another method that can help
+ disincentivize the use of Taler as a value store.
+ \item The use of open standards and reference implementations enables
+ white-hat security research around GNU Taler, which together with
+ good operational security procedures and the possibility of
+ competing providers should reduce the risks from attacks.
+ \item GNU Taler can co-exist with physical cash, and might even
+ help revive the use of cash if it succeeds in reducing credit
+ card use online thereby eliminating a key reason for people to
+ have credit cards.
+\end{itemize}
+
+Unlike cryptocurrencies, Taler does not prescribe a solution for monetary
+policy or just taxation, as we believe these issues need to be subject to
+continuous political debate and cannot be ``solved'' by simplistic algorithms.
+What we offer to society is an open and free (as in free speech) system with
+mechanisms to audit merchants' income, instead of proprietary systems
+controlled by a few oligopoly companies.
+
diff --git a/doc/system/cryptocode.sty b/doc/system/cryptocode.sty
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+++ b/doc/system/cryptocode.sty
@@ -0,0 +1,1813 @@
+ %% Copyright 2015 Arno Mittelbach
+ %
+ % This work may be distributed and/or modified under the
+ % conditions of the LaTeX Project Public License, either version 1.3
+ % of this license or (at your option) any later version.
+ % The latest version of this license is in
+ % http://www.latex-project.org/lppl.txt
+ % and version 1.3 or later is part of all distributions of LaTeX
+ % version 2005/12/01 or later.
+ %
+ % This work has the LPPL maintenance status `maintained'.
+ %
+ % The Current Maintainer of this work is Arno Mittelbach.
+ %
+ % This work consists of the files cryptocode.tex and cryptocode.sty
+\NeedsTeXFormat{LaTeX2e}
+\ProvidesPackage{cryptocode}
+ [2015/04/22 v0.1 Cryptocode LaTeX package for writing pseudocode in cryptographic settings]
+
+
+\def\hi{Hello, this is Arno's crypto code package. }
+\let\myDate\date
+
+\RequirePackage{amsmath}
+\RequirePackage{mathtools}
+%\usepackage{l3tl-analysis} % uncomment for debugging
+
+%%%
+% option modes
+\newif\ifpc@orderofgrowth
+\newif\ifpc@algorithmstyle
+\newif\ifpc@amsfonts
+\newif\ifpc@advantage
+\newif\ifpc@primitives
+
+%%%
+%
+\DeclareOption{operators}{
+ \providecommand{\sample}{\hskip2.3pt{\gets\!\!\mbox{\tiny${\$}$\normalsize}}\,}
+
+ \providecommand{\floor}[1]{\ensuremath{\left\lfloor #1\right\rfloor}}
+ \providecommand{\ceil}[1]{\ensuremath{\left\lceil #1\right\rceil}}
+ \providecommand{\Angle}[1]{\ensuremath{\left\langle #1\right\rangle}}
+ \providecommand{\abs}[1]{\ensuremath{\left\lvert #1 \right\rvert}}
+ \providecommand{\norm}[1]{\ensuremath{\left\|#1\right\|}}
+ \providecommand{\concat}{\ensuremath{\|}}
+
+ \providecommand{\emptystring}{\ensuremath{\varepsilon}}
+}
+
+\DeclareOption{adversary}{
+ \providecommand{\pcadvstyle}[1]{\mathcal{#1}}
+
+ \providecommand{\adv}{\ensuremath{\pcadvstyle{A}}}
+ \providecommand{\bdv}{\ensuremath{\pcadvstyle{B}}}
+ \providecommand{\cdv}{\ensuremath{\pcadvstyle{C}}}
+ \providecommand{\ddv}{\ensuremath{\pcadvstyle{D}}}
+ \providecommand{\mdv}{\ensuremath{\pcadvstyle{M}}}
+ \providecommand{\pdv}{\ensuremath{\pcadvstyle{P}}}
+ \providecommand{\rdv}{\ensuremath{\pcadvstyle{R}}}
+ \providecommand{\sdv}{\ensuremath{\pcadvstyle{S}}}
+}
+
+\DeclareOption{landau}{
+ \pc@orderofgrowthtrue
+
+ \providecommand{\bigO}[1]{\ensuremath{\mathcal{O}\olrk{#1}}}
+ \providecommand{\smallO}[1]{\ensuremath{\text{o}\olrk{#1}}}
+ \providecommand{\bigOmega}[1]{\ensuremath{\Omega\olrk{#1}}}
+ \providecommand{\smallOmega}[1]{\ensuremath{\omega\olrk{#1}}}
+ \providecommand{\bigsmallO}[1]{\ensuremath{\Theta\olrk{#1}}}
+}
+
+\DeclareOption{probability}{
+ \pc@orderofgrowthtrue
+ \pc@amsfontstrue
+
+ \providecommand{\probname}{Pr}
+ \providecommand{\expectationname}{\ensuremath{\mathbb{E}}}
+ \providecommand{\supportname}{Supp}
+
+ \providecommand{\prob}[1]{\ensuremath{\operatorname{\probname}\elrk{#1}}}
+ \providecommand{\probsub}[2]{\ensuremath{\operatorname{\probname}_{#1}\elrk{#2}}}
+ \providecommand{\condprob}[2]{\ensuremath{\prob{#1\,\left|\,#2\vphantom{#1}\right.}}}
+ \providecommand{\condprobsub}[3]{\ensuremath{\probsub{#1}{#2\,\left|\,#3\vphantom{#1}\right.}}}
+
+ \providecommand{\expect}[1]{\ensuremath{\operatorname{\expectationname}\elrk{#1}}}
+ \providecommand{\expsub}[2]{\ensuremath{\operatorname{\expectationname}_{#1}\elrk{#2}}}
+ \providecommand{\condexp}[2]{\ensuremath{\expect{#1\,\left|\,#2\vphantom{#1}\right.}}}
+ \providecommand{\condexpsub}[3]{\ensuremath{\expsub{#1}{#2\,\left|\,#3\vphantom{#1}\right.}}}
+
+ \providecommand{\supp}[1]{ \ensuremath{\operatorname{Supp}\olrk{#1}}}
+
+ \providecommand{\entropy}[1]{\ensuremath{\operatorname{H}\olrk{#1}}}
+ \providecommand{\minentropy}[1]{\ensuremath{\operatorname{H_\infty}\olrk{#1}}}
+ \providecommand{\condminentropy}[2]{\ensuremath{\operatorname{\tilde{H}_\infty}\olrk{#1|#2}}}
+}
+
+\DeclareOption{sets}{
+ \pc@orderofgrowthtrue
+ \pc@amsfontstrue
+
+ \providecommand\NN{\mathbb{N}}
+ \providecommand\ZZ{\mathbb{Z}}
+ \providecommand\CC{\mathbb{C}}
+ \providecommand\QQ{\mathbb{Q}}
+ \providecommand\RR{\mathbb{R}}
+ \providecommand\PP{\mathbb{P}}
+ \providecommand\FF{\mathbb{F}}
+ \providecommand\GG{\mathbb{G}}
+
+ \providecommand{\set}[1]{\ensuremath{\clrk{#1}}}
+ \providecommand{\sequence}[1]{\ensuremath{\olrk{#1}}}
+ \providecommand{\bin}{\ensuremath{\{0,1\}}}
+}
+
+\DeclareOption{noamsfonts}{
+ \pc@amsfontsfalse
+}
+
+
+\DeclareOption{notions}{
+ \providecommand{\pcnotionstyle}[1]{\ensuremath{\mathrm{#1}}}
+
+ \providecommand{\indcpa}{\pcnotionstyle{IND\pcmathhyphen{}CPA}}
+ \providecommand{\indcca}{\pcnotionstyle{IND\pcmathhyphen{}CCA}}
+ \providecommand{\indccai}{\pcnotionstyle{IND\pcmathhyphen{}CCA1}}
+ \providecommand{\indccaii}{\pcnotionstyle{IND\pcmathhyphen{}CCA2}}
+ \providecommand{\priv}{\pcnotionstyle{PRIV}}
+ \providecommand{\ind}{\pcnotionstyle{IND}}
+ \providecommand{\indcda}{\pcnotionstyle{IND\pcmathhyphen{}CDA}}
+ \providecommand{\prvcda}{\pcnotionstyle{PRV\pcmathhyphen{}CDA}}
+ \providecommand{\prvrcda}{\pcnotionstyle{PRV\$\pcmathhyphen{}CDA}}
+ \providecommand{\kiae}{\pcnotionstyle{KIAE}}
+ \providecommand{\kdae}{\pcnotionstyle{KDAE}}
+ \providecommand{\mle}{\pcnotionstyle{MLE}}
+ \providecommand{\uce}{\pcnotionstyle{UCE}}
+}
+
+\DeclareOption{logic}{
+ \providecommand{\AND}{\ensuremath{\mathrm{AND}}}
+ \providecommand{\OR}{\ensuremath{\mathrm{OR}}}
+ \providecommand{\NOT}{\ensuremath{\mathrm{NOT}}}
+ \providecommand{\xor}{\ensuremath{\oplus}}
+ \providecommand{\false}{\mathsf{false}}
+ \providecommand{\true}{\mathsf{true}}
+}
+
+
+% Function Families
+\DeclareOption{ff}{
+ \pc@algorithmstyletrue
+
+ \providecommand{\kgen}{\pcalgostyle{KGen}}
+ \providecommand{\pgen}{\pcalgostyle{Pgen}}
+ \providecommand{\eval}{\pcalgostyle{Eval}}
+
+ \providecommand{\il}{\pcalgostyle{il}}
+ \providecommand{\ol}{\pcalgostyle{ol}}
+ \providecommand{\kl}{\pcalgostyle{kl}}
+ \providecommand{\nl}{\pcalgostyle{nl}}
+ \providecommand{\rl}{\pcalgostyle{rl}}
+}
+
+% Machine Model
+\DeclareOption{mm}{
+ \pc@algorithmstyletrue
+
+ \providecommand{\pcmachinemodelstyle}[1]{\ensuremath{\mathsf{#1}}}
+
+ \providecommand{\CRKT}{\pcmachinemodelstyle{C}}
+ \providecommand{\TM}{\pcmachinemodelstyle{M}}
+ \providecommand{\PROG}{\pcmachinemodelstyle{P}}
+
+ \providecommand{\uTM}{\pcmachinemodelstyle{UM}}
+ \providecommand{\uC}{\pcmachinemodelstyle{UC}}
+ \providecommand{\uP}{\pcmachinemodelstyle{UEval}}
+
+ \providecommand{\csize}{\pcmachinemodelstyle{size}}
+ \providecommand{\tmtime}{\pcmachinemodelstyle{time}}
+ \providecommand{\ppt}{\pcalgostyle{PPT}}
+}
+
+\DeclareOption{advantage}{
+ \pc@advantagetrue
+}
+
+\DeclareOption{primitives}{
+ \pc@primitivestrue
+ \pc@algorithmstyletrue
+}
+
+\DeclareOption{events}{
+ \providecommand{\event}[1]{\ensuremath{\mathsf{#1}}}
+ \providecommand{\nevent}[1]{\ensuremath{\overline{\event{#1}}}}
+
+ \providecommand{\bad}{\ensuremath{\event{bad}}}
+}
+
+\DeclareOption{complexity}{
+ \providecommand{\pccomplexitystyle}[1]{\ensuremath{\mathsf{#1}}}
+
+ \providecommand{\npol}{\pccomplexitystyle{NP}}
+ \providecommand{\conpol}{\ensuremath{\mathsf{co}}\pccomplexitystyle{NP}}
+ \providecommand{\pol}{\pccomplexitystyle{P}}
+ \providecommand{\bpp}{\pccomplexitystyle{BPP}}
+ \providecommand{\ppoly}{\ensuremath{\pol/\mathrm{poly}}}
+
+ \providecommand{\AM}{\pccomplexitystyle{AM}}
+ \providecommand{\coAM}{\ensuremath{\mathsf{co}}\pccomplexitystyle{AM}}
+
+ \providecommand{\AC}[1]{\ensuremath{\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{}}{\pccomplexitystyle{AC}}{\pccomplexitystyle{AC}^{#1}}}}
+ \providecommand{\NC}[1]{\ensuremath{\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{}}{\pccomplexitystyle{NC}}{\pccomplexitystyle{NC}^{#1}}}}
+ \providecommand{\TC}[1]{\ensuremath{\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{}}{\pccomplexitystyle{TC}}{\pccomplexitystyle{TC}^{#1}}}}
+}
+
+\DeclareOption{asymptotics}{
+ \pc@orderofgrowthtrue
+
+ \providecommand{\pcpolynomialstyle}[1]{\mathsf{#1}}
+
+ \providecommand{\negl}[1][\secpar]{\ensuremath{\pcpolynomialstyle{negl}\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{}}{}{\olrk{#1}}}}
+ \providecommand{\poly}[1][\secpar]{\ensuremath{\pcpolynomialstyle{poly}\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{}}{}{\olrk{#1}}}}
+
+ \providecommand{\pp}{\ensuremath{\pcpolynomialstyle{p}}}
+ \providecommand{\qq}{\ensuremath{\pcpolynomialstyle{q}}}
+}
+
+\DeclareOption{keys}{
+ \providecommand{\pckeystyle}[1]{\ensuremath{\mathsf{#1}}}
+
+ \providecommand{\pk}{\pckeystyle{pk}}
+ \providecommand{\vk}{\pckeystyle{vk}}
+ \providecommand{\sk}{\pckeystyle{sk}}
+ \providecommand{\key}{\pckeystyle{k}}
+ \providecommand{\hk}{\pckeystyle{hk}}
+ \providecommand{\gk}{\pckeystyle{gk}}
+ \providecommand{\fk}{\pckeystyle{fk}}
+
+ \providecommand{\st}{\pckeystyle{st}}
+ \providecommand{\state}{\pckeystyle{state}}
+}
+
+\DeclareOption{n}{
+ \providecommand{\secpar}{\ensuremath{n}}
+ \providecommand{\secparam}{\ensuremath{1^\secpar}}
+}
+
+\DeclareOption{lambda}{
+ \renewcommand{\secpar}{\ensuremath{\lambda}}
+ \renewcommand{\secparam}{\ensuremath{1^\secpar}}
+}
+
+\DeclareOption*{%
+ \PackageError{crypto code}{Unknown option ‘\CurrentOption’}%
+}
+
+\ExecuteOptions{n}
+
+\ProcessOptions\relax
+
+%amsfonts
+\ifpc@amsfonts
+ \RequirePackage{amsfonts}
+\fi
+\RequirePackage{xcolor}
+\RequirePackage{calc}
+\RequirePackage{tikz}
+\usetikzlibrary{positioning,calc}
+\RequirePackage{ifthen}
+\RequirePackage{xargs}
+\RequirePackage{pgf}
+%\RequirePackage{mathabx}
+\RequirePackage{forloop}
+\RequirePackage{array}
+\RequirePackage{xparse}
+%\RequirePackage{l3regex}
+\RequirePackage{expl3}
+\RequirePackage{pbox}
+\RequirePackage{varwidth}
+\RequirePackage{suffix}
+\RequirePackage{etoolbox}
+\RequirePackage{etex}
+%\RequirePackage{etextools}
+\RequirePackage{environ}
+%\RequirePackage{xspace}
+\RequirePackage{xkeyval}
+
+\ifpc@advantage
+ \newcommand{\pcadvantagesuperstyle}[1]{\mathrm{\MakeLowercase{#1}}}
+ \newcommand{\pcadvantagesubstyle}[1]{#1}
+ \newcommandx*{\advantage}[3][3=(\secpar)]{\ensuremath{\mathsf{Adv}^{\pcadvantagesuperstyle{#1}}_{\pcadvantagesubstyle{#2}}#3}}
+\fi
+
+\ifpc@primitives
+ % zero knowledge
+ \providecommand{\prover}{\pcalgostyle{P}}
+ \providecommand{\verifier}{\pcalgostyle{V}}
+ \providecommand{\nizk}{\pcalgostyle{NIZK}}
+
+ % hash
+ \providecommand{\hash}{\pcalgostyle{H}}
+ \providecommand{\gash}{\pcalgostyle{G}}
+ \providecommand{\fash}{\pcalgostyle{F}}
+
+ % encryption
+ \providecommand{\enc}{\pcalgostyle{Enc}}
+ \providecommand{\dec}{\pcalgostyle{Dec}}
+
+ % signatures
+ \providecommand{\sig}{\pcalgostyle{Sig}}
+ \providecommand{\verify}{\pcalgostyle{Vf}}
+
+ % obfuscation
+ \providecommand{\obf}{\pcalgostyle{O}}
+ \providecommand{\iO}{\pcalgostyle{iO}}
+ \providecommand{\diO}{\pcalgostyle{diO}}
+
+ % PRF, PRG
+ \providecommand{\prf}{\pcalgostyle{PRF}}
+ \providecommand{\prg}{\pcalgostyle{PRG}}
+
+ % Mac
+ \providecommand{\mac}{\pcalgostyle{MAC}}
+
+ % puncture
+ \providecommand{\puncture}{\pcalgostyle{Puncture}}
+
+ % Misc
+ \providecommand{\source}{\pcalgostyle{S}}
+ \providecommand{\predictor}{\pcalgostyle{P}}
+ \providecommand{\sam}{\pcalgostyle{Sam}}
+ \providecommand{\dist}{\pcalgostyle{D}}
+ \providecommand{\distinguisher}{\pcalgostyle{Dist}}
+ \providecommand{\simulator}{\pcalgostyle{Sim}}
+ \providecommand{\ext}{\pcalgostyle{Ext}}
+ \providecommand{\extractor}{\ext}
+\fi
+
+%%
+% math hyphen
+\mathchardef\pcmathhyphen ="2D
+
+%%%
+% order of growth helper
+\ifpc@orderofgrowth
+\providecommand{\olrk}[1]{\ifx\nursymbol#1\else\!\!\mskip4.5mu plus 0.5mu\left(\mskip0.5mu plus0.5mu #1\mskip1.5mu plus0.5mu \right)\fi}
+
+\providecommand{\elrk}[1]{\ifx\nursymbol#1\else\!\!\mskip4.5mu plus0.5mu\left[\mskip0.5mu plus0.5mu #1\mskip1.5mu plus0.5mu \right]\fi}
+
+\providecommand{\clrk}[1]{\ifx\nursymbol#1\else\!\!\mskip4.5mu plus0.5mu\left\{\mskip0.5mu plus0.5mu #1\mskip1.5mu plus0.5mu \right\}\fi}
+\fi
+
+\ifpc@algorithmstyle
+ \providecommand{\pcalgostyle}[1]{\ensuremath{\mathsf{#1}}}
+\fi
+
+%%%
+% create command to measure width of align
+%
+\newcommand{\@settowidthofalign}[2]{%
+ \setbox\z@=\vbox{\@pseudocodecodesize
+ \begin{flalign*}
+ #2
+ \ifmeasuring@\else\global\let\got@maxcolwd\maxcolumn@widths\fi
+ \end{flalign*}
+ }%
+ \begingroup
+ \def\or{+}\edef\x{\endgroup#1=\dimexpr\got@maxcolwd\relax}\x}
+
+\newcommand{\@settowidthofaligned}[2]{%
+\settowidth{#1}{\@pseudocodesubcodesize$\begin{aligned}#2\end{aligned}$}}
+
+% check for draft mode
+\def\@pc@ifdraft{\ifdim\overfullrule>\z@
+ \expandafter\@firstoftwo\else\expandafter\@secondoftwo\fi}
+
+% run stuff in an empty box
+\newcommand{\@pcexecuteblindly}[1]{%
+ \setbox\z@=\vbox{#1 }}
+
+% copy label command
+\AtBeginDocument{
+ \let\pc@original@label\ltx@label
+}
+
+
+%%%%%%
+\newcommand*{\@pc@globaladdtolength}[2]{%
+\addtolength{#1}{#2}%
+\global#1=#1\relax}
+
+\newcommand*{\@pc@globalsetlength}[2]{%
+\setlength{#1}{#2}%
+\global#1=#1\relax}
+
+
+
+%%%%%
+% spaces before and after pseudo codes (left and right)
+\providecommand{\beforepcskip}{2pt}
+\providecommand{\afterpcskip}{0pt}
+
+%%%
+% a global counter of the number of times the pseudocode command was triggered
+\newcounter{@pc@global@pc@cnt}
+\newcounter{@pc@global@pc@nestcnt}
+
+%%%
+% Fix hyperref package.. gnarl http://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/130319/incompatibility-between-etoolbox-and-hyperref
+\providecommand{\pcfixhyperref}{
+\global\let\textlabel\label
+\global\let\pc@original@label\textlabel
+%\global\let\pc@original@label\relax
+%\global\let\label\relax
+}
+
+\newcounter{@spacecounter}
+\providecommand{\spacetoindent}{1}
+\newenvironment{@withspaces}
+ {\obeyspaces\begingroup\lccode`~=` \lowercase{\endgroup\let~}\ }
+ {}
+
+%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
+% a latex3 string substitution.
+\ExplSyntaxOn
+\tl_new:N \l_pc_strsub_input_tl
+\tl_new:N \l_pc_strsub_search_tl
+\tl_new:N \l_pc_strsub_replace_tl
+
+\NewDocumentCommand{\@pc@stringsubstitution}{mmm}
+ {
+ \tl_set:Nn \l_pc_strsub_input_tl { #1 }
+ \tl_set:Nn \l_pc_strsub_search_tl { #2 }
+ \tl_set:Nn \l_pc_strsub_replace_tl { #3 }
+% \tl_show_analysis:N \l_pc_strsub_input_tl % uncomment for debugging
+% \tl_show_analysis:N \l_pc_strsub_search_tl % uncomment for debugging
+% \tl_show_analysis:N \l_pc_strsub_replace_tl % uncomment for debugging
+ \regex_replace_all:nnN
+ { (\W)\u{l_pc_strsub_search_tl} } %only match if keyword does not have a word character preceding
+ { \1\u{l_pc_strsub_replace_tl} }
+ \l_pc_strsub_input_tl
+ % \tl_show_analysis:N \l_tmpa_tl % uncomment for debugging
+ \tl_use:N \l_pc_strsub_input_tl
+ }
+
+ % same as \@pc@stringsubstitution but without requiring the extra non word character
+ \NewDocumentCommand{\@pc@spacesubstitution}{mmm}
+ {
+ \tl_set:Nn \l_pc_strsub_input_tl { #1 }
+ \tl_set:Nn \l_pc_strsub_search_tl { #2 }
+ \tl_set:Nn \l_pc_strsub_replace_tl { #3 }
+% \tl_show_analysis:N \l_pc_strsub_input_tl % uncomment for debugging
+% \tl_show_analysis:N \l_pc_strsub_search_tl % uncomment for debugging
+% \tl_show_analysis:N \l_pc_strsub_replace_tl % uncomment for debugging
+ \regex_replace_all:nnN
+ { \u{l_pc_strsub_search_tl} }
+ { \u{l_pc_strsub_replace_tl} }
+ \l_pc_strsub_input_tl
+ % \tl_show_analysis:N \l_tmpa_tl % uncomment for debugging
+ \tl_use:N \l_pc_strsub_input_tl
+ }
+
+
+\ExplSyntaxOff
+
+%%%%%%%%
+% line numbers
+%%%%%%%%
+% The following commands handle line numbering within the pseudocode command. The
+% pseudocode command itself does need to do some counter magic
+\newcounter{pclinenumber}
+\newcounter{Hpclinenumber} % make hyperref happy
+\newcounter{@pclinenumber}
+\newcounter{H@pclinenumber} % make hyperref happy
+\newcounter{@pclinenumbertmp}
+\newcounter{pcgamecounter}
+\newcounter{Hpcgamecounter}
+\newcounter{pcrlinenumber}
+\newcounter{Hpcrlinenumber}
+\newcounter{@pcrlinenumbertmp}
+
+% separators
+\providecommand{\pclnseparator}{:}
+\providecommand{\pcrlnseparator}{\hspace{1pt}}
+
+% spacing for linenumbers
+\providecommand{\pclnspace}{0pt}
+\providecommand{\pclnrspace}{5pt}
+
+\renewcommand{\the@pclinenumber}{\thepclinenumber}
+\providecommand{\@pcln}{%
+\refstepcounter{@pclinenumber}%
+\stepcounter{H@pclinenumber}%
+}
+
+% left align line numbers
+\providecommand{\pcln}[1][]{%
+\refstepcounter{pclinenumber}%
+\stepcounter{Hpclinenumber}%
+\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{}}{}{%
+%keep hyperref happy
+\ifmeasuring@\else\pc@original@label{#1}\fi%
+}%
+\hspace{\pclnspace}\text{\scriptsize\arabic{pclinenumber}}\pclnseparator\quad}%
+
+
+% right align line numbers (same counter)
+\providecommand{\pclnr}{%
+\refstepcounter{pclinenumber}%
+\quad\text{\scriptsize\pcrlnseparator\arabic{pclinenumber}}\hspace{5pt}}
+
+% right align line numbers different counter
+\providecommand{\pcrln}{
+\refstepcounter{pcrlinenumber}%
+\stepcounter{Hpcrlinenumber}%
+\text{\scriptsize\pcrlnseparator\arabic{pcrlinenumber}}\hspace{\pclnrspace}}
+
+
+%%%
+% indentation
+\newlength{\@pcindentwidth}
+\providecommand{\pcind}[1][1]{%
+\setlength{\@pcindentwidth}{\widthof{\ensuremath{\quad}}*#1}%
+\ensuremath{\mathmakebox[\@pcindentwidth]{}}}
+
+
+% create length
+\newlength{\@pc@minipage@length}
+\newlength{\@pc@alt@minipage@length}
+
+% backward games
+\newcommand{\@withingame}{false}
+\newcommand{\@withinbxgame}{false}
+\newcommand{\@bxgameheader}{}
+
+
+%%%%%%%%%%%%
+% The pseudocode Command
+%%%%%
+\newlength{\@pc@length@tmp@width@vstack}
+
+
+\newcommand{\@pc@beginnewline}{%
+\@pseudocodelinenumber\@pc@and\@pcln%
+%checkspace
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\@pseudocodespace}{auto}}%
+{\expandafter\pcind\expandafter[\value{@pc@indentationlevel}]}%
+{}%
+%beginmode
+\@pc@modebegin}
+\newcommand{\@pc@and}{&}
+\newcommand{\@pc@and@wrap@end}{\@pc@modeend&}
+\newcommand{\@pc@and@wrap@start}{\@pc@beginnewline}
+\newcommand{\pctabname}{>}
+\newcommand{\pcdbltabname}{<}
+\newcommand{\pcindentname}{t}
+
+
+
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodehead{}
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodewidth{}
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodexshift{0pt}
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodeyshift{0pt}
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodelinenumber{}
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodebeforeskip{0ex}
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodeafterskip{0ex}
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodelnstart{0}
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodelnstartright{0}
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodesyntaxhighlighting{}
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodenodraft{false}
+
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodeheadlinesep{0em}
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodebodylinesep{-0.5\baselineskip}
+
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodecolsep{0em}
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodeaddtolength{2pt}
+
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodecodesize{\small}
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodesubcodesize{\footnotesize}
+
+%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
+% Define keywords for the automatic syntax highlighting
+% the accompanying add provides additional keywords.
+% The space version for automatic spacing
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodekeywordsindent{for ,foreach ,if ,repeat ,while }
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodekeywordsunindent{endfor,endforeach,fi,endif,until ,endwhile}
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodekeywordsuninindent{else if,elseif, else}
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodekeywords{return ,{ do }, in ,new ,null ,null,true ,true,{ to },false ,false,{ then },done ,done}
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodeaddkeywords{}
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodealtkeywords{}
+\begin{@withspaces}
+\global\def\@pseudocodekeywordsspace{for,endfor,foreach,endforeach,return,do,in,new,if,null,true,until,to,false,then,repeat,else if,elseif,while,endwhile,else,done,fi,endif}
+\end{@withspaces}
+
+
+\define@key{pseudocode}{codesize}[\small]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodecodesize{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{subcodesize}[\small]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodesubcodesize{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{head}[]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodehead{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{width}[]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodewidth{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{xshift}[]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodexshift{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{yshift}[]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodeyshift{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{linenumbering}[on]{\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{on}}{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodelinenumber{\pcln}}{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodelinenumber{}}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{beforeskip}[]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodebeforeskip{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{afterskip}[]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodeafterskip{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{lnstart}[0]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodelnstart{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{lnstartright}[0]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodelnstartright{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{colsep}[0em]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodecolsep{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{headlinesep}[0em]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodeheadlinesep{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{bodylinesep}[0em]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodebodylinesep{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{addtolength}[2pt]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodeaddtolength{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{mode}[math]{%
+\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{text}}{%
+\renewcommand*\@pc@modebegin{\begin{varwidth}{\textwidth}%
+%introduce line magic for text mode
+\let\@pc@lb\\%
+\renewcommandx*{\\}[2][1=,2=]{\@pc@modeend\@pc@and \ifthenelse{\equal{####1}{}}{\@pc@lb}{\@pc@lb[####1]}####2 \@pc@beginnewline}%
+\def\pclb{\let\\\@pc@lb\relax\@pc@modeend\\}%
+}%
+\renewcommand*\@pc@modeend{\end{varwidth}}
+}{}%
+}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{nodraft}[true]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodenodraft{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{keywords}[]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodekeywords{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{keywordsindent}[]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodekeywordsindent{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{keywordsunindent}[]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodekeywordsunindent{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{keywordsuninindent}[]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodekeywordsuninindent{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{addkeywords}[]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodeaddkeywords{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{altkeywords}[]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodealtkeywords{#1}}
+\define@key{pseudocode}{syntaxhighlight}[]{\renewcommand*\@pseudocodesyntaxhighlighting{#1}}
+
+\newcommand{\@pc@modebegin}{}
+\newcommand{\@pc@modeend}{}
+\newcommand{\@pc@thecontent}{}
+
+\newcommand{\@pc@syntaxhighlight}[1]{%
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\@pseudocodesyntaxhighlighting}{auto}}{%
+\def\@shtmp{#1}% first step
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\@pseudocodespace}{keep}}
+ {\edef\@tmpkeywords{\@pseudocodekeywordsspace,\@pseudocodeaddkeywords}}
+ {\ifthenelse{\equal{\@pseudocodespace}{auto}}
+ {\edef\@tmpkeywords{\@pseudocodekeywords,\@pseudocodeaddkeywords}}
+ {\edef\@tmpkeywords{\@pseudocodekeywords,\@pseudocodekeywordsindent,\@pseudocodekeywordsunindent,\@pseudocodekeywordsuninindent,\@pseudocodeaddkeywords}}}
+\foreach \@pckw in \@tmpkeywords{%
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\@pckw}{}}{}{%
+% we are doing a simple strsub and storing the result (globally) in @shtmp
+\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ \gdef\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ \@shtmp\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ {\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ \@pc@stringsubstitution\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ {\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\@shtmp\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ }\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter{\expandafter\@pckw\expandafter}\expandafter{\expandafter\@pc@highlight\expandafter{\@pckw}}}%
+}% alt keywords
+}%
+\foreach \@pckw in \@pseudocodealtkeywords{%
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\@pckw}{}}{}{%
+% we are doing a simple strsub and storing the result (globally) in @shtmp
+\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ \gdef\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ \@shtmp\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ {\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ \@pc@stringsubstitution\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ {\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\@shtmp\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ }\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter{\expandafter\@pckw\expandafter}\expandafter{\expandafter\@pc@althighlight\expandafter{\@pckw}}}%
+}%
+}%
+%%%%
+% if automatic spacing
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\@pseudocodespace}{auto}}
+{%
+\foreach \@pckw in \@pseudocodekeywordsindent{% indentation keywords
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\@pckw}{}}{}{%
+% we are doing a simple strsub and storing the result (globally) in @shtmp
+\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ \gdef\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ \@shtmp\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ {\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ \@pc@stringsubstitution\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ {\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\@shtmp\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ }\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter{\expandafter\@pckw\expandafter}\expandafter{\expandafter\@pc@highlightindent\expandafter{\@pckw}}}%
+}}%
+\foreach \@pckw in \@pseudocodekeywordsunindent{% unindentation keywords
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\@pckw}{}}{}{%
+% we are doing a simple strsub and storing the result (globally) in @shtmp
+\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ \gdef\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ \@shtmp\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ {\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ \@pc@stringsubstitution\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ {\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\@shtmp\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ }\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter{\expandafter\@pckw\expandafter}\expandafter{\expandafter\@pc@highlightunindent\expandafter{\@pckw}}}%
+}}%
+\foreach \@pckw in \@pseudocodekeywordsuninindent{% uninindentation keywords
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\@pckw}{}}{}{%
+% we are doing a simple strsub and storing the result (globally) in @shtmp
+\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ \gdef\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ \@shtmp\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ {\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ \@pc@stringsubstitution\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ {\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\@shtmp\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter
+ }\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter{\expandafter\@pckw\expandafter}\expandafter{\expandafter\@pc@highlightuninindent\expandafter{\@pckw}}}%
+}}%
+}{}%
+% return result
+\@shtmp%
+}{#1}% nothing to highlight
+}
+
+\newcommand{\@pc@highlight}[1]{%
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\@pseudocodespace}{keep}}
+ {\highlightkeyword[]{#1}}%
+ {\highlightkeyword[]{\@pc@spacesubstitution{#1}{ }{~}}}%
+}
+
+\newcommand{\@pc@highlightindent}[1]{%
+\@pc@increaseindent\@pc@highlight{#1}%
+}
+
+\newcommand{\@pc@highlightunindent}[1]{%
+\@pc@decreaseindent\@pc@highlight{#1}%
+}
+
+\newcommand{\@pc@highlightuninindent}[1]{%
+\@pc@tmpdecreaseindent\@pc@highlight{#1}%
+}
+
+\newcommand{\@pc@althighlight}[1]{%
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\@pseudocodespace}{keep}}
+ {\highlightaltkeyword{#1}}%
+ {\highlightaltkeyword{\@pc@spacesubstitution{#1}{ }{~}}}%
+}
+
+%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
+% Allow for spacing
+\newcommand{\@withinspaces}{false}%
+\newcommand{\@keepspaces}{%
+\renewcommand{\@withinspaces}{true}\@withspaces%
+}
+\newcommand{\@pc@endgroupafterpc}{}
+
+\newcommand*\@pseudocodespace{}
+\define@key{pcspace}{space}[]{\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{keep}}{\@keepspaces}{}\renewcommand*\@pseudocodespace{#1}}
+
+%%% automatic indentation
+\newcounter{@pc@indentationlevel}
+\newcommand{\@pc@increaseindent}{\addtocounter{@pc@indentationlevel}{1}}
+\newcommand{\@pc@decreaseindent}{\ifthenelse{\equal{\@pseudocodespace}{auto}}{\pcind[-1]}{}\addtocounter{@pc@indentationlevel}{-1}}
+\newcommand{\@pc@tmpdecreaseindent}{\ifthenelse{\equal{\@pseudocodespace}{auto}}{\pcind[-1]}{}}
+
+% store original halign
+\let\@pc@halign\halign%
+
+%% Check if the pseudocode command is called with an optional argument
+\providecommand{\pseudocode}{%
+\begingroup%
+\renewcommand{\@withinspaces}{false}%
+\@ifnextchar[%]
+ {\@pseudocodeA}%
+ {\@pseudocode[]}%
+}
+
+\def\@pseudocodeA[#1]{%
+\setkeys*{pcspace}{#1}%test if there is a space assignment within the keys .. make the necessary arrangements and call the actual method
+\@pseudocode[#1]%
+}
+
+\def\@pseudocode[#1]#2{%
+\begingroup%
+\setkeys{pseudocode}[space]{#1}%ignore the space key.
+% check draft mode and disable syntax highlighting
+\@pc@ifdraft{\ifthenelse{\equal{\@pseudocodenodraft}{true}}{}{\renewcommand\@pseudocodesyntaxhighlighting{}}}{}%
+%
+%
+\addtocounter{@pc@global@pc@nestcnt}{1}%
+% allow for tikz usage
+\@pc@ensureremember%
+%
+% create tabbing command
+\ifcsname \pctabname\endcsname%
+\expandafter\renewcommand\csname \pctabname\endcsname{\@pc@modeend&\@pc@modebegin}%
+\else%
+\expandafter\newcommand\csname \pctabname\endcsname{\@pc@modeend&\@pc@modebegin}%
+\fi%
+\ifcsname \pcdbltabname\endcsname%
+\expandafter\renewcommand\csname \pcdbltabname\endcsname{\@pc@modeend&&\@pc@modebegin}%
+\else%
+\expandafter\newcommand\csname \pcdbltabname\endcsname{\@pc@modeend&&\@pc@modebegin}%
+\fi%
+% create indent command
+\expandafter\let\csname \pcindentname\endcsname\pcind%
+%
+%store and wrap (do syntax highlighting) argument
+\renewcommand{\@pc@thecontent}{\@pc@and@wrap@start\@pc@syntaxhighlight{#2}\@pc@and@wrap@end}%
+%
+%take care of counters
+\stepcounter{@pc@global@pc@cnt}%
+\setcounter{pclinenumber}{\@pseudocodelnstart}%
+\setcounter{pcrlinenumber}{\@pseudocodelnstartright}%
+\setlength{\@pc@minipage@length}{0pt}%
+\setlength{\@pc@alt@minipage@length}{0pt}%
+\setcounter{@pclinenumbertmp}{\value{pclinenumber}}%
+\setcounter{@pcrlinenumbertmp}{\value{pcrlinenumber}}%
+%
+% vertical space
+\vspace{\@pseudocodeyshift}%
+%\setlength{\abovedisplayskip}{0pt}%
+%\setlength{\belowdisplayskip}{0pt}%
+%\setlength{\abovedisplayshortskip}{0pt}%
+%\setlength{\belowdisplayshortskip}{0pt}%
+%
+%
+% line magic
+\ifthenelse{\value{@pc@global@pc@nestcnt}=1}{%
+\let\@pc@halign\halign%
+\def\halign{%
+\renewcommand{\label}[1]{\ifmeasuring@\else\pc@original@label{####1}\fi}%
+\let\@pc@lb\\%
+\renewcommandx*{\\}[2][1=,2=]{\@pc@modeend\@pc@and \ifthenelse{\equal{####1}{}}{\@pc@lb}{\@pc@lb[####1]}####2 \@pc@beginnewline}%
+\def\pclb{\let\\\@pc@lb\relax\@pc@modeend\\}%
+\@pc@halign}%
+}{}%
+%
+%align column separation
+\renewcommand*{\minalignsep}{\@pseudocodecolsep}%
+%
+% if no width is set compute width and store in circuitlength
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\@pseudocodewidth}{}}{%
+% compute length of pseudocode
+\ifthenelse{\value{@pcsubprogstep}=0}{%
+\@settowidthofalign{\@pc@minipage@length}{\@pc@thecontent}%
+}{%
+\@settowidthofaligned{\@pc@minipage@length}{\@pc@thecontent}%
+}%
+%compute length of header
+\addtolength{\@pc@alt@minipage@length}{\widthof{\@pseudocodehead}}%
+% use header length if longer and add some points for good measure
+\ifdim\@pc@alt@minipage@length>\@pc@minipage@length%
+\setlength{\@pc@minipage@length}{\@pc@alt@minipage@length}%
+\fi%
+\addtolength{\@pc@minipage@length}{\@pseudocodeaddtolength}%
+}{\addtolength{\@pc@minipage@length}{\@pseudocodewidth}}%
+% reset counter
+\setcounter{pclinenumber}{\value{@pclinenumbertmp}}%
+\setcounter{pcrlinenumber}{\value{@pcrlinenumbertmp}}%
+\setcounter{@pc@indentationlevel}{0}%
+% begin actual output
+%
+%
+%do the actual mini page
+\hspace{\@pseudocodexshift}%
+\begin{minipage}[t]{\@pc@minipage@length}%
+\ifthenelse{\value{@pcsubprogstep}=0}{%
+\pc@display@pseudocode{\@pseudocodehead}{\@pc@thecontent}%
+}{% if sub procedure
+\pc@display@subcode{\@pseudocodehead}{\@pc@thecontent}%
+}%
+\end{minipage}%
+\hspace{\afterpcskip}%
+% tikz usage
+\@pc@releaseremember%
+\addtocounter{@pc@global@pc@nestcnt}{-1}%
+\endgroup%
+% close spacing and potentially a single group generated by the space tester
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\@withinspaces}{true}}{\end@withspaces}{}%
+\endgroup%
+}
+
+\newcommand{\@pc@gameheader}[2]{%
+\tikz{\gdef\i{\thepcgamecounter}%
+\node[anchor=base,#2,inner sep=0.05em,outer sep=0] (gamenode\i) {#1\vphantom{$\sum^A_{A_b}$}};
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\@withinbxgame}{true}}
+ {\node[draw,anchor=base, above=0.1cm of gamenode\i] (bgamenode\i) {\@bxgameheader\vphantom{$\sum^A_{A_b}$}};}
+ {}%
+}%
+}
+
+\let\pclb\relax
+%
+\newcommand{\pc@display@pseudocode}[2]{%
+\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{}}{\vspace{-1\baselineskip}\@pseudocodecodesize}{%
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\@withingame}{true}}{%
+\@pc@gameheader{#1}{}\ifthenelse{\equal{\@pc@secondheader}{true}}{\addtocounter{pcgamecounter}{1}\@pc@gameheader{#1}{draw}}{}%
+\vspace{0.2em}%
+}{#1\vphantom{$\sum^A_{A_b}$}}%
+\vspace{\@pseudocodeheadlinesep}\hrule\vspace{\@pseudocodebodylinesep}\@pseudocodecodesize}%
+\begin{flalign*}#2\end{flalign*}%
+}
+
+
+\newcommand{\pc@display@subcode}[2]{%
+\begingroup%
+\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{}}{}{#1\vphantom{$\sum^A_{A_b}$} %
+\vspace{\@pseudocodeheadlinesep}\hrule \vspace{\baselineskip}\vspace{\@pseudocodebodylinesep}}%
+\@pseudocodesubcodesize%
+$\begin{aligned}#2\end{aligned}$%
+\endgroup%
+}
+
+
+\newcommand{\@pc@gettikzwidth}[2]{ % #1 = width, #2 = height
+ \pgfextractx{\@tempdima}{\pgfpointdiff{\pgfpointanchor{current bounding box}{south west}}
+ {\pgfpointanchor{current bounding box}{north east}}}
+ \global#1=\@tempdima
+ \pgfextracty{\@tempdima}{\pgfpointdiff{\pgfpointanchor{current bounding box}{south west}}
+ {\pgfpointanchor{current bounding box}{north east}}}
+ \global#2=\@tempdima
+}
+
+
+%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
+% remember pictues
+\newcounter{@pc@remember}
+
+\newcommand{\@pc@ensureremember}{%
+\ifthenelse{\value{@pc@remember}=0}{\tikzstyle{every picture}+=[remember picture]}{}%
+\addtocounter{@pc@remember}{1}
+}
+
+\newcommand{\@pc@releaseremember}{%
+\addtocounter{@pc@remember}{-1}%
+\ifthenelse{\value{@pc@remember}=0}{\tikzstyle{every picture}-=[remember picture]}{}%
+}
+
+
+%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
+% pcimage
+\newenvironment{pcimage}{%
+\begingroup\@pc@ensureremember%
+}{%
+\@pc@releaseremember\endgroup%
+}
+
+\newcommand*\@pcnodecontent{}
+\newcommand*\@pcnodestyle{}
+\newcommand*\@pcnodedraw{}
+\define@key{pcnode}{content}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcnodecontent{#1}}
+\define@key{pcnode}{style}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcnodestyle{#1}}
+\define@key{pcnode}{draw}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcnodedraw{#1}}
+
+\newcommandx*{\pcnode}[2][2=]{%
+\begingroup\setkeys{pcnode}{#2}%
+\tikzset{PCNODE-STYLE/.style/.expand once=\@pcnodestyle}%
+\begin{tikzpicture}[inner sep=0ex,baseline=0pt]%
+\node[PCNODE-STYLE] (#1) {\@pcnodecontent}; %
+\end{tikzpicture}%
+\ifdefempty{\@pcnodedraw}{}{%
+\begin{tikzpicture}[overlay,inner sep=0ex,baseline=0pt]\@pcnodedraw\end{tikzpicture}
+}%
+\endgroup}
+
+\newcommandx*{\pcdraw}[1]{%
+\begin{tikzpicture}[overlay,inner sep=0ex,baseline=0pt]
+#1
+\end{tikzpicture}}
+
+
+%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
+% Reductions
+\newcommand{\@bb@lastbox}{}
+\newcommand{\@bb@lastoracle}{}
+\newcommand{\@bb@lastchallenger}{}
+
+
+\newlength{\@bb@message@hoffset}
+\newlength{\@bb@query@hoffset}
+\newlength{\@bb@oraclequery@hoffset}
+\newlength{\@bb@challengerquery@hoffset}
+
+\newcounter{@bb@oracle@cnt}
+\newcounter{@bb@oracle@nestcnt}
+\newcounter{@bb@challenger@cnt}
+\newcounter{@bb@challenger@nestcnt}
+
+\newcounter{@bb@env@nestcnt}
+
+\newcommand{\bbroraclenodenameprefix}{ora-}
+\newcommand{\bbrchallengernodenameprefix}{challenger-}
+\newcommand{\bbrenvnodenameprefix}{env-}
+
+%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
+% Black Box Reduction Enviconment
+\newenvironmentx{bbrenv}[3][1=0pt,3=0pt]{%
+\addtocounter{@bb@env@nestcnt}{1}%
+\renewcommand{\@bb@lastbox}{#2}%
+%
+% reset lengths
+\setlength{\@bb@message@hoffset}{0pt}%
+\setlength{\@bb@query@hoffset}{0pt}%
+\@pc@globalsetlength{\@bb@oraclequery@hoffset}{0pt}%
+\@pc@globalsetlength{\@bb@challengerquery@hoffset}{0pt}%
+%
+%reset oracle counter and oracle query offset
+\ifthenelse{\value{@bb@oracle@nestcnt}=0}
+ {\setcounter{@bb@oracle@cnt}{0}}{}%
+\ifthenelse{\value{@bb@challenger@nestcnt}=0}
+ {\setcounter{@bb@challenger@cnt}{0}}{}%
+%
+\def\@bbendskip{#3}%
+\vspace{#1}%
+\ifthenelse{\value{@bb@env@nestcnt}=1}
+ {\@pc@ensureremember%
+\begin{tikzpicture}
+}{\tikz\bgroup}
+}{%
+\ifthenelse{\value{@bb@env@nestcnt}=1}
+{\end{tikzpicture}%
+\@pc@releaseremember%
+}{\egroup}%
+\vspace{\@bbendskip}%
+\addtocounter{@bb@env@nestcnt}{-1}%
+}
+
+%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
+% black box reduction box
+% option keys
+\newcommand*\bbrboxname{}
+\newcommand*\bbrboxnamepos{right}
+\newcommand*\bbrboxnamestyle{}
+\newcommand*\@bbrboxnamepos{below=0.5ex of \@bb@lastbox.north east,anchor=north east}
+\newcommand*\@bbrboxnameposoffset{below left=0cm of phantomname.north west}
+\newcommand*\bbrboxstyle{draw}
+\newcommand*\bbrboxafterskip{}
+\newcommand*\bbrboxminwidth{2cm}
+\newcommand*\bbrboxxshift{0cm}
+\newcommand*\bbrboxyshift{0cm}
+\define@key{bbrbox}{name}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrboxname{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrbox}{namestyle}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrboxnamestyle{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrbox}{namepos}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrboxnamepos{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrbox}{style}[draw]{\renewcommand*\bbrboxstyle{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrbox}{minwidth}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrboxminwidth{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrbox}{minheight}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrboxafterskip{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrbox}{xshift}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrboxxshift{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrbox}{yshift}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrboxyshift{#1}}
+
+
+\NewEnviron{bbrbox}[1][]{%
+\setkeys{bbrbox}{#1}%
+
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\bbrboxnamepos}{center}}
+ {\renewcommand{\@bbrboxnamepos}{below=0.5ex of \@bb@lastbox.north,anchor=north}}{}
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\bbrboxnamepos}{left}}
+ {\renewcommand{\@bbrboxnamepos}{below=0.5ex of \@bb@lastbox.north west,anchor=north west}\renewcommand{\@bbrboxnameposoffset}{below left=1\baselineskip of phantomname.south west}}{}
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\bbrboxnamepos}{top right}}
+ {\renewcommand{\@bbrboxnamepos}{above=0cm of \@bb@lastbox.north east,anchor=south east}}{}
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\bbrboxnamepos}{top center}}
+ {\renewcommand{\@bbrboxnamepos}{above=0cm of \@bb@lastbox.north,anchor=south}}{}
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\bbrboxnamepos}{top left}}
+ {\renewcommand{\@bbrboxnamepos}{above=0cm of \@bb@lastbox.north west,anchor=south west}}{}
+
+
+\tikzset{BBRBOXSTYLE/.style/.expand once=\bbrboxstyle}%
+\tikzset{BBRBOXNAMEPOS/.style/.expand once=\@bbrboxnamepos}%
+\tikzset{BBRBOXNAMESTYLE/.style/.expand once=\bbrboxnamestyle}%
+\tikzset{BBRBOXNAMEPOSOFFSET/.style/.expand once=\@bbrboxnameposoffset}%
+
+\node[inner sep=0pt,outer sep=0pt] (\@bb@lastbox-tmpouter) {};
+\node[inner sep=.3333em,anchor=north,BBRBOXSTYLE,below right=\bbrboxyshift and \bbrboxxshift of \@bb@lastbox-tmpouter] (\@bb@lastbox) \bgroup
+ \tikz{
+ \node[inner sep=0pt,outer sep=0pt] (phantomname) {}; %minimum width
+ \node[BBRBOXNAMEPOSOFFSET] (inner) {\begin{varwidth}{2\linewidth}\BODY\end{varwidth}};
+ \ifthenelse{\equal{\bbrboxafterskip}{}}{}{
+ \node[below=0cm of inner,minimum height=\bbrboxafterskip] {};
+ }
+ \node[inner sep=0pt,outer sep=0pt,at=(inner.south west)] () {\phantom{\hspace{\bbrboxminwidth}}}; %minimum width
+ }
+\egroup;
+\node[BBRBOXNAMEPOS,BBRBOXNAMESTYLE, inner sep=0.2ex, outer sep=0pt, overlay] () {\bbrboxname};
+}
+
+
+\newcommand*\bbroraclevdistance{\baselineskip}
+\newcommand*\bbroraclehdistance{1.5cm}
+\define@key{bbroracle}{distance}[]{\renewcommand*\bbroraclehdistance{#1}}
+\define@key{bbroracle}{hdistance}[]{\renewcommand*\bbroraclehdistance{#1}}
+\define@key{bbroracle}{vdistance}[]{\renewcommand*\bbroraclevdistance{#1}}
+
+
+% ORACLES
+\newenvironmentx{bbroracle}[2][2=]{%
+ \begingroup
+ \setkeys{bbroracle}{#2}
+ %add to nesting cout
+ \addtocounter{@bb@oracle@nestcnt}{1}
+ %if first oracle, then put it to the right, else stack them vertically
+ \addtocounter{@bb@oracle@cnt}{1}
+ \ifthenelse{\value{@bb@oracle@cnt}=1}{
+ \setlength{\@bb@tmplength@b}{\bbroraclevdistance-\baselineskip}
+ \node[inner sep=0pt,below right=\@bb@tmplength@b and \bbroraclehdistance of \@bb@lastbox.north east,anchor=north west] (\bbroraclenodenameprefix#1) \bgroup
+ }{
+% compute distance of top of last box to bottom of last oracle
+ \coordinate (@bbtmpcoord) at (\@bb@lastbox.north east);
+ \path (@bbtmpcoord);
+ \pgfgetlastxy{\XCoord}{\YCoordA}
+ \coordinate (@bbtmpcoord) at (\bbroraclenodenameprefix \@bb@lastoracle.south west);
+ \path (@bbtmpcoord);
+ \pgfgetlastxy{\XCoord}{\YCoordB}
+ \setlength{\@bb@tmplength@b}{\YCoordA-\YCoordB+\bbroraclevdistance}
+ \node[inner sep=0pt,below right=\@bb@tmplength@b and \bbroraclehdistance of \@bb@lastbox.north east,anchor=north west] (\bbroraclenodenameprefix#1) \bgroup
+ }
+ \global\def\@bb@lastoracle{#1}
+ \begin{bbrenv}{#1}
+}{
+ \end{bbrenv}
+ \egroup;
+
+ \addtocounter{@bb@oracle@nestcnt}{-1}
+ \endgroup
+}
+
+
+\newcommand*\bbrchallengerhdistance{1.5cm}
+\newcommand*\bbrchallengervdistance{\baselineskip}
+\define@key{bbrchallenger}{distance}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrchallengerhdistance{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrchallenger}{hdistance}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrchallengerhdistance{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrchallenger}{vdistance}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrchallengervdistance{#1}}
+
+
+% Challenger
+\newenvironmentx{bbrchallenger}[2][2=]{%
+\begingroup%
+\setkeys{bbrchallenger}{#2}%
+%add to nesting cout
+\addtocounter{@bb@challenger@nestcnt}{1}%
+%if first oracle, then put it to the right, else stack them vertically
+\addtocounter{@bb@challenger@cnt}{1}%
+\ifthenelse{\value{@bb@challenger@cnt}=1}{%
+\setlength{\@bb@tmplength@b}{\bbrchallengervdistance-\baselineskip}%
+\node[inner sep=0pt,below left=\@bb@tmplength@b and \bbrchallengerhdistance of \@bb@lastbox.north west,anchor=north east] (\bbrchallengernodenameprefix#1) \bgroup%
+}{%
+\coordinate (@bbtmpcoord) at (\@bb@lastbox.north west);%
+\path (@bbtmpcoord);%
+\pgfgetlastxy{\XCoord}{\YCoordA}%
+\coordinate (@bbtmpcoord) at (\bbrchallengernodenameprefix \@bb@lastchallenger.south east);%
+\path (@bbtmpcoord);%
+\pgfgetlastxy{\XCoord}{\YCoordB}%
+\setlength{\@bb@tmplength@b}{\YCoordA-\YCoordB+\bbrchallengervdistance}%
+\node[inner sep=0pt,below left=\@bb@tmplength@b and \bbrchallengerhdistance of \@bb@lastbox.north west,anchor=north east] (\bbrchallengernodenameprefix#1) \bgroup%
+}%
+\global\def\@bb@lastchallenger{#1}
+\begin{bbrenv}{#1}%
+}{
+\end{bbrenv}%
+\egroup;%
+\addtocounter{@bb@challenger@nestcnt}{-1}%
+\endgroup%
+\let\msgfrom\bbrchallengerqueryto%
+}
+
+
+
+\newcommandx{\bbrinput}[2][1=0.75cm]{%
+\node[above right=#1 of \@bb@lastbox.north west] (input) {#2};
+\draw[->] (input) --++ (0,-0.75cm);
+}
+
+\newcommandx{\bbroutput}[2][1=0.75cm]{%
+\node[below right=#1 of \@bb@lastbox.south west] (output) {#2};
+\draw[<-] (output) --++ (0,#1);
+}
+
+%%%%%%%%%%%
+% communication
+%temporary lengths
+\newlength{\@bb@com@tmpoffset}
+\newlength{\@bb@tmplength@b}
+\newcommand{\@bb@firstmessageheight}{0.25\baselineskip}
+\newcommand{\@bb@msglength}{1.25cm}
+\newcommand{\@bb@qrylength}{1.5cm}
+
+%keys
+\newcommand*\bbrcomnsidestyle{}
+\newcommand*\bbrcomtopstyle{}
+\newcommand*\bbrcombottomstyle{}
+\newcommand*\bbrcomside{}
+\newcommand*\bbrcomtop{}
+\newcommand*\bbrcombottom{}
+\newcommand*\bbrcomedgestyle{}
+\newcommand*\bbrcomlength{1.25cm}
+\newcommand*\bbrcomtopname{bbrcomtop}
+\newcommand*\bbrcombottomname{bbrcombottom}
+\newcommand*\bbrcomsidename{bbrcomside}
+\newcommand*\bbrcomosidename{bbrcomoside}
+\newcommand*\bbrcombeforeskip{0pt}
+\newcommand*\bbrcomafterskip{0pt}
+\define@key{bbrcom}{sidestyle}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrcomnsidestyle{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrcom}{topstyle}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrcomtopstyle{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrcom}{bottomstyle}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrcombottomstyle{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrcom}{side}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrcomside{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrcom}{top}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrcomtop{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrcom}{bottom}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrcombottom{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrcom}{edgestyle}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrcomedgestyle{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrcom}{length}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrcomlength{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrcom}{topname}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrcomtopname{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrcom}{bottomname}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrcombottomname{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrcom}{sidename}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrcomsidename{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrcom}{osidename}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrcomosidename{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrcom}{beforeskip}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrcombeforeskip{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrcom}{afterskip}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrcomafterskip{#1}}
+
+\newcommand*\bbrbasenodestyle{}
+\newcommand*\bbrbasenodename{bbrtmpname}
+\define@key{bbrabase}{nodestyle}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrbasenodestyle{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrabase}{nodename}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrbasenodename{#1}}
+
+
+\newcommand{\@bb@comsetup}[3]{
+ %load keys
+ \begingroup % for local keys
+
+ \setkeys{bbrcom}{#1}%
+
+ %set styles
+ \tikzset{BBRCOM-SIDESTYLE/.style/.expand once=\bbrcomnsidestyle}%
+ \tikzset{BBRCOM-TOPSTYLE/.style/.expand once=\bbrcomtopstyle}%
+ \tikzset{BBRCOM-BOTTOMSTYLE/.style/.expand once=\bbrcombottomstyle}%
+ \tikzset{BBRCOM-EDGESTYLE/.style/.expand once=\bbrcomedgestyle}%
+
+ % increase space
+ \ifthenelse{\lengthtest{#2<\@bb@firstmessageheight}}
+ {#3{\@bb@firstmessageheight}}
+ {
+ #3{0.75\baselineskip}
+ \ifthenelse{\equal{\bbrcomtop}{}}{}{#3{0.75\baselineskip}}
+ }
+
+ \setlength{\@bb@com@tmpoffset}{#2+\bbrcombeforeskip}%
+}
+
+\newcommand{\@bb@comfinalize}[1]{
+ \ifthenelse{\equal{\bbrcombottom}{}}{}{#1{\baselineskip}}
+ #1{\bbrcomafterskip}
+ \endgroup
+}
+
+\newcommand{\@bbrmsg}[7]{
+ \@bb@comsetup{#1}{#6}{#7}
+ %
+ \node[#3=\@bb@com@tmpoffset and \bbrcomlength of \@bb@lastbox.#4,BBRCOM-SIDESTYLE] (\bbrcomsidename) {\bbrcomside};
+ \path[#2] (\bbrcomsidename) edge[BBRCOM-EDGESTYLE] node[above,BBRCOM-TOPSTYLE] (\bbrcomtopname) {\bbrcomtop} node[below,BBRCOM-BOTTOMSTYLE] (\bbrcombottomname) {\bbrcombottom} (\@bb@lastbox.#5|-\bbrcomsidename) node[inner sep=0pt,outer sep=0pt] (\bbrcomosidename) {};
+ %
+ \@bb@comfinalize{#7}
+}
+
+\newcommandx{\bbrmsgto}[1]{%
+\@bbrmsg{#1}{->}{below left}{north west}{west}{\@bb@message@hoffset}{\bbrmsgspace}
+}
+\newcommandx{\bbrmsgfrom}[1]{%
+\@bbrmsg{#1}{<-}{below left}{north west}{west}{\@bb@message@hoffset}{\bbrmsgspace}
+}
+\newcommandx{\bbrqryto}[1]{%
+\@bbrmsg{#1}{<-}{below right}{north east}{east}{\@bb@query@hoffset}{\bbrqryspace}
+}
+\newcommandx{\bbrqryfrom}[1]{%
+\@bbrmsg{#1}{->}{below right}{north east}{east}{\@bb@query@hoffset}{\bbrqryspace}
+}
+
+\newcommand{\@bbroracleqry}[4]{
+ \@bb@comsetup{#1}{#3}{#4}
+ %
+
+ \path[#2] (\@bb@lastoracle.north west) -- ++ (0,-\@bb@com@tmpoffset) node[inner sep=0pt,outer sep=0pt] (\bbrcomsidename){} edge[BBRCOM-EDGESTYLE] node[above,BBRCOM-TOPSTYLE] (\bbrcomtopname) {\bbrcomtop} node[below,BBRCOM-BOTTOMSTYLE] (\bbrcombottomname) {\bbrcombottom} (\@bb@lastbox.east|-\bbrcomsidename) node[inner sep=0pt,outer sep=0pt] (\bbrcomosidename) {};
+ %
+ \@bb@comfinalize{#4}
+}
+
+\newcommand{\bbroracleqryfrom}[1]{
+ \@bbroracleqry{#1}{->}{\@bb@oraclequery@hoffset}{\bbroracleqryspace}
+}
+
+\newcommand{\bbroracleqryto}[1]{
+ \@bbroracleqry{#1}{<-}{\@bb@oraclequery@hoffset}{\bbroracleqryspace}
+}
+
+\newcommand{\@bbrchallengerqry}[4]{
+ \@bb@comsetup{#1}{#3}{#4}
+ %
+
+ \path[#2] (\@bb@lastchallenger.north east) -- ++ (0,-\@bb@com@tmpoffset) node[inner sep=0pt,outer sep=0pt] (\bbrcomsidename){} edge[BBRCOM-EDGESTYLE] node[above,BBRCOM-TOPSTYLE] (\bbrcomtopname) {\bbrcomtop} node[below,BBRCOM-BOTTOMSTYLE] (\bbrcombottomname) {\bbrcombottom} (\@bb@lastbox.west|-\bbrcomsidename) node[inner sep=0pt,outer sep=0pt] (\bbrcomosidename) {};
+ %
+ \@bb@comfinalize{#4}
+}
+
+\newcommand{\bbrchallengerqryfrom}[1]{
+ \@bbrchallengerqry{#1}{<-}{\@bb@challengerquery@hoffset}{\bbrchallengerqryspace}
+}
+
+\newcommand{\bbrchallengerqryto}[1]{
+ \@bbrchallengerqry{#1}{->}{\@bb@challengerquery@hoffset}{\bbrchallengerqryspace}
+}
+
+
+
+\newcommand*\bbrcomloopleft{}
+\newcommand*\bbrcomloopright{}
+\newcommand*\bbrcomloopcenter{}
+\define@key{bbrcomloop}{left}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrcomloopleft{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrcomloop}{right}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrcomloopright{#1}}
+\define@key{bbrcomloop}{center}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrcomloopcenter{#1}}
+
+\newcommand{\bbrloop}[3]{
+ \begingroup % for local keys
+ \setkeys{bbrcomloop}{#3}%
+
+ \path[->] (#1) edge[bend right=50] node[midway,left] (bbrleft) {\bbrcomloopleft} (#2);
+ \path[->] (#2) edge[bend right=50] node[midway,right] (bbrright) {\bbrcomloopright} (#1);
+ \node[at=($(bbrleft.north west)!0.5!(bbrright.north east)$),anchor=north]() {\bbrcomloopcenter};
+
+ \endgroup
+}
+
+\newcommand*\bbrintertexthoffset{1.5cm}
+\define@key{bbrintertext}{xshift}[]{\renewcommand*\bbrintertexthoffset{#1}}
+
+\newcommand{\@bb@intertextsetup}[1]{
+ %load keys
+ \begingroup % for local keys
+
+ \setkeys{bbrcom,bbrabase,bbrintertext}{#1}%
+
+ \tikzset{BBRBASE-NODESTYLE/.style/.expand once=\bbrbasenodestyle}%
+}
+
+\newcommand{\@bb@intertextfinalize}[1]{
+ #1{\bbrcomafterskip}
+ \endgroup
+}
+
+\newcommand{\@bbrintertext}[6]{
+ \@bb@intertextsetup{#1}
+
+ %introduce space
+ #5{\baselineskip}
+
+ %compute offset
+ \setlength{\@bb@com@tmpoffset}{#4+\@bb@firstmessageheight+\bbrcombeforeskip}%
+
+ %
+ \node[#2=\@bb@com@tmpoffset and \bbrintertexthoffset of \@bb@lastbox.#3,BBRBASE-NODESTYLE] (\bbrbasenodename) {#6};
+ %
+ % compute height of node
+ \coordinate (@bbtmpcoord) at (\bbrbasenodename.north);
+ \path (@bbtmpcoord);
+ \pgfgetlastxy{\XCoord}{\YCoordA}
+ \coordinate (@bbtmpcoord) at (\bbrbasenodename.south);
+ \path (@bbtmpcoord);
+ \pgfgetlastxy{\XCoord}{\YCoordB}
+
+ % update hoffset
+ \setlength{\@bb@tmplength@b}{\YCoordA-\YCoordB}
+ #5{\the\@bb@tmplength@b}
+
+ \@bb@intertextfinalize{#5}
+}
+
+\newcommand{\bbrmsgtxt}[2][]{
+ \@bbrintertext{#1}{below left}{north west}{\@bb@message@hoffset}{\bbrmsgspace}{#2}
+}
+
+\newcommand{\bbrqrytxt}[2][]{
+ \@bbrintertext{#1}{below right}{north east}{\@bb@query@hoffset}{\bbrqryspace}{#2}
+}
+
+\newcommand{\bbrchallengertxt}[2][]{
+\begingroup
+\setlength{\@bb@tmplength@b}{\bbrchallengerhdistance/2}%
+\renewcommand{\bbrintertexthoffset}{\the\@bb@tmplength@b}%
+ \@bbrintertext{#1}{below left}{north west}{\@bb@challengerquery@hoffset}{\bbrchallengerqryspace}{#2}
+\endgroup
+}
+
+\newcommand{\bbroracletxt}[2][]{
+\begingroup
+\setlength{\@bb@tmplength@b}{\bbroraclehdistance/2}%
+\renewcommand{\bbrintertexthoffset}{\the\@bb@tmplength@b}%
+ \@bbrintertext{#1}{below left}{north west}{\@bb@oraclequery@hoffset}{\bbroracleqryspace}{#2}
+\endgroup
+}
+
+\newcommand{\bbrmsgspace}[1]{
+\@pc@globaladdtolength{\@bb@message@hoffset}{#1}
+}
+
+\newcommand{\bbrqryspace}[1]{
+\@pc@globaladdtolength{\@bb@query@hoffset}{#1}
+}
+
+\newcommand{\bbroracleqryspace}[1]{
+\@pc@globaladdtolength{\@bb@oraclequery@hoffset}{#1}
+}
+
+\newcommand{\bbrchallengerqryspace}[1]{
+\@pc@globaladdtolength{\@bb@challengerquery@hoffset}{#1}
+}
+
+
+%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
+% stacking
+\providecommand{\pccenteraboveskip}{0.5\baselineskip}
+\providecommand{\pccenterbelowskip}{0.5\baselineskip}
+\newenvironment{pccenter}{%
+\setlength\topsep{0pt}\setlength\parskip{0pt}%
+\begin{center}\vspace{\pccenteraboveskip}
+}{%
+\vspace{\pccenteraboveskip}%
+\end{center}}
+
+
+%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
+% horizontal stacking
+% space before hstacks
+\newlength{\pcbeforehstackskip}
+
+\NewEnviron{pchstack}[1][]{%
+% write out content
+\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{center}}{%
+\begin{pccenter}\mbox{\hspace{\pcbeforehstackskip}\BODY}\end{pccenter}}{%
+\mbox{\hspace{\pcbeforehstackskip}\BODY}}%
+}
+
+
+%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
+\NewEnviron{pcvstack}[1][]{%
+% display minipage
+\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{center}}{\begin{pccenter}}{}%
+\begin{varwidth}[t]{2\linewidth}\hspace{0pt}\BODY\end{varwidth}% hspace needed for proper vertical positioning .. strange as it is.
+\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{center}}{\end{pccenter}}{}%
+}
+
+
+% spacing for stacking
+\newcommand{\pchspace}[1][1em]{\hspace{#1}}
+\newcommand{\pcvspace}[1][\baselineskip]{\par\vspace{#1}}
+
+
+
+
+
+%%%%
+% subprocedures
+\newcounter{@pcsubprogcnt1}
+\newcounter{@pcrsubprogcnt1}
+\newcounter{@pcsubprogcnt2}
+\newcounter{@pcrsubprogcnt2}
+\newcounter{@pcsubprogcnt3}
+\newcounter{@pcrsubprogcnt3}
+\newcounter{@pcsubprogcnt4}
+\newcounter{@pcrsubprogcnt4}
+\newcounter{@pcsubprogcnt5}
+\newcounter{@pcrsubprogcnt5}
+\newcounter{@pcsubprogcnt6}
+\newcounter{@pcrsubprogcnt6}
+\newcounter{@pcsubprogcnt7}
+\newcounter{@pcrsubprogcnt7}
+\newcounter{@pcsubprogcnt8}
+\newcounter{@pcrsubprogcnt8}
+\newcounter{@pcsubprogcnt9}
+\newcounter{@pcrsubprogcnt9}
+\newcounter{@pcsubprogstep}
+
+\newenvironment{subprocedure}{%
+\addtocounter{@pcsubprogstep}{1}%
+% store old counter values
+\setcounter{@pcsubprogcnt\the@pcsubprogstep}{\value{pclinenumber}}%
+\setcounter{@pcrsubprogcnt\the@pcsubprogstep}{\value{pcrlinenumber}}%
+}{%
+\setcounter{pclinenumber}{\value{@pcsubprogcnt\the@pcsubprogstep}}%
+\setcounter{pcrlinenumber}{\value{@pcrsubprogcnt\the@pcsubprogstep}}%
+\addtocounter{@pcsubprogstep}{-1}}
+
+
+%%%%%
+% parameter reordering
+\def\@pseudocodeB#1#2[#3]#4{\setkeys*{pcspace}{#2,#3}\@pseudocode[head={#1#4},#2,#3]}
+\def\@pseudocodeC#1#2#3{\setkeys*{pcspace}{#2}\@pseudocode[head={#1#3},#2]}
+%for no headers
+\def\@pseudocodeE#1#2[#3]{\setkeys*{pcspace}{#2,#3}\@pseudocode[head={#1},#2,#3]}
+\def\@pseudocodeF#1#2{\setkeys*{pcspace}{#2}\@pseudocode[head={#1},#2]}
+
+%%%%%%%%%
+% Define pseudocode command:
+% #1 name
+% #2 code to execute after begingroup
+% #3 head prefix
+% #4 other config
+\newcommand{\createprocedurecommand}[4]{
+ \expandafter\gdef\csname #1\endcsname{%
+\begingroup%
+\renewcommand{\@withinspaces}{false}%
+#2%
+\@ifnextchar[%]
+ {\@pseudocodeB{#3}{#4}}
+ {\@pseudocodeC{#3}{#4}}%
+}%
+}
+
+\newcommand{\createpseudocodecommand}[4]{
+ \expandafter\gdef\csname #1\endcsname{%
+\begingroup%
+\renewcommand{\@withinspaces}{false}%
+#2%
+\@ifnextchar[%]
+ {\@pseudocodeE{#3}{#4}}
+ {\@pseudocodeF{#3}{#4}}%
+}%
+}
+
+
+%%%%%%
+% create procedure
+\createprocedurecommand{procedure}{}{}{}
+
+%%%
+% send message
+\newcommand{\pcshortmessageoffset}{0.5cm}
+\newcommand{\pcdefaultmessagelength}{3.5cm}
+\newcommand{\pcdefaultlongmessagelength}{6cm}
+\newcommand{\pcbeforemessageskip}{0pt}
+\newcommand{\pcaftermessageskip}{10pt}
+\newlength{\pcmessagearrow}
+
+\newcommand*\@pcsendmessagelength{\pcdefaultmessagelength}
+\newcommand*\@pcsendmessagecol{}
+\newcommand*\@pcsendmessagewidth{}
+\newcommand*\@pcsendmessagestyle{}
+\newcommand*\@pcsendmessagetop{}
+\newcommand*\@pcsendmessagebottom{}
+\newcommand*\@pcsendmessageright{}
+\newcommand*\@pcsendmessageleft{}
+\newcommand*\@pcsendmessagetopname{t}
+\newcommand*\@pcsendmessagebottomname{b}
+\newcommand*\@pcsendmessagerightname{r}
+\newcommand*\@pcsendmessageleftname{l}
+\newcommand*\@pcsendmessagetopstyle{}
+\newcommand*\@pcsendmessagebottomstyle{}
+\newcommand*\@pcsendmessagerightstyle{}
+\newcommand*\@pcsendmessageleftstyle{}
+\newcommand*\@pcsendmessagebeforeskip{\pcbeforemessageskip}
+\newcommand*\@pcsendmessageafterskip{\pcaftermessageskip}
+\define@key{pcsendmessage}{centercol}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcsendmessagecol{#1}}
+\define@key{pcsendmessage}{width}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcsendmessagewidth{#1}}
+\define@key{pcsendmessage}{style}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcsendmessagestyle{#1}}
+\define@key{pcsendmessage}{length}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcsendmessagelength{#1}}
+\define@key{pcsendmessage}{top}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcsendmessagetop{#1}}
+\define@key{pcsendmessage}{bottom}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcsendmessagebottom{#1}}
+\define@key{pcsendmessage}{right}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcsendmessageright{#1}}
+\define@key{pcsendmessage}{left}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcsendmessageleft{#1}}
+\define@key{pcsendmessage}{topname}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcsendmessagetopname{#1}}
+\define@key{pcsendmessage}{bottomname}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcsendmessagebottomname{#1}}
+\define@key{pcsendmessage}{rightname}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcsendmessagerightname{#1}}
+\define@key{pcsendmessage}{leftname}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcsendmessageleftname{#1}}
+\define@key{pcsendmessage}{topstyle}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcsendmessagetopstyle{#1}}
+\define@key{pcsendmessage}{bottomstyle}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcsendmessagebottomstyle{#1}}
+\define@key{pcsendmessage}{rightstyle}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcsendmessagerightstyle{#1}}
+\define@key{pcsendmessage}{leftstyle}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcsendmessageleftstyle{#1}}
+\define@key{pcsendmessage}{beforeskip}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcsendmessagebeforeskip{#1}}
+\define@key{pcsendmessage}{afterskip}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcsendmessageafterskip{#1}}
+
+
+\newcommand{\centerincol}[2]{%
+\ifmeasuring@%
+#2%
+\else%
+\makebox[\ifcase\expandafter #1\maxcolumn@widths\fi]{$\displaystyle#2$}%
+\fi%
+}
+
+\newcommand{\@do@sendmessage}[1]{%
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\@pcsendmessagecol}{}}{%
+\ifthenelse{\equal{\@pcsendmessagewidth}{}}{#1}{% we have some width
+\makebox[\@pcsendmessagewidth]{$\displaystyle#1$}%
+}}{%we know the column to center on
+\centerincol{\@pcsendmessagecol}{#1}%
+}%
+}
+
+\newcommandx*{\sendmessage}[2]{%
+\begingroup\setkeys{pcsendmessage}{#2}%
+\tikzset{PCSENDMSG-PATH-STYLE/.style/.expand once=\@pcsendmessagestyle}%
+\tikzset{PCSENDMSG-TOP-STYLE/.style/.expand once=\@pcsendmessagetopstyle}%
+\tikzset{PCSENDMSG-BOTTOM-STYLE/.style/.expand once=\@pcsendmessagebottomstyle}%
+\tikzset{PCSENDMSG-LEFT-STYLE/.style/.expand once=\@pcsendmessageleftstyle}%
+\tikzset{PCSENDMSG-RIGHT-STYLE/.style/.expand once=\@pcsendmessagerightstyle}%
+%restore halign
+%
+\hspace{\@pcsendmessagebeforeskip}%
+\begin{varwidth}{\linewidth}
+\@do@sendmessage{
+ \begin{tikzpicture}%
+ \node[PCSENDMSG-LEFT-STYLE] (\@pcsendmessageleftname) {\@pcsendmessageleft};
+ \node[right=\@pcsendmessagelength of \@pcsendmessageleftname,PCSENDMSG-RIGHT-STYLE] (\@pcsendmessagerightname) {\@pcsendmessageright};
+ \path[#1,PCSENDMSG-PATH-STYLE] (\@pcsendmessageleftname) edge[] node[above,PCSENDMSG-TOP-STYLE] (\@pcsendmessagetopname) {\@pcsendmessagetop} node[below,PCSENDMSG-BOTTOM-STYLE] (\@pcsendmessagebottomname) {\@pcsendmessagebottom} (\@pcsendmessagerightname);
+ \end{tikzpicture}%
+}%
+\end{varwidth}
+\hspace{\@pcsendmessageafterskip}%
+\endgroup%
+}
+
+\newcommandx*{\sendmessageright}[2][1=->]{%
+\sendmessage{#1}{#2}%
+}
+
+\newcommandx*{\sendmessageleft}[2][1=<-]{%
+\sendmessage{#1}{#2}%
+}
+
+\WithSuffix\newcommand\sendmessageleft*[2][\pcdefaultmessagelength]{%
+\begingroup%
+\renewcommand{\@pcsendmessagetop}{\let\halign\@pc@halign$\begin{aligned}#2\end{aligned}$}%
+\sendmessage{<-}{length=#1}%
+\endgroup%
+}
+
+
+\WithSuffix\newcommand\sendmessageright*[2][\pcdefaultmessagelength]{%
+\begingroup%
+\renewcommand{\@pcsendmessagetop}{\let\halign\@pc@halign$\begin{aligned}#2\end{aligned}$}%
+\sendmessage{->}{length=#1}%
+\endgroup%
+}
+
+
+
+\DeclareExpandableDocumentCommand{\sendmessagerightx}{O{\pcdefaultlongmessagelength}mO{}m}{%
+\multicolumn{#2}{c}{\ensuremath{\hspace{\pcbeforemessageskip}\xrightarrow[\begin{aligned}#3\end{aligned}]{\mathmakebox[#1]{\begin{aligned}#4\end{aligned}}}\hspace{\pcaftermessageskip}}}
+}
+
+\DeclareExpandableDocumentCommand{\sendmessageleftx}{O{\pcdefaultlongmessagelength}mO{}m}{%
+\multicolumn{#2}{c}{\ensuremath{\hspace{\pcbeforemessageskip}\xleftarrow[\begin{aligned}#3\end{aligned}]{\mathmakebox[#1]{\begin{aligned}#4\end{aligned}}}\hspace{\pcaftermessageskip}}}
+}
+
+%%%
+% Division
+\DeclareExpandableDocumentCommand{\pcintertext}{O{}m}{\intertext{%
+\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{center}}{\makebox[\linewidth][c]{#2}}{}%
+\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{dotted}}{\dotfill#2\dotfill}{}%
+\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{}}{#2}{}%
+}\@pc@beginnewline}
+
+
+
+%%%
+% Games
+%
+\newcounter{pcstartgamecounter}
+
+\newcommand*{\pcgamename}{\ensuremath{\mathsf{Game}}}
+\newcommand*{\gameprocedurearg}{\ensuremath{(\secpar)}}
+\newcommand*\@pcgameproofgamenr{0}
+\define@key{pcgameproof}{nr}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcgameproofgamenr{#1}}
+\define@key{pcgameproof}{name}[]{\renewcommand*\pcgamename{\ensuremath{#1}}}
+\define@key{pcgameproof}{arg}[]{\renewcommand*\gameprocedurearg{\ensuremath{#1}}}
+
+\newenvironment{gameproof}[1][]{%
+\begingroup%
+\setkeys{pcgameproof}{#1}
+\@pc@ensureremember%
+\setcounter{pcgamecounter}{\@pcgameproofgamenr}%
+\setcounter{pcstartgamecounter}{\@pcgameproofgamenr}\stepcounter{pcstartgamecounter}%
+}{\@pc@releaseremember\endgroup}
+
+\createpseudocodecommand{gameprocedure}
+ {\addtocounter{pcgamecounter}{1}\renewcommand{\@withingame}{true}}
+ {\ensuremath{\pcgamename_{\thepcgamecounter}\gameprocedurearg}}
+ {}
+
+\def\@bxgame@pseudocodeA[#1]#2#3{\setkeys*{pcspace}{#1}\renewcommand{\@bxgameheader}{$\pcgamename_{#2}$\gameprocedurearg}%
+\@pseudocode[head=\ensuremath{\pcgamename_{\thepcgamecounter}\gameprocedurearg},#1]{#3}}
+\def\@bxgame@pseudocodeB#1#2{\renewcommand{\@bxgameheader}{$\pcgamename_{#1}$\gameprocedurearg}%
+\@pseudocode[head=\ensuremath{\pcgamename_{\thepcgamecounter}\gameprocedurearg}]{#2}}
+
+\newcommand{\bxgameprocedure}{
+\begingroup%
+\renewcommand{\@withinspaces}{false}%
+\renewcommand{\@withingame}{true}%
+\renewcommand{\@withinbxgame}{true}%
+\stepcounter{pcgamecounter}%
+\@ifnextchar[%]
+ {\@bxgame@pseudocodeA}
+ {\@bxgame@pseudocodeB}%
+}
+
+\newcommand{\@pc@secondheader}{}
+
+%tbx top boxed
+\createpseudocodecommand{tbxgameprocedure}
+ {\addtocounter{pcgamecounter}{1}\renewcommand{\@withingame}{true}%%
+\renewcommand{\@pc@secondheader}{true}}
+ {\ensuremath{\pcgamename_{\thepcgamecounter}\gameprocedurearg}}
+{}
+
+
+\newcommand*\@pcgamehopnodestyle{}
+\newcommand*\@pcgamehopedgestyle{bend left}
+\newcommand*\@pcgamehoppathestyle{}
+\newcommand*\@pcgamehophint{}
+\newcommand*\@pcgamehoplength{1.5cm}
+\define@key{pcgamehop}{nodestyle}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcgamehopnodestyle{#1}}
+\define@key{pcgamehop}{edgestyle}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcgamehopedgestyle{#1}}
+\define@key{pcgamehop}{pathstyle}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcgamehoppathestyle{#1}}
+\define@key{pcgamehop}{hint}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcgamehophint{#1}}
+\define@key{pcgamehop}{length}[]{\renewcommand*\@pcgamehoplength{#1}}
+
+
+\newcommand{\@pc@setupgamehop}[1]{
+\begingroup\setkeys{pcgamehop}{#1}%
+\tikzset{GAMEHOP-PATH-STYLE/.style/.expand once=\@pcgamehoppathestyle}%
+\tikzset{GAMEHOP-NODE-STYLE/.style/.expand once=\@pcgamehopnodestyle}%
+\tikzset{GAMEHOP-EDGE-STYLE/.style/.expand once=\@pcgamehopedgestyle}%
+}
+
+\newcommand{\@pc@finalizegamehop}{
+\endgroup
+}
+
+\newcommandx*{\addgamehop}[3]{%
+\begingroup
+\ifthenelse{#1<#2}{}{\renewcommand*\@pcgamehopedgestyle{bend right}}
+\@pc@setupgamehop{#3}
+\begin{tikzpicture}[overlay]
+\ifthenelse{#1<#2}{
+ \path[->,GAMEHOP-PATH-STYLE] (gamenode#1) edge[GAMEHOP-EDGE-STYLE] node[above,GAMEHOP-NODE-STYLE] {\@pcgamehophint} (gamenode#2);
+}{
+ \path[->,GAMEHOP-PATH-STYLE] (bgamenode#1) edge[GAMEHOP-EDGE-STYLE] node[above,GAMEHOP-NODE-STYLE] {\@pcgamehophint} (bgamenode#2);
+}
+\end{tikzpicture}
+\@pc@finalizegamehop
+\endgroup
+}
+\newcommandx*{\addstartgamehop}[2][1=\thepcstartgamecounter]{%
+\@pc@setupgamehop{#2}
+\begin{tikzpicture}[overlay]
+ \node[left=\@pcgamehoplength of gamenode#1] (tmpgamenode0) {};
+ \path[->,GAMEHOP-PATH-STYLE] (tmpgamenode0) edge[GAMEHOP-EDGE-STYLE] node[above,GAMEHOP-NODE-STYLE] {\@pcgamehophint} (gamenode#1);
+\end{tikzpicture}
+\@pc@finalizegamehop
+}
+\newcommandx*{\addendgamehop}[2][1=\thepcgamecounter]{%
+\@pc@setupgamehop{#2}
+\begin{tikzpicture}[overlay]
+ \node[right=\@pcgamehoplength of gamenode#1] (tmpgamenode#1) {};
+ \path[->,GAMEHOP-PATH-STYLE] (gamenode#1) edge[GAMEHOP-EDGE-STYLE] node[above,GAMEHOP-NODE-STYLE] {\@pcgamehophint} (tmpgamenode#1);
+\end{tikzpicture}
+\@pc@finalizegamehop
+}
+\newcommandx*{\addbxgamehop}[3]{%
+\@pc@setupgamehop{#3}
+\begin{tikzpicture}[overlay]
+ \path[->,GAMEHOP-PATH-STYLE] (bgamenode#1) edge[GAMEHOP-EDGE-STYLE] node[above,GAMEHOP-NODE-STYLE]] {\@pcgamehophint} (bgamenode#2);
+\end{tikzpicture}
+\@pc@finalizegamehop
+}
+\newcommandx*{\addloopgamehop}[2][1=\thepcgamecounter]{%
+\@pc@setupgamehop{#2}
+\begin{tikzpicture}[overlay]
+ \node (looptemp1) [right=0.5cm of gamenode#1] {};
+ \draw[->,GAMEHOP-PATH-STYLE] (gamenode#1) -- (looptemp1|-gamenode#1) -- node[right,GAMEHOP-NODE-STYLE] {\@pcgamehophint} (looptemp1|-bgamenode#1)-- (bgamenode#1);
+\end{tikzpicture}
+\@pc@finalizegamehop
+}
+
+
+
+%%%%%%%%
+% basic pseudocode constants
+
+\newcommand{\highlightkeyword}[2][\ ]{\ensuremath{\mathbf{#2}}#1}
+\newcommand{\highlightaltkeyword}[1]{\ensuremath{\mathsf{#1}}}
+
+\newcommand{\pcglobvar}{\highlightkeyword{gbl}}
+\newcommand{\pcnew}{\highlightkeyword{new}}
+\newcommand{\pcwhile}{\@pc@increaseindent\highlightkeyword{while}}
+\newcommand{\pcendwhile}{\@pc@decreaseindent\highlightkeyword{endwhile}}
+\newcommandx*{\pcdo}[2][1=\ ,2=]{#1\highlightkeyword[#2]{do}}
+\newcommand{\pcif}{\@pc@increaseindent\highlightkeyword{if}}
+\newcommand{\pcelse}{\@pc@tmpdecreaseindent\highlightkeyword{else}}
+\newcommand{\pcelseif}{\@pc@tmpdecreaseindent\highlightkeyword{else if}}
+\newcommand{\pcfi}{\@pc@decreaseindent\highlightkeyword{fi}}
+\newcommand{\pcendif}{\@pc@decreaseindent\highlightkeyword{endif}}
+\newcommand{\pcendfor}{\@pc@decreaseindent\highlightkeyword{endfor}}
+\newcommandx*{\pcthen}[2][1=\ ,2=]{#1\highlightkeyword[#2]{then}}
+\newcommand{\pcreturn}{\highlightkeyword{return}}
+\newcommandx*{\pcin}[2][1=\ ,2=]{#1\highlightkeyword[#2]{in}}
+\newcommand{\pcfor}{\@pc@increaseindent\highlightkeyword{for}}
+\newcommand{\pcrepeat}[1]{\@pc@increaseindent\ensuremath{\highlightkeyword{repeat} #1\ \highlightkeyword{times}}}
+\newcommand{\pcrepeatuntil}[2]{\ensuremath{\highlightkeyword{repeat}\ #1\ \highlightkeyword{until}\ #2}}
+\newcommand{\pcforeach}{\@pc@increaseindent\highlightkeyword{foreach}}
+\newcommand{\pcendforeach}{\@pc@decreaseindent\highlightkeyword{endforeach}}
+\newcommand{\pcuntil}{\@pc@decreaseindent\highlightkeyword{until}}
+\newcommand{\pccontinue}{\highlightkeyword{continue}}
+\newcommand{\pcfalse}{\highlightkeyword{false}}
+\newcommand{\pctrue}{\highlightkeyword{true}}
+\newcommand{\pcnull}{\highlightkeyword{null}}
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+\chapter{Introduction}\label{chapter:introduction}
+
+New networking and cryptographic protocols can substantially improve
+electronic online payment systems. This book is about the design,
+implementation and security analysis of GNU
+Taler\footnote{\url{https://taler.net/}}, a privacy-friendly payment
+system that is designed to be practical for usage as an online
+(micro-)payment method, and at the same time socially and ethically
+responsible.
+
+Payment systems can generally be divided into two types: Register-based
+and value-based~\cite{riksbank2017riksbank}. A register-based system
+associates value with identities (e.g., bank account balances with
+customers), while a value-based system associates value with typically
+anonymous, digital or physical tokens (such as cash or prepaid credit
+cards). In practice, these two types of systems are combined, as
+different layers have different (and often conflicting) requirements:
+the payment system used to pay for a cappuccino in a coffee shop is
+most likely not suitable to buy real estate. Value-based payment
+systems typically provide more anonymity and convenience but also more
+risk to consumers (as they are responsible to secure the values they
+hold), while register-based systems shift risks to the payment service
+provider who has to authenticate consumers and ensure the integrity of
+the register.
+
+This book explains GNU Taler, a design and implementation of a value-based
+payment system, discussing in-depth how to create a practical,
+privacy-preserving and secure (micro-)payment protocol that integrates nicely
+with the modern web. Our value-based payment protocol can in principle
+operate on top of any existing register-based system.
+
+GNU Taler is an official package of the GNU
+project\footnote{\url{https://gnu.org/}}. Our free software implementation is
+freely available from the GNU mirrors.
+
+
+\section{Design Goals for GNU Taler}
+
+The design of payment systems shapes economies and societies
+\cite{zandi2013impact,dalebrant2016monetary}. Payment systems with high
+transaction costs create an economic burden. Predominantly cash-based
+societies provide some degree of anonymity for their citizens, but can fail to
+provide a sound foundation for taxation, facilitate corruption
+\cite{singh2017does} and thus risk creating weak governments. On the other
+hand, systems with too much surveillance eliminate personal freedom.
+
+As the Internet has no standardized payment system, especially not one
+that is capable of quickly, efficiently and securely settling small
+transactions (so-called micropayments), the majority of content on the web is
+financed by advertisements. As a result, advertising (and by
+implication, collecting data on users) has been a dominant business
+model on the Internet. This has not only resulted in a loss of
+independence of publishers---who need to cater to the needs
+of advertisers---but also in a situation where micro-targeted ads
+are so wide-spread, that they have been suspected to have influenced
+multiple major elections~\cite{persily2017election}. Ads are also a
+vector for malware \cite{provos2007ghost}. Due to the prevalence of
+ad blockers, ads are also not guaranteed to be a sustainable business
+model.
+
+In the world of online payments, credit cards and a sprawling number
+of smaller, proprietary payment processors are currently dominant, and
+market shares vary widely between different
+countries~\cite{adyen2016global,paypers2016ecommerce}. The resulting
+fragmentation again increases social costs: online shops can either
+choose to invest in implementing many proprietary protocols, or only
+implement the most popular ones, thereby reinforcing the dominance of
+a handful of proprietary payment systems.
+
+Considering these and other social implications of payment systems, we
+started the development of GNU Taler with a set of high-level design
+goals that fit our social agenda. They are ranked by the importance
+we give to them, and when a trade-off must be made, the one that
+supports the more highly ranked goal is preferred:
+
+% what about micropayments -> part of 'efficient'
+\begin{enumerate}
+ \item \textbf{GNU Taler must be implemented as free software.}
+
+ Free refers to ``free as in free speech'', as opposed to ``free as in free beer''.
+ More specifically, the four essential freedoms of free software
+ \cite{stallman2002essays} must be respected, namely users must have the
+ freedom to (1) run the software, (2) study and modify it, (3) redistribute
+ copies, and (4) distribute copies of the modified version.
+
+ For merchants this prevents vendor lock-in, as another payment provider can
+ take over, should the current one provide inadequate quality of service.
+ As the software of
+ the payment provider itself is free, smaller or disadvantaged countries or
+ organizations can run the payment system without being controlled by a
+ foreign company. Customers benefit from this freedom, as the wallet
+ software can be made to run on a variety of platforms, and user-hostile
+ features such as tracking or telemetry could easily be removed from
+ wallet software.
+
+ This rules out the mandatory usage of specialized
+ hardware such as smart cards or other hardware security modules, as the
+ software they run cannot be modified by the user. These components can,
+ however, be voluntarily used by merchants, customers or payment processors
+ to increase their operational security.
+
+ \item \textbf{GNU Taler must protect the privacy of buyers.}\label{item:privacy}
+
+ Privacy should be guaranteed via technical measures, as opposed to mere
+ policies. Especially with micropayments for online content, a
+ disproportionate amount of rather private data about buyers would be revealed, if
+ the payment system does not have privacy protections.
+
+%Especially if a payment system is to be used for microtransactions for online
+%content, the privacy of buyers becomes important: if micropayments were more
+%commonplace, the transaction data could be used to collect extremely detailled
+%profiles of users. Unfortunately practically no commercially used payment
+%system has strong anonymity guarantees.
+
+ In legislations with data protection regulations (such as the recently introduced GDPR in Europe \cite{voigt2017eu}),
+ merchants benefit from this as well, as no data breach of customers can happen if this information
+ is, by design, not collected in the first place. Obviously some private data, such as the shipping
+ address for a physical delivery, must still be collected according to business needs.
+
+ The security of the payment systems also benefits from this, as the model
+ shifts from authentication of customers to mere authorization of payments.
+ This approach rules out whole classes of attacks such as phishing \cite{garera2007framework} or credit
+ card fraud \cite{sahin2010overview}.
+
+ \item \textbf{GNU Taler must enable the state to tax income and crack down on
+ illegal business activities.}
+
+ % FIXME: provide broader ethical justification!
+ As a payment system must still be legal to operate and use, it must comply
+ with these requirements. Furthermore, we consider levying of taxes as
+ beneficial to society.
+
+ \item \textbf{GNU Taler must prevent payment fraud.}
+
+ This imposes requirements on the security of the system, as well as on the
+ general design, as payment fraud can also happen through misleading user
+ interface design or the lack of cryptographic evidence for certain
+ processes.
+
+ \item \textbf{GNU Taler must only disclose the minimal amount of information
+ necessary.}
+
+ The reason behind this goal is similar to (\ref{item:privacy}). The
+ privacy of buyers is given priority, but other parties such as merchants
+ still benefit from it, for example, by keeping details about the merchant's financials
+ hidden from competitors.
+
+
+ \item \textbf{GNU Taler must be usable.}
+
+ Specifically it must be usable for non-expert customers. Usability also
+ applies to the integration with merchants, and informs choices about the
+ architecture, such as encapsulating procedures that require cryptographic
+ operations into an isolated component with a simple API.
+
+ \item \textbf{GNU Taler must be efficient.}
+
+ % FIXME: provide broader ethical justification (environmental impact,
+ % social cost, opportunity cost of lack of micropayments)
+ Approaches such as proof-of-work are ruled out by this requirement. Efficiency is
+ necessary for GNU Taler to be used for micropayments.
+
+ \item \textbf{GNU Taler must avoid single points of failure.}
+
+ While the design we present later is rather centralized, avoiding single
+ points of failure is still a goal. This manifests in architectural choices such as
+ the isolation of certain components, and auditing procedures.
+
+ \item \textbf{GNU Taler must foster competition.}
+
+ It must be relatively easy for competitors to join the systems. While the
+ barriers for this in traditional financial systems are rather high, the
+ technical burden for new competitors to join must be minimized. Another
+ design choice that supports this is to split the whole system into smaller
+ components that can be operated, developed and improved upon independently,
+ instead of having one completely monolithic system.
+
+\end{enumerate}
+
+
+
+\section{Features of Value-based Payment Systems}\label{sec:intro:features}
+
+There are many different possible features that have been proposed for
+value-based (sometimes called token-based) payment systems in the past. While we
+will discuss existing work on e-cash in more detail in
+Section~\ref{sec:related-work:e-cash}, we will begin by a brief
+summary of the possible features that value-based payment systems
+could provide, and clarify which high-level features we chose to adopt
+for GNU Taler.
+
+% EXPLAIN: in traditional (online) e-cash, spending is never
+% bound to a contract identifier
+
+%\subsubsection*{Different signature schemes and zero-knowledge proofs}
+%Since Chaum's original blind signature scheme based on RSA, many variations
+%using other cryptographic primitives have been developed. Some newer e-cash
+%schemes do not use blind signatures, but rely on zero-knowledge proofs instead.
+%
+%In GNU Taler, we opt for an RSA-based blind signature scheme, due to the low
+%complexity, relatively clear security assumptions and small number of
+%communication rounds compared to other protocols.
+
+\subsection{Offline vs Online Payments}
+
+Anonymous digital cash schemes since Chaum~\cite{chaum1983blind} were frequently designed to allow
+the merchant to be offline during the transaction, by providing a means to
+deanonymize customers involved in double-spending, typically by encoding the
+customer's identity into their coins in a way that makes it only possible to
+decode the identity with two spending transcripts.
+
+This approach is problematic in practice, as customers that restore a wallet
+from backup might accidentally double-spend and would then face punishment for
+it. Enforcing punishment for double-spenders can be rather difficult as well,
+since the double-spender might have signed up with a false identity or might
+already have fled to another country, and a large number of merchants might already
+have been defrauded with the same coins.
+
+Should the issuer of e-cash be compromised, an attacker could issue coins that
+fail to identify a culprit or even blame somebody else when they are
+double-spent. In an offline e-cash system, the detection of such an event is
+greatly delayed compared to systems with online spending, which can immediately
+detect when more coins are spent than were issued.
+
+Thus, in GNU Taler, we decided that all coins must be immediately
+deposited online during a purchase. Only either a merchant or a customer
+needs to be online, since one of the two can forward messages to the
+payment service provider for the other.
+
+\subsection{Change and Divisibility}
+
+Customers do not always have the right set of coins available to exactly cover
+the amount to be paid to a merchant. With physical cash, the store would
+give the customer change. For e-cash, the situation is more complex, as
+the customer would have to make sure that the change has not already been
+spent, does not violate their anonymity and the merchant does not have a
+digital ``copy'' of the change tokens that the merchant can spend before the customer. Note
+that it would be unwise to always withdraw the correct amount of e-cash
+directly before a purchase, as it creates a temporal correlation between the
+non-anonymous withdrawal event and the spending event.
+
+Most modern e-cash schemes instead deal with exact spending by providing
+\emph{divisibility} of coins, where the customer can decide to only spend part
+of a coin. A significant chunk of the e-cash literature has been concerned
+with developing schemes that allow the individual, divided parts of a coin to
+be unlinkable (thus preserving anonymity) and to optimize the storage costs for
+wallets and the communication cost of withdrawals.
+
+The current state of the art for divisible e-cash~\cite{pointcheval2017cut}
+achieves constant-time withdrawal and wallet storage cost for coins that can be
+split into an arbitrary but fixed (as a system parameter) number of pieces. A
+continuous ``chunk'' of the smallest pieces of a coin can be spent with
+constant-time communication complexity.
+
+While this sounds attractive in theory, these results are mostly of academic
+interest, as the storage and/or computational complexity for the party that is
+checking for double spending of coins remains enormous: each smallest piece of
+every coin needs to be recorded and checked individually. When paying
+$\$10.00$ with a coin that supports division into cent pieces, $1000$
+individual coin pieces must be checked for double spending and recorded,
+possibliy in compressed form to trade storage costs for more computation.
+
+For GNU Taler, we use a rather simple and practical approach, made possible by
+requiring participants to be online during spending: coins can be fractionally
+spent without having divisible, unlinkable parts. The remaining value on a coin
+that was spend (and thus revealed) can be used to withdraw fresh, unlinkable
+coins. The protocol to obtain change takes additional measures to ensure that
+it cannot be misused to facilitate untaxed transactions. Giving change for
+e-cash has been proposed before \cite{brickell1995trustee,tracz2001fair}, but
+to the best of our knowledge, the idea of income-transparent change is novel.
+
+\subsection{Anonymity Control}
+
+Some proposed e-cash protocols contain mechanisms to allow selective
+deanonymization of transactions for scenarios involving crime
+\cite{sander1999escrow}, specifically blackmailing and tax evasion.
+
+Unfortunately this does not really work as a countermeasure against
+blackmailing in practice. As noted in the paper that initially described such
+a mechanism for blind signatures \cite{stadler1995fair}, a blackmailer could
+simply request to be paid directly with plain, blindly signed coins, and
+thereby completely circumvent the threat of revocable anonymity.
+
+GNU Taler provides \emph{income transparency} as a measure against tax evasion.
+We furthermore describe a different approach in a blackmailing scenario in
+Section~\ref{sec:design:blackmailing}, which we believe is more practical in
+dissuading blackmailers in practice.
+
+\subsection{User Suspension}
+
+Anonymous user suspension \cite{au2011electronic} has been proposed as
+another mechanism to punish users suspected in illicit activities by
+preventing then from making further transactions until the suspension is
+lifted. Anonymous suspension is based on transactions; the user
+involved in a particular transaction is suspended, but their identity is not
+revealed.
+
+While the approach is interesting, it is not practical, as it requires
+a single permanent key pair to be associated with each user. If a
+user claims they lost their private key and requests a new key pair,
+their suspension would be effectively lifted. Suspending users from a
+dominant payment system is also socially problematic, as excluding
+them from most commercial activities would likely be a
+disproportionate and cruel punishment.
+
+\subsection{Transferability}
+
+Transferability is a feature of certain e-cash systems that allows
+transfer of e-cash between two parties without breaking anonymity
+properties \cite{fuchsbauer2009transferable}. Contemporary systems
+that offer this type of disintermediation attract criminal
+activity~\cite{richet2016extortion}.
+
+GNU Taler specifically provides roughly the \emph{opposite} of this property,
+namely \emph{income transparency}, to guarantee that e-cash is not easily
+abused for tax evasion. Mutually trusting users, however, can share ownership
+of a coin.
+
+\subsection{Atomic Swaps}
+
+Atomic swaps (often called ``fair exchange'' in the e-cash literature) are a
+feature of some e-cash systems that allows e-cash
+to be exchanged against some service or (digital) product, with a trusted third
+party ensuring that the payee receives the payment if and only if they correctly
+provided the merchandise.
+
+GNU Taler supports Camenisch-style atomic swaps~\cite{camenisch2007endorsed},
+as explained in Section~\ref{sec:security:atomic-swaps}.
+
+\subsection{Refunds}
+
+GNU Taler allows merchants to provide refunds to customers during a limited
+time after the coins for the payment were deposited. The merchant signs a
+statement that effectively allows the customer to reclaim a previously spent
+coin. Customers can request anonymous change for the reclaimed amount.
+
+While this is a rather simple extension, we are not aware of any other e-cash
+system that supports refunds.
+
+
+\section{User Experience and Performance} \label{sec:intro:ux}
+
+For adoption of a payment system, the user experience is critical. Thus,
+before diving into {\em how} GNU Taler is implemented, we begin by
+showing how GNU Taler {\em looks} from the perspective of an end user in the
+context of web payments, in a desktop browser (Chromium).
+
+To use GNU Taler, the user must first install a browser extension
+(Figure~\ref{fig:ux:install-prompt}). Once installed, the user can
+open a pop-up window by clicking on the Taler logo, to see the
+initially empty wallet balance (Figure~\ref{fig:ux:installed}).
+
+The customer logs into their online bank---a simple demo bank in our case--to
+withdraw digital cash from their bank account into their wallet (Figures~%
+\ref{fig:ux:bank-login} and~\ref{fig:ux:bank-profile}). Our demo uses
+\textsc{Kudos} as an imaginary currency. Before the user is asked to confirm,
+they are given the option to view details about or change the default exchange
+provider, the GNU Taler payment service provider (Figure~\ref{fig:ux:select-exchange}).
+
+With a real bank, a second factor (such as a mobile TAN) would now be requested
+from the user. Our demo instead asks the user to solve a simple CAPTCHA
+(Figure~\ref{fig:ux:pin-tan}). The amount withdrawn---minus withdrawal
+fees---is now available as e-cash in the wallet (Figure~%
+\ref{fig:ux:withdraw-done}).
+
+The customer can now go to an online shop to spend their digital cash. We've
+implemented a shop that sells single chapters from Richard Stallman's essay
+collection ``Free Software, Free Society'' \cite{stallman2002essays} (Figure~%
+\ref{fig:ux:essay-landing}). The user selects an essay, and is then
+immediately presented with a confirmation page rendered by the wallet (Figure~\ref{fig:ux:essay-pay}).
+After paying, the user can immediately read the article (Figure~\ref{fig:ux:essay-done}).
+
+Our benchmarks, discussed in Chapter \ref{chapter:implementation} show that a
+single machine can support around 1000 payments per second, and our
+implementation is easily amenable to further scaling.
+
+The extra computation required in the customer's wallet is in the order of a
+few hundred milliseconds even on typical mobile or tablet devices, and thus
+barely noticeable.
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centering
+\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{taler-screenshots/wallet-install-prompt.png}
+\caption{The user is prompted to install the wallet.}
+\label{fig:ux:install-prompt}
+\end{figure}
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centering
+\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{taler-screenshots/wallet-installed.png}
+\caption{The wallet popup shows an empty balance.}
+\label{fig:ux:installed}
+\end{figure}
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centering
+\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{taler-screenshots/bank-login.png}
+\caption{The bank asks for login details.}
+\label{fig:ux:bank-login}
+\end{figure}
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centering
+\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{taler-screenshots/bank-profile.png}
+\caption{Account page of the demo bank.}
+\label{fig:ux:bank-profile}
+\end{figure}
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centering
+\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{taler-screenshots/withdraw-confirm.png}
+\caption{Exchange selection dialog in the wallet.}
+\label{fig:ux:select-exchange}
+\end{figure}
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centering
+\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{taler-screenshots/pin-tan.png}
+\caption{PIN/TAN dialog of the demo bank.}
+\label{fig:ux:pin-tan}
+\end{figure}
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centering
+\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{taler-screenshots/withdraw-done.png}
+\caption{After a successful withdrawal, the balance is shown in the wallet.}
+\label{fig:ux:withdraw-done}
+\end{figure}
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centering
+\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{taler-screenshots/essay-landing.png}
+\caption{Landing page of a store that sells essays.}
+\label{fig:ux:essay-landing}
+\end{figure}
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centering
+\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{taler-screenshots/essay-pay.png}
+\caption[Payment prompt for an essay.]{Payment prompt for an essay. Rendered by the wallet.}
+\label{fig:ux:essay-pay}
+\end{figure}
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centering
+\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{taler-screenshots/essay-done.png}
+\caption{Essay successfully purchased by the user.}
+\label{fig:ux:essay-done}
+\end{figure}
+
+%\begin{figure}
+%\begin{subfigure}{.5\textwidth}
+% \centering
+% \includegraphics[width=.8\linewidth]{taler-screenshots/wallet-installed.png}
+% \caption{1a}
+% \label{fig:sfig1}
+%\end{subfigure}%
+%\begin{subfigure}{.5\textwidth}
+% \centering
+% \includegraphics[width=.8\linewidth]{taler-screenshots/bank-login.png}
+% \caption{1b}
+% \label{fig:sfig2}
+%\end{subfigure}
+%\caption{plots of....}
+%\label{fig:fig}
+%\end{figure}
+
+% FIXME: perf results
+
+\section{The Technical Foundation: Anonymous E-Cash} \label{sec:intro:ecash}
+GNU Taler is based on anonymous e-cash. Anonymous e-cash was invented by David
+Chaum in the 1980s \cite{chaum1983blind}. The idea behind Chaumian e-cash is
+both simple and ingenious, and can be best illustrated
+with the carbon paper\footnote{%
+ Carbon paper is a paper coated with pigment (originally carbon) on one side.
+ When put face-down between two sheets of normal paper, the pressure from
+ writing with a pen or typewriter on the first layer causes pigment to be
+ deposited on the paper beneath, allowing a copy to be made.
+} analogy: A long, random serial number is generated, for example, by throwing
+a die a few dozen times, and written on a piece of paper. A carbon paper is
+placed on top, with the pigmented side facing down, and both pieces of paper
+are put into an opaque envelope. The envelope is now sealed and brought to a
+bank. The bank draws a signature on the outside of the envelope, which presses
+through to the piece of paper with the serial number. In exchange for the
+signed envelope, the bank deducts a fixed amount (say five dollars) from the
+customer's bank account. Under the (admittedly rather strong) assumption that
+the bank's signature cannot be forged, the signed piece of paper with the serial
+number is now an untraceable bank note worth five dollars, as the bank signed
+it without seeing the serial number inside the envelope! Since the signed
+paper can be easily copied, merchants that accept it as payment must check the
+bank's signature, call the bank and transmit the serial number. The bank keeps
+a register of all serial numbers that have been used as payment before. If the
+serial number is already in the bank's register, the bank informs the merchant
+about the attempted double spending, and the merchant then rejects the payment.
+
+The digital analogue of this process is called a \emph{blind signature}, where
+the signer knows that it gave a digital signature, but does not know the
+contents of the message that it signed.
+
+In this document, we use \emph{coin} to refer to a token of value in an e-cash
+system. Note that the analogy of a coin does not always hold up, as certain
+types of operations possible in some e-cash schemes, such as partial spending,
+divisibility, etc., do not transfer to physical coins.
+
+
+%\subsection{Security Properties}\label{sec:intro:security}
+
+We have the following security and correctness properties for GNU Taler
+(formally defined in Chapter~\ref{chapter:security}):
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item \emph{Anonymity} guarantees that transactions cannot be correlated with withdrawals or
+ other transactions made by the same customer.
+ \item \emph{Unforgeability} guarantees that users cannot spend more e-cash than they withdrew.
+ \item \emph{Conservation} guarantees that customers do not lose money due to
+ interrupted protocols or malicious merchants; they can always obtain
+ anonymous change or a proof of successful spending.
+ \item \emph{Income transparency} guarantees that mutually distrusting parties
+ are unable to reliably transfer e-cash between them without the income of
+ participants being visible to tax auditors.
+\end{itemize}
+
+While anonymity and unforgeability are common properties of e-cash, we are not
+aware of any other treatments of income transparency and conservation.
+
+
+\section{Roadmap}
+
+Chapter \ref{chapter:design} describes the high-level design of GNU Taler, and
+compares it to payment systems found in the academic literature and real-world
+usage. Chapter \ref{chapter:security} first gives a gentle introduction to
+provable security (which can be skipped by readers with a background in
+cryptography), and then defines security properties for income-transparent,
+anonymous e-cash. The cryptographic protocols for GNU Taler are defined in
+detail, and proofs are given that our protocols satisfy the security
+properties defined earlier. In Chapter \ref{chapter:implementation}, the
+implementation of GNU Taler is described, and the performance and scalability
+is evaluated. Chapter \ref{chapter:future-work} discusses future work and
+missing pieces to deploy GNU Taler in production. Chapter
+\ref{chapter:conclusion} concludes with an outlook on the potential impact and
+practical relevance of this work.
+
diff --git a/doc/system/plots/dbsize.sql b/doc/system/plots/dbsize.sql
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..4f4b2388
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/plots/dbsize.sql
@@ -0,0 +1,12 @@
+create temporary view sizes as
+ select table_name as n,
+ pg_relation_size(quote_ident(table_name)) / 1024.0 / 1024.0 as s_tbl,
+ pg_indexes_size(quote_ident(table_name)) / 1024.0 / 1024.0 as s_idx
+ from information_schema.tables
+ where table_schema = 'public';
+
+
+select n, s_tbl, s_idx, s_tbl + s_idx from sizes where (s_tbl) != 0
+order by (s_tbl + s_idx);
+
+select sum(s_tbl), sum(s_idx), sum(s_tbl + s_idx) from sizes where s_tbl != 0;
diff --git a/doc/system/plots/eval-basic.bash b/doc/system/plots/eval-basic.bash
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..22888be8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/plots/eval-basic.bash
@@ -0,0 +1,20 @@
+#/usr/bin/env bash
+
+for x in 1 $(seq 10 10 190) $(seq 200 100 2000); do
+ cat results/stats-$x/stats/taler-exchange-* | awk -v n=$x '{ print n, int(($3 + $5) / 96) }'
+done | sort -n > plots/time_exchange_cpu.data
+
+tail results/stats-*/benchmark.log | awk '/RAW/ { printf "%d %d\n", $4, $5 }' | sort -n > plots/time_real.data
+
+tail results/stats-*/benchmark.log | awk '/RAW/ { printf "%d %f\n", $4, (($4 * 1000)/($5/1000/1000)) }' | sort -n > plots/speed.data
+
+for x in 1 $(seq 10 10 190) $(seq 200 100 2000); do
+ tail results/stats-$x/benchmark.log | awk -v n=$x '/cpu time/ { print n, int(($4 + $6) / 96) }'
+done | sort -n > plots/time_bench_cpu.data
+
+
+for x in 1 $(seq 10 10 190) $(seq 200 100 2000); do
+ awk -f ~/code/gnunet/contrib/benchmark/collect.awk baseline.txt results/stats-$x/stats/gnunet-benchmark-ops-thread* \
+ | grep total_ops_adjusted_ms \
+ | awk -v n=$x '{ print n, int($2 / 96) }'
+done | sort -n > plots/time_bench_ops_only.data
diff --git a/doc/system/plots/eval-latency.bash b/doc/system/plots/eval-latency.bash
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..684f36b7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/plots/eval-latency.bash
@@ -0,0 +1,35 @@
+#/usr/bin/env bash
+
+set -eu
+
+mkdir -p plots
+
+do_eval() {
+ e=$1
+ out=$2
+ for x in 0 50 100 150 200; do
+ awk -f ~/repos/gnunet/contrib/benchmark/collect.awk results/latency-$x/stats/gnunet-benchmark-urls-*.txt \
+ | fgrep "$1" | fgrep "status 200" | awk -v x=$x '{ print x, $10/1000 }'
+ done | sort -n > plots/latency-$out.data
+}
+
+
+awk -f ~/repos/gnunet/contrib/benchmark/collect.awk results/latency-0/stats/gnunet-benchmark-urls-*.txt \
+ | fgrep "status 200" | awk '{ print $2, $10/1000 }' > plots/latency-summary-0.data
+
+awk -f ~/repos/gnunet/contrib/benchmark/collect.awk results/latency-100/stats/gnunet-benchmark-urls-*.txt \
+ | fgrep "status 200" | awk '{ print $2, $10/1000 }' > plots/latency-summary-100.data
+
+do_eval '/refresh/melt' 'refresh-melt'
+do_eval '/refresh/reveal' 'refresh-reveal'
+do_eval '/deposit' 'deposit'
+do_eval '/reserve/withdraw' 'withdraw'
+do_eval '/keys' 'keys'
+
+awk -f ~/repos/gnunet/contrib/benchmark/collect.awk results/latency-*/stats/gnunet-benchmark-urls-*.txt \
+ | fgrep "status 200" | awk '{ print $2, $16/1000 }' \
+ > plots/req-sent.data
+
+awk -f ~/repos/gnunet/contrib/benchmark/collect.awk results/latency-*/stats/gnunet-benchmark-urls-*.txt \
+ | fgrep "status 200" | awk '{ print $2, $18/1000 }' \
+ > plots/req-received.data
diff --git a/doc/system/plots/latency-deposit.data b/doc/system/plots/latency-deposit.data
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..b53b3f66
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/plots/latency-deposit.data
@@ -0,0 +1,5 @@
+0 22.3593
+50 122.833
+100 223.217
+150 323.787
+200 424.537
diff --git a/doc/system/plots/latency-keys.data b/doc/system/plots/latency-keys.data
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..028a4ff9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/plots/latency-keys.data
@@ -0,0 +1,5 @@
+0 1.139
+50 101.446
+100 201.251
+150 301.335
+200 401.399
diff --git a/doc/system/plots/latency-refresh-melt.data b/doc/system/plots/latency-refresh-melt.data
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..991464a8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/plots/latency-refresh-melt.data
@@ -0,0 +1,5 @@
+0 20.7065
+50 121.796
+100 223.9
+150 323.459
+200 422.474
diff --git a/doc/system/plots/latency-refresh-reveal.data b/doc/system/plots/latency-refresh-reveal.data
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..989c611f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/plots/latency-refresh-reveal.data
@@ -0,0 +1,5 @@
+0 63.6377
+50 264.969
+100 466.303
+150 665.626
+200 862.193
diff --git a/doc/system/plots/latency-withdraw.data b/doc/system/plots/latency-withdraw.data
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..5f258090
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/plots/latency-withdraw.data
@@ -0,0 +1,5 @@
+0 22.675
+50 123.066
+100 222.458
+150 322.701
+200 423.749
diff --git a/doc/system/plots/plot.gnu b/doc/system/plots/plot.gnu
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..120db278
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/plots/plot.gnu
@@ -0,0 +1,35 @@
+set terminal pdf monochrome
+
+set nokey
+set output 'speed.pdf'
+set ylabel "coins per second"
+set xlabel "parallel clients"
+plot "speed.data" with lines lw 1
+
+set key top left Left reverse
+set output 'cpu.pdf'
+set ylabel "CPU time (us)"
+set xlabel "parallel clients"
+plot "time_real.data" with lines lw 1 title "wall clock", \
+ "time_bench_cpu.data" with lines lw 1 title "benchmark CPU / 96", \
+ "time_exchange_cpu.data" with lines lw 1 title "exchange CPU / 96", \
+ "time_bench_ops_only.data" with lines lw 1 title "exchange crypto / 96"
+set nokey
+
+
+set output 'latencies.pdf'
+set multiplot layout 2, 3
+set xlabel "delay" font ",10"
+set ylabel "latency" font ",10"
+set xtics font ",10"
+set ytics font ",10"
+set title "/refresh/melt"
+plot "latency-refresh-melt.data" with lines lw 1
+set title "/refresh/reveal"
+plot "latency-refresh-reveal.data" with lines lw 1
+set title "/keys"
+plot "latency-keys.data" with lines lw 1
+set title "/reserve/withdraw"
+plot "latency-withdraw.data" with lines lw 1
+set title "/deposit"
+plot "latency-deposit.data" with lines lw 1
diff --git a/doc/system/plots/run-latency.bash b/doc/system/plots/run-latency.bash
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..77b375db
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/plots/run-latency.bash
@@ -0,0 +1,44 @@
+#/usr/bin/env bash
+
+# This is intended to be run with SSH agent forwarding,
+# so we can log in as root to adjust artificial delay.
+
+set -eu
+
+which taler-exchange-benchmark
+
+# check that we can log in at least!
+ssh root@gv.taler.net true
+ssh root@firefly.gnunet.org true
+
+ssh root@gv.taler.net tc qdisc delete dev enp4s0f0 root || true
+ssh root@firefly.gnunet.org tc qdisc delete dev eno2 root || true
+
+ssh root@gv.taler.net "echo 3 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_fastopen"
+ssh root@firefly.gnunet.org "echo 3 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_fastopen"
+
+# warm up TCP fast open cookies
+taler-exchange-benchmark -c benchmark-remote-gv.conf -m client -p 1 -n 5 >> benchmark-latency.log 2>&1
+
+export GNUNET_BENCHMARK_DIR=$(readlink -f ./stats)
+
+for x in 0 50 100 150 200; do
+ echo running with one-sided delay of $x
+ result_dir="results/latency-$x"
+ if [[ -d "$result_dir" ]]; then
+ echo "skipping because results exist"
+ continue
+ fi
+
+ ssh root@gv.taler.net tc qdisc add dev enp4s0f0 root netem delay "${x}ms"
+ ssh root@firefly.gnunet.org tc qdisc add dev eno2 root netem delay "${x}ms"
+
+ rm -rf stats
+ taler-exchange-benchmark -c benchmark-remote-gv.conf -m client -p 1 -n 200 >> benchmark-latency.log 2>&1
+ echo "### Finished latency run for ${x}ms" >> benchmark-latency.log
+ mkdir -p "$result_dir"
+ cp -a stats "$result_dir/"
+
+ ssh root@gv.taler.net tc qdisc delete dev enp4s0f0 root
+ ssh root@firefly.gnunet.org tc qdisc delete dev eno2 root
+done
diff --git a/doc/system/plots/run.bash b/doc/system/plots/run.bash
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..d11f5f32
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/plots/run.bash
@@ -0,0 +1,10 @@
+#/usr/bin/env bash
+
+for x in $(seq 10 10 190) $(seq 200 100 2000); do
+ echo running with $x clients
+ rm -rf stats
+ taler-exchange-benchmark -c benchmark-local.conf -p $x -n 1000 >& /dev/shm/benchmark.log
+ mkdir -p "results/stats-$x"
+ cp -a stats "results/stats-$x"/
+ cp /dev/shm/benchmark.log "results/stats-$x/"
+done
diff --git a/doc/system/plots/set-latency.bash b/doc/system/plots/set-latency.bash
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..793d46c2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/plots/set-latency.bash
@@ -0,0 +1,19 @@
+#/usr/bin/env bash
+
+# This is intended to be run with SSH agent forwarding,
+# so we can log in as root to adjust artificial delay.
+
+set -eu
+
+echo "setting latency to $1"
+
+# check that we can log in at least!
+ssh root@gv.taler.net true
+ssh root@firefly.gnunet.org true
+
+ssh root@gv.taler.net tc qdisc delete dev enp4s0f0 root || true
+ssh root@firefly.gnunet.org tc qdisc delete dev eno2 root || true
+
+ssh root@gv.taler.net tc qdisc add dev enp4s0f0 root netem delay "${1}ms"
+ssh root@firefly.gnunet.org tc qdisc add dev eno2 root netem delay "${1}ms"
+
diff --git a/doc/system/plots/speed.data b/doc/system/plots/speed.data
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..5690b84e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/plots/speed.data
@@ -0,0 +1,37 @@
+1 1.104439
+10 92.290911
+20 180.087087
+30 255.700284
+40 344.687076
+50 438.485028
+60 515.618333
+70 568.431831
+80 639.706303
+100 673.724088
+110 676.973144
+120 671.559308
+130 694.295694
+140 664.765652
+150 638.751296
+160 673.683504
+170 674.329287
+180 669.691392
+190 638.637718
+200 699.212198
+300 675.841986
+400 656.455187
+500 714.911636
+600 738.661570
+700 699.990279
+800 708.218566
+1000 735.599016
+1100 700.423479
+1200 687.508367
+1300 696.931102
+1400 698.255900
+1500 696.575458
+1600 737.278906
+1700 718.587847
+1800 691.539112
+1900 736.039940
+2000 742.994853
diff --git a/doc/system/plots/time_bench_cpu.data b/doc/system/plots/time_bench_cpu.data
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..7cfeb813
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/plots/time_bench_cpu.data
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+1 9801666
+10 11386875
+20 23130250
+30 36564875
+40 47727458
+50 58359958
+60 70447500
+70 84446916
+80 93801750
+90 106124375
+100 119029750
+110 129536541
+120 147174791
+130 154257625
+140 174573916
+150 192325541
+160 194480625
+170 206233000
+180 214591541
+190 239929750
+200 236358375
+300 348233916
+400 495046791
+500 579896000
+600 689094875
+700 830684375
+800 957190833
+900 1058149291
+1000 1154518791
+1100 1325087916
+1200 1502792333
+1300 1610584958
+1400 1712165458
+1500 1838840458
+1600 1881089500
+1700 2023251583
+1800 2209685583
+1900 2241094458
+2000 2351564083
diff --git a/doc/system/plots/time_bench_ops_only.data b/doc/system/plots/time_bench_ops_only.data
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..558fd5bc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/plots/time_bench_ops_only.data
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+1 2509331
+10 2564859
+20 5002341
+30 7865777
+40 10073982
+50 12128759
+60 14693754
+70 17792025
+80 19538636
+90 21980148
+100 24423023
+110 26545671
+120 30144030
+130 31522690
+140 35732386
+150 39585595
+160 39812006
+170 42203541
+180 44053474
+190 49793400
+200 48356499
+300 74601183
+400 105393510
+500 123044026
+600 145506335
+700 176345850
+800 200698466
+900 221478860
+1000 239238872
+1100 276518348
+1200 321194002
+1300 340475242
+1400 360182556
+1500 387822458
+1600 393044377
+1700 428264745
+1800 469067124
+1900 469026116
+2000 486510753
diff --git a/doc/system/plots/time_exchange_cpu.data b/doc/system/plots/time_exchange_cpu.data
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..13792912
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/plots/time_exchange_cpu.data
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+1 4769125
+10 4958166
+20 9639333
+30 14984541
+40 19394166
+50 23851208
+60 28914708
+70 34698375
+80 38456250
+90 43448500
+100 48580291
+110 52942000
+120 59859458
+130 62778708
+140 70788500
+150 78093250
+160 78634750
+170 83169416
+180 86460000
+190 96958916
+200 94814958
+300 138324083
+400 194283541
+500 227209291
+600 267426291
+700 322986833
+800 368918208
+900 406839708
+1000 440552708
+1100 518428416
+1200 591421708
+1300 631228208
+1400 663142625
+1500 713897625
+1600 726439583
+1700 783727750
+1800 858787125
+1900 863532291
+2000 895376500
diff --git a/doc/system/plots/time_real.data b/doc/system/plots/time_real.data
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..7f518b73
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/plots/time_real.data
@@ -0,0 +1,40 @@
+0 0
+1 905437353
+10 108353032
+20 111057380
+30 117324860
+40 116047287
+50 114028979
+60 116365141
+70 123145813
+80 125057389
+90 136314756
+100 148428714
+110 162487982
+120 178688611
+130 187240107
+140 210600532
+150 234833183
+160 237500249
+170 252102353
+180 268780519
+190 297508266
+200 286036200
+300 443890741
+400 609333292
+500 699387134
+600 812279973
+700 1000013888
+800 1129594787
+900 1251266347
+1000 1359436294
+1100 1570478479
+1200 1745433303
+1300 1865320684
+1400 2004995589
+1500 2153391973
+1600 2170142109
+1700 2365751116
+1800 2602889653
+1900 2581381658
+2000 2691808686
diff --git a/doc/system/ref.bib b/doc/system/ref.bib
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..4757ea71
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/ref.bib
@@ -0,0 +1,2825 @@
+@inproceedings{clement2009making,
+ author = {Clement, Allen and Wong, Edmund and Alvisi, Lorenzo and Dahlin, Mike and Marchetti, Mirco},
+ title = {Making Byzantine Fault Tolerant Systems Tolerate Byzantine Faults},
+ booktitle = {Proceedings of the 6th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation},
+ series = {NSDI'09},
+ year = {2009},
+ location = {Boston, Massachusetts},
+ pages = {153--168},
+ numpages = {16},
+ url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1558977.1558988},
+ acmid = {1558988},
+ publisher = {USENIX Association},
+ address = {Berkeley, CA, USA},
+}
+
+@article{fischer1985impossibility,
+ title={Impossibility of distributed consensus with one faulty process},
+ author={Fischer, Michael J and Lynch, Nancy A and Paterson, Michael S},
+ journal={Journal of the ACM (JACM)},
+ volume={32},
+ number={2},
+ pages={374--382},
+ year={1985},
+ publisher={ACM}
+}
+
+@Misc{cosmos,
+ author = {Jae Kwon and Ethan Buchman},
+ title = {Cosmos: A Network of Distributed Ledgers},
+ howpublished = {\url{https://cosmos.network/whitepaper}},
+ year = {2016},
+ note = {Accessed 22 Feb 2017},
+}
+
+@InProceedings{gns2014wachs,
+ author = {Wachs, Matthias and Schanzenbach, Martin and Grothoff, Christian},
+ title = {A Censorship-Resistant, Privacy-Enhancing and Fully Decentralized Name System},
+ booktitle = {Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Cryptology and Network Security - Volume 8813},
+ year = {2014},
+ isbn = {978-3-319-12279-3},
+ pages = {127--142},
+ numpages = {16},
+ url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-12280-9_9},
+ doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-12280-9_9},
+ acmid = {2769431},
+ publisher = {Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.},
+ address = {New York, NY, USA},
+}
+
+
+@Misc{gnunet-www,
+ label = "GNUNET",
+ title = "{The GNUnet Project}",
+ howpublished = {\url{https://gnunet.org/}},
+ note = {Accessed 28 Feb 2017},
+}
+
+@Misc{gnunet-git,
+ title = "{The GNUnet Project Git Repository}",
+ howpublished = {\url{git://gnunet.org/git/gnunet}},
+ note = {Accessed 28 Feb 2017},
+}
+
+@article{ben2010simple,
+ title={Simple gradecast based algorithms},
+ author={Ben-Or, Michael and Dolev, Danny and Hoch, Ezra N},
+ journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:1007.1049},
+ year={2010}
+}
+
+
+@incollection{ben2010brief,
+ title={Brief announcement: simple gradecast based algorithms},
+ author={Ben-Or, Michael and Dolev, Danny and Hoch, Ezra N},
+ booktitle={Distributed Computing},
+ pages={194--197},
+ year={2010},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+
+@phdthesis{feldman1988optimalphd,
+ title={Optimal algorithms for Byzantine agreement},
+ author={Feldman, Paul Neil},
+ year={1988},
+ school={Massachusetts Institute of Technology}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{feldman1988optimal,
+ author = {Feldman, Paul and Micali, Silvio},
+ title = {Optimal Algorithms for Byzantine Agreement},
+ booktitle = {Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing},
+ series = {STOC '88},
+ year = {1988},
+ isbn = {0-89791-264-0},
+ location = {Chicago, Illinois, USA},
+ pages = {148--161},
+ numpages = {14},
+ url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/62212.62225},
+ doi = {10.1145/62212.62225},
+ acmid = {62225},
+ publisher = {ACM},
+ address = {New York, NY, USA},
+}
+
+
+@article{eppstein2011difference,
+ author = {Eppstein, David and Goodrich, Michael T. and Uyeda, Frank and Varghese, George},
+ title = {What's the Difference?: Efficient Set Reconciliation Without Prior Context},
+ journal = {SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev.},
+ issue_date = {August 2011},
+ volume = {41},
+ number = {4},
+ month = {8},
+ year = {2011},
+ issn = {0146-4833},
+ pages = {218--229},
+ numpages = {12},
+ url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2043164.2018462},
+ doi = {10.1145/2043164.2018462},
+ acmid = {2018462},
+ publisher = {ACM},
+ address = {New York, NY, USA},
+ keywords = {difference digest, invertible bloom filter, set difference},
+}
+
+
+@article{dwork1988consensus,
+ title={Consensus in the presence of partial synchrony},
+ author={Dwork, Cynthia and Lynch, Nancy and Stockmeyer, Larry},
+ journal={Journal of the ACM (JACM)},
+ volume={35},
+ number={2},
+ pages={288--323},
+ year={1988},
+ publisher={ACM}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{fitzi2006optimally,
+ author = {Fitzi, Matthias and Hirt, Martin},
+ title = {Optimally Efficient Multi-valued Byzantine Agreement},
+ booktitle = {Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing},
+ series = {PODC '06},
+ year = {2006},
+ isbn = {1-59593-384-0},
+ location = {Denver, Colorado, USA},
+ pages = {163--168},
+ numpages = {6},
+ url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1146381.1146407},
+ doi = {10.1145/1146381.1146407},
+ acmid = {1146407},
+ publisher = {ACM},
+ address = {New York, NY, USA},
+ keywords = {byzantine agreement, communication complexity, cryptographic security, information-theoretic security},
+}
+
+
+% Problem: Really, really complex and not that efficient.
+@inproceedings{abraham2008almost,
+ title={An almost-surely terminating polynomial protocol for asynchronous byzantine agreement with optimal resilience},
+ author={Abraham, Ittai and Dolev, Danny and Halpern, Joseph Y},
+ booktitle={Proceedings of the twenty-seventh ACM symposium on Principles of distributed computing},
+ pages={405--414},
+ year={2008},
+ organization={ACM}
+}
+
+
+% Followup tp abraham2008almost
+% Problem: Requires some nasty hardware trusted
+% computing stuff?
+@incollection{abraham2010fast,
+ title={Fast asynchronous consensus with optimal resilience},
+ author={Abraham, Ittai and Aguilera, Marcos K and Malkhi, Dahlia},
+ booktitle={Distributed Computing},
+ pages={4--19},
+ year={2010},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+
+% Really nice summary of complexity bounds
+% and approaches to asynchrony
+@techreport{dutta2005best,
+ title={Best-case complexity of asynchronous Byzantine consensus},
+ author={Dutta, Partha and Guerraoui, Rachid and Vukolic, Marko},
+ year={2005},
+ institution={Technical Report EPFL/IC/200499, EPFL}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{castro1999practical,
+ author = {Miguel Castro and Barbara Liskov},
+ title = {Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance},
+ booktitle = {Third Symposium on Operating Systems Design and
+ Implementation (OSDI)},
+ publisher = {USENIX Association, Co-sponsored by IEEE TCOS and ACM SIGOPS},
+ address = {New Orleans, Louisiana},
+ month = {2},
+ volume={99},
+ pages={173--186},
+ year = {1999}
+}
+
+
+@article{cramer1997secure,
+ title={A secure and optimally efficient multi-authority election scheme},
+ author={Cramer, Ronald and Gennaro, Rosario and Schoenmakers, Berry},
+ journal={European transactions on Telecommunications},
+ volume={8},
+ number={5},
+ pages={481--490},
+ year={1997},
+ publisher={Wiley Online Library}
+}
+
+
+@article{castro2002practical,
+ title={Practical Byzantine fault tolerance and proactive recovery},
+ author={Castro, Miguel and Liskov, Barbara},
+ journal={ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS)},
+ volume={20},
+ number={4},
+ pages={398--461},
+ year={2002},
+ publisher={ACM}
+}
+
+
+@article{lamport1982byzantine,
+ title={The Byzantine generals problem},
+ author={Lamport, Leslie and Shostak, Robert and Pease, Marshall},
+ journal={ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS)},
+ volume={4},
+ number={3},
+ pages={382--401},
+ year={1982},
+ publisher={ACM}
+}
+
+
+
+@article{schneider1990implementing,
+ title={Implementing fault-tolerant services using the state machine approach: A tutorial},
+ author={Schneider, Fred B},
+ journal={ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR)},
+ volume={22},
+ number={4},
+ pages={299--319},
+ year={1990},
+ publisher={ACM}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{ongaro2014search,
+ title={In search of an understandable consensus algorithm},
+ author={Ongaro, Diego and Ousterhout, John},
+ booktitle={Proc. USENIX Annual Technical Conference},
+ pages={305--320},
+ year={2014}
+}
+
+
+
+% Very important, highlights the
+% consensus part of Paxos/PBFT
+@incollection{lampson1996build,
+ title={How to build a highly available system using consensus},
+ author={Lampson, Butler W},
+ booktitle={Distributed Algorithms},
+ pages={1--17},
+ year={1996},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+
+@article{van2014vive,
+ title={Vive la diff{\'e}rence: Paxos vs. Viewstamped Replication vs. Zab},
+ author={Van Renesse, Robbert and Schiper, Nicolas and Schneider, Fred B},
+ year={2014},
+ publisher={IEEE}
+}
+
+
+
+% Problem: Very complex assumptions
+% Cachin seems much more practical, even if he uses signatures.
+@article{kapron2010fast,
+ author = {Kapron, Bruce M. and Kempe, David and King, Valerie and Saia, Jared and Sanwalani, Vishal},
+ title = {Fast Asynchronous Byzantine Agreement and Leader Election with Full Information},
+ journal = {ACM Trans. Algorithms},
+ issue_date = {August 2010},
+ volume = {6},
+ number = {4},
+ month = {9},
+ year = {2010},
+ issn = {1549-6325},
+ pages = {68:1--68:28},
+ articleno = {68},
+ numpages = {28},
+ url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1824777.1824788},
+ doi = {10.1145/1824777.1824788},
+ acmid = {1824788},
+ publisher = {ACM},
+ address = {New York, NY, USA},
+ keywords = {Byzantine agreement, Monte Carlo algorithms, asynchronous communication, distributed algorithms, probabilistic method},
+}
+
+
+% Nice for future work section,
+% could be applied to consensus
+@article{mitzenmacher2013simple,
+ title={Simple Multi-Party Set Reconciliation},
+ author={Mitzenmacher, Michael and Pagh, Rasmus},
+ journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:1311.2037},
+ year={2013}
+}
+
+
+% Has great arguments for (against!) the complexity
+% of the state machine approach.
+@article{aublin2015next,
+ author = {Aublin, Pierre-Louis and Guerraoui, Rachid and Kne\v{z}evi\'{c}, Nikola and Qu{\'e}ma, Vivien and Vukoli\'{c}, Marko},
+ title = {The Next 700 BFT Protocols},
+ journal = {ACM Trans. Comput. Syst.},
+ issue_date = {January 2015},
+ volume = {32},
+ number = {4},
+ month = {1},
+ year = {2015},
+ issn = {0734-2071},
+ pages = {12:1--12:45},
+ articleno = {12},
+ numpages = {45},
+ url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2658994},
+ doi = {10.1145/2658994},
+ acmid = {2658994},
+ publisher = {ACM},
+ address = {New York, NY, USA},
+ keywords = {Abstract, Byzantine, composability, fault tolerance, optimization, robustness},
+}
+
+
+% Good complexity comparison
+% for async case
+@inproceedings{mostefaoui2014signature,
+ author = {Mostefaoui, Achour and Moumen, Hamouma and Raynal, Michel},
+ title = {Signature-free Asynchronous Byzantine Consensus with {$t < n/3$} and {$O(n^2)$} Messages},
+ booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2014 ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing},
+ series = {PODC '14},
+ year = {2014},
+ isbn = {978-1-4503-2944-6},
+ location = {Paris, France},
+ pages = {2--9},
+ numpages = {8},
+ url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2611462.2611468},
+ doi = {10.1145/2611462.2611468},
+ acmid = {2611468},
+ publisher = {ACM},
+ address = {New York, NY, USA},
+ keywords = {abstraction, asynchronous message-passing system, broadcast abstraction, byzantine process, common coin, consensus, distributed algorithm, optimal resilience, randomized algorithm, signature-free algorithm, simplicity},
+}
+
+
+% Failure detectors, overview
+@inbook{guerraoui2000consensus,
+ author="Guerraoui, Rachid
+ and Hurfinn, Michel
+ and Mostefaoui, Achour
+ and Oliveira, Riucarlos
+ and Raynal, Michel
+ and Schiper, Andre",
+ editor="Krakowiak, Sacha
+ and Shrivastava, Santosh",
+ title="Consensus in Asynchronous Distributed Systems: A Concise Guided Tour",
+ bookTitle="Advances in Distributed Systems: Advanced Distributed Computing: From Algorithms to Systems",
+ year="2000",
+ publisher="Springer Berlin Heidelberg",
+ address="Berlin, Heidelberg",
+ pages="33--47",
+ abstract="It is now recognized that the Consensus problem is a fundamental problem when one has to design and implement reliable asynchronous distributed systems. This chapter is on the Consensus problem. It studies Consensus in two failure models, namely, the Crash/no Recovery model and the Crash/Recovery model. The assumptions related to the detection of failures that are required to solve Consensus in a given model are particularly emphasized.",
+ isbn="978-3-540-46475-4",
+ doi="10.1007/3-540-46475-1_2",
+ url="https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-46475-1_2"
+}
+
+
+% Good future work to implement this?
+@article{bouzidminimal,
+ title={Minimal Synchrony for Asynchronous Byzantine Consensus},
+ year={2015},
+ author={Bouzid, Zohir and Mostefaoui, Achour and Raynal, Michel},
+ publisher={Collection des Publications Internes de l'Irisa}
+}
+
+
+@incollection{lamport2011brief,
+ title={Brief announcement: leaderless byzantine paxos},
+ author={Lamport, Leslie},
+ booktitle={Distributed Computing},
+ pages={141--142},
+ year={2011},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+
+
+
+
+% Mention that we don't need early
+% stopping in voting (because of of fairness? property)
+@article{dolev1990early,
+ author = {Dolev, Danny and Reischuk, Ruediger and Strong, H. Raymond},
+ title = {Early Stopping in Byzantine Agreement},
+ journal = {J. ACM},
+ issue_date = {Oct. 1990},
+ volume = {37},
+ number = {4},
+ month = {10},
+ year = {1990},
+ issn = {0004-5411},
+ pages = {720--741},
+ numpages = {22},
+ url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/96559.96565},
+ doi = {10.1145/96559.96565},
+ acmid = {96565},
+ publisher = {ACM},
+ address = {New York, NY, USA},
+}
+
+
+% seminal
+@article{lamport1998part,
+ title={The part-time parliament},
+ author={Lamport, Leslie},
+ journal={ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS)},
+ volume={16},
+ number={2},
+ pages={133--169},
+ year={1998},
+ publisher={ACM}
+}
+
+
+% follow-up to seminal paper
+@article{lamport2001paxos,
+ title={Paxos made simple},
+ author={Lamport, Leslie},
+ journal={ACM Sigact News},
+ volume={32},
+ number={4},
+ pages={18--25},
+ year={2001}
+}
+
+
+% Important since it mentions other approaches
+% to the bulletin board stuff.
+@mastersthesis{peters2005secure,
+ type={Master's Thesis},
+ title={A Secure Bulletin Board},
+ author={Peters, RA},
+ school={Technische Universiteit Eindhoven},
+ year={2005}
+}
+
+@Mastersthesis{dold2014crypto,
+ author={Dold, Florian},
+ school={Technische Universit\"at M\"unchen},
+ type={Bachelor's Thesis},
+ title={Cryptographically Secure, Distributed Electronic Voting},
+ year={2014}
+}
+
+
+
+@inproceedings{pedersen1991threshold,
+ title={A threshold cryptosystem without a trusted party},
+ author={Pedersen, Torben Pryds},
+ booktitle={Advances in Cryptology—EUROCRYPT’91},
+ pages={522--526},
+ year={1991},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+
+
+@Inbook{fouque2001one,
+ author="Fouque, Pierre-Alain
+ and Stern, Jacques",
+ editor="Kim, Kwangjo",
+ title="One Round Threshold Discrete-Log Key Generation without Private Channels",
+ bookTitle="Public Key Cryptography: 4th International Workshop on Practice and Theory in Public Key Cryptosystems, PKC 2001 Cheju Island, Korea, February 13--15, 2001 Proceedings",
+ year="2001",
+ publisher="Springer Berlin Heidelberg",
+ address="Berlin, Heidelberg",
+ pages="300--316",
+ abstract="Pedersen designed the first scheme for generating Discrete- Log keys without any trusted dealer in 1991. As this protocol is simple and efficient, it appeared to be very attractive. For a long time, this robust algorithm has been trusted as being secure. However, in 1999, Gennaro et al. proved that one of the requirements is not guaranteed : more precisely, the property that the key is uniformly distributed in the key space. Their main objective was to repair the security flaw without sacrificing on efficiency. As a result, the protocol became secure but somehow unpractical. In particular, the ``complaint phase'', in which cheaters are thrown out, makes the scheme overly complex and difficult to deal with in practical situations. In order to avoid this phase and other drawbacks such as the initialization phase where private channels have to be created, we present a one round scheme which generates a discrete-log key with public channels only. Finally, we show how to improve the efficiency of our algorithm when the number of servers increases.",
+ isbn="978-3-540-44586-9",
+ doi="10.1007/3-540-44586-2_22",
+ url="https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-44586-2_22"
+}
+
+
+@incollection{aguilera2010stumbling,
+ author = {Aguilera, Marcos K.},
+ chapter = {Stumbling over Consensus Research: Misunderstandings and Issues},
+ title = {Replication},
+ editor = {Charron-Bost, Bernadette and Pedone, Fernando and Schiper, Andr{\'e}},
+ year = {2010},
+ %isbn = {3-642-11293-5, 978-3-642-11293-5},
+ pages = {59--72},
+ numpages = {14},
+ url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2172338.2172342},
+ acmid = {2172342},
+ publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
+ address = {Berlin, Heidelberg},
+}
+
+
+% Good overview of (some) complexity results
+@article{coan1992modular,
+ title={Modular construction of a Byzantine agreement protocol with optimal message bit complexity},
+ author={Coan, Brian A and Welch, Jennifer L},
+ journal={Information and Computation},
+ volume={97},
+ number={1},
+ pages={61--85},
+ year={1992},
+ publisher={Elsevier}
+}
+
+
+
+% good intro and thoughts on paxos / pbft
+@article{martin2006fast,
+ title={Fast byzantine consensus},
+ author={Martin, Jean-Philippe and Alvisi, Lorenzo},
+ journal={Dependable and Secure Computing, IEEE Transactions on},
+ volume={3},
+ number={3},
+ pages={202--215},
+ year={2006},
+ publisher={IEEE}
+}
+
+
+
+% Important, since it introduced it, according to ben2006byzantine
+@article{pease1980reaching,
+ title={Reaching agreement in the presence of faults},
+ author={Pease, Marshall and Shostak, Robert and Lamport, Leslie},
+ journal={Journal of the ACM (JACM)},
+ volume={27},
+ number={2},
+ pages={228--234},
+ year={1980},
+ publisher={ACM}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{ben2006byzantine,
+ title={Byzantine agreement in the full-information model in O (log n) rounds},
+ author={Ben-Or, Michael and Pavlov, Elan and Vaikuntanathan, Vinod},
+ booktitle={Proceedings of the thirty-eighth annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing},
+ pages={179--186},
+ year={2006},
+ organization={ACM}
+}
+
+
+
+% Seems like then best contender for
+% real async consensus
+@article{cachin2005random,
+ title={Random oracles in Constantinople: Practical asynchronous Byzantine agreement using cryptography},
+ author={Cachin, Christian and Kursawe, Klaus and Shoup, Victor},
+ journal={Journal of Cryptology},
+ volume={18},
+ number={3},
+ pages={219--246},
+ year={2005},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+
+
+% Seems like THE citation for SMC
+@article{goldreich1998secure,
+ title={Secure multi-party computation},
+ author={Goldreich, Oded},
+ journal={Manuscript. Preliminary version},
+ year={1998},
+ publisher={Citeseer}
+}
+
+
+
+@book{waldo1997note,
+ title={A note on distributed computing},
+ author={Waldo, Jim and Wyant, Geoff and Wollrath, Ann and Kendall, Sam},
+ year={1997},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+
+% one synchronous link is enough ...
+% also has some nice reductions ....
+@INPROCEEDINGS{aguilera2004communication,
+ author = {Marcos K. Aguilera and Carole Delporte-gallet and Hugues Fauconnier and Sam Toueg},
+ title = {Communication-efficient leader election and consensus with limited link synchrony},
+ booktitle = {In PODC},
+ year = {2004},
+ pages = {328--337},
+ publisher = {ACM Press}
+}
+
+
+@article{dolev1987minimal,
+ title={On the minimal synchronism needed for distributed consensus},
+ author={Dolev, Danny and Dwork, Cynthia and Stockmeyer, Larry},
+ journal={Journal of the ACM (JACM)},
+ volume={34},
+ number={1},
+ pages={77--97},
+ year={1987},
+ publisher={ACM}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{reiter1995rampart,
+ author = {Reiter, Michael K.},
+ title = {The Rampart Toolkit for Building High-Integrity Services},
+ booktitle = {Selected Papers from the International Workshop on Theory and Practice in Distributed Systems},
+ year = {1995},
+ isbn = {3-540-60042-6},
+ pages = {99--110},
+ numpages = {12},
+ url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=647369.723763},
+ acmid = {723763},
+ publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
+ address = {London, UK, UK},
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{kihlstrom1998securering,
+ author = {Kihlstrom, Kim Potter and Moser, L. E. and Melliar-Smith, P. M.},
+ title = {The SecureRing Protocols for Securing Group Communication},
+ booktitle = {Proceedings of the Thirty-First Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences - Volume 3},
+ series = {HICSS '98},
+ year = {1998},
+ isbn = {0-8186-8239-6},
+ pages = {317--},
+ url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.1998.656294},
+ doi = {10.1109/HICSS.1998.656294},
+ acmid = {798823},
+ publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
+ address = {Washington, DC, USA},
+}
+
+
+
+
+
+@article{minsky2003set,
+ title={Set reconciliation with nearly optimal communication complexity},
+ author={Minsky, Yaron and Trachtenberg, Ari and Zippel, Richard},
+ journal={Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on},
+ volume={49},
+ number={9},
+ pages={2213--2218},
+ year={2003},
+ publisher={IEEE}
+}
+
+
+
+@article{bloom1970space,
+ title={Space/time trade-offs in hash coding with allowable errors},
+ author={Bloom, Burton H},
+ journal={Communications of the ACM},
+ volume={13},
+ number={7},
+ pages={422--426},
+ year={1970},
+ publisher={ACM}
+}
+
+
+@article{hadzilacos1994modular,
+ title={A modular approach to fault-tolerant broadcasts and related problems},
+ author={Hadzilacos, Vassos and Toueg, Sam},
+ year={1994},
+ publisher={Cornell University, Department of Computer Science}
+}
+
+
+
+% problem: shared memory required
+@article{aspnes1998lower,
+ title={Lower bounds for distributed coin-flipping and randomized consensus},
+ author={Aspnes, James},
+ journal={Journal of the ACM (JACM)},
+ volume={45},
+ number={3},
+ pages={415--450},
+ year={1998},
+ publisher={ACM}
+}
+
+
+% strong connection between SMC and consensus
+@Inbook{saia2015recent,
+ author="Saia, Jared
+ and Zamani, Mahdi",
+ editor="Italiano, Giuseppe F.
+ and Margaria-Steffen, Tiziana
+ and Pokorn{\'y}, Jaroslav
+ and Quisquater, Jean-Jacques
+ and Wattenhofer, Roger",
+ title="Recent Results in Scalable Multi-Party Computation",
+ bookTitle="SOFSEM 2015: Theory and Practice of Computer Science: 41st International Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science, Pec pod Sn{\v{e}}{\v{z}}kou, Czech Republic, January 24-29, 2015. Proceedings",
+ year="2015",
+ publisher="Springer Berlin Heidelberg",
+ address="Berlin, Heidelberg",
+ pages="24--44",
+ abstract="Secure multi-party computation (MPC) allows multiple parties to compute a known function over inputs held by each party, without any party having to reveal its private input. Unfortunately, traditional MPC algorithms do not scale well to large numbers of parties. In this paper, we describe several recent MPC algorithms that are designed to handle large networks. All of these algorithms rely on recent techniques from the Byzantine agreement literature on forming and using quorums. Informally, a quorum is a small set of parties, most of which are trustworthy. We describe the advantages and disadvantages of these scalable algorithms, and we propose new ideas for improving practicality of current techniques. Finally, we conduct simulations to measure bandwidth cost for several current MPC algorithms.",
+ isbn="978-3-662-46078-8",
+ doi="10.1007/978-3-662-46078-8_3",
+ url="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-46078-8_3"
+}
+
+
+% argues that SMC does not need consensus.
+% some of the definitions (abort) look suspiciously
+% close to gradecasts
+@article{goldwasser2005secure,
+ title={Secure multi-party computation without agreement},
+ author={Goldwasser, Shafi and Lindell, Yehuda},
+ journal={Journal of Cryptology},
+ volume={18},
+ number={3},
+ pages={247--287},
+ year={2005},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+
+% This one got a Dijkstra award in 2015, so I should cite it.
+@inproceedings{ben1983another,
+ title={Another advantage of free choice (extended abstract): Completely asynchronous agreement protocols},
+ author={Ben-Or, Michael},
+ booktitle={Proceedings of the second annual ACM symposium on Principles of distributed computing},
+ pages={27--30},
+ year={1983},
+ organization={ACM}
+}
+
+
+
+% Another Dijkstra price, should be cited as
+% the main thing for failure detectors
+% Oh, but: Only crash-faults ...
+@article{chandra1996unreliable,
+ title={Unreliable failure detectors for reliable distributed systems},
+ author={Chandra, Tushar Deepak and Toueg, Sam},
+ journal={Journal of the ACM (JACM)},
+ volume={43},
+ number={2},
+ pages={225--267},
+ year={1996},
+ publisher={ACM}
+}
+
+
+@incollection{bonomi2006improved,
+ title={An improved construction for counting bloom filters},
+ author={Bonomi, Flavio and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Panigrahy, Rina and Singh, Sushil and Varghese, George},
+ booktitle={Algorithms--ESA 2006},
+ pages={684--695},
+ year={2006},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+
+
+% Very good overview of bloom filters and advanced
+% stuff you can do with them.
+@article{tarkoma2012theory,
+ title={Theory and practice of bloom filters for distributed systems},
+ author={Tarkoma, Sasu and Rothenberg, Christian Esteve and Lagerspetz, Eemil},
+ journal={Communications Surveys \& Tutorials, IEEE},
+ volume={14},
+ number={1},
+ pages={131--155},
+ year={2012},
+ publisher={IEEE}
+}
+
+
+@article{neiger1994distributed,
+ title={Distributed consensus revisited},
+ author={Neiger, Gil},
+ journal={Information Processing Letters},
+ volume={49},
+ number={4},
+ pages={195--201},
+ year={1994},
+ publisher={Elsevier}
+}
+
+
+
+@techreport{miller2014anonymous,
+ title={Anonymous byzantine consensus from moderately-hard puzzles: A model for bitcoin},
+ author={Miller, Andrew and LaViola Jr, Joseph J},
+ number={CS-TR-14-01},
+ year={2014},
+ month={4},
+ institution={University of Central Florida}
+}
+
+
+@inbook{garay2015bitcoin,
+ author="Garay, Juan
+ and Kiayias, Aggelos
+ and Leonardos, Nikos",
+ editor="Oswald, Elisabeth
+ and Fischlin, Marc",
+ title="The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol: Analysis and Applications",
+ bookTitle="Advances in Cryptology - EUROCRYPT 2015: 34th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 26-30, 2015, Proceedings, Part II",
+ year="2015",
+ publisher="Springer Berlin Heidelberg",
+ address="Berlin, Heidelberg",
+ pages="281--310",
+ abstract="Bitcoin is the first and most popular decentralized cryptocurrency to date. In this work, we extract and analyze the core of the Bitcoin protocol, which we term the Bitcoin backbone, and prove two of its fundamental properties which we call common prefix and chain quality in the static setting where the number of players remains fixed. Our proofs hinge on appropriate and novel assumptions on the ``hashing power'' of the adversary relative to network synchronicity; we show our results to be tight under high synchronization.",
+ isbn="978-3-662-46803-6",
+ doi="10.1007/978-3-662-46803-6_10",
+ url="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-46803-6_10"
+}
+
+
+@article{schwartz2014ripple,
+ title={The Ripple protocol consensus algorithm},
+ author={Schwartz, David and Youngs, Noah and Britto, Arthur},
+ journal={Ripple Labs Inc White Paper},
+ year={2014}
+}
+
+
+@mastersthesis {totakura2013large,
+ title = {Large Scale Distributed Evaluation of Peer-to-Peer Protocols},
+ volume = {Master of Science},
+ year = {2013},
+ month = {6},
+ pages = {76},
+ school = {Technische Universit\"at M\"unchen},
+ type = {Master's Thesis},
+ address = {Garching bei M\"unchen},
+ keywords = {emulation, GNUnet, large scale testing, protocol evaluation, testbed},
+ author = {Totakura, Sree Harsha}
+}
+
+
+@book{okasaki1999purely,
+ author = {Okasaki, Chris},
+ title = {Purely Functional Data Structures},
+ year = {1998},
+ isbn = {0-521-63124-6},
+ publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
+ address = {New York, NY, USA},
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{attiya1984asynchronous,
+ author = {Attiya, Chagit and Dolev, Danny and Gil, Joseph},
+ title = {Asynchronous Byzantine Consensus},
+ booktitle = {Proceedings of the Third Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing},
+ series = {PODC '84},
+ year = {1984},
+ isbn = {0-89791-143-1},
+ location = {Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada},
+ pages = {119--133},
+ numpages = {15},
+ url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/800222.806740},
+ doi = {10.1145/800222.806740},
+ acmid = {806740},
+ publisher = {ACM},
+ address = {New York, NY, USA},
+}
+
+
+
+@article{deutsch1996gzip,
+ title={GZIP file format specification version 4.3},
+ author={Deutsch, L Peter},
+ year={1996}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{polot2014cadet,
+ author={B. Polot and C. Grothoff},
+ booktitle={2014 13th Annual Mediterranean Ad Hoc Networking Workshop (MED-HOC-NET)},
+ title={CADET: Confidential ad-hoc decentralized end-to-end transport},
+ year={2014},
+ pages={71-78},
+ keywords={Internet;ad hoc networks;computer network performance evaluation;computer network security;telecommunication network routing;telecommunication network topology;transport protocols;CADET;Internet-usage;ad-hoc wireless networks;authenticated data transfer;confidential ad-hoc decentralized end-to-end transport;confidential data transfer;decentralized networks;friend-to-friend networks;high-speed low-latency networks;network topologies;performance evaluation;restricted-route scenarios;transport protocol;Ad hoc networks;IP networks;Network topology;Peer-to-peer computing;Protocols;Routing;Topology},
+ doi={10.1109/MedHocNet.2014.6849107},
+ month={6},
+}
+
+
+
+@book{benaloh1987verifiable,
+ title={Verifiable secret-ballot elections},
+ author={Benaloh, Josh Daniel Cohen},
+ year={1987},
+ publisher={Yale University. Department of Computer Science}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{bessani2014state,
+ title={State machine replication for the masses with BFT-SMaRt},
+ author={Bessani, Alysson and Sousa, Jo{\~a}o and Alchieri, Eduardo EP},
+ booktitle={Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN), 2014 44th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on},
+ pages={355--362},
+ year={2014},
+ organization={IEEE}
+}
+
+
+@techreport{fischer1981lower,
+ title={A lower bound for the time to assure interactive consistency},
+ author={Fischer, Michael J and Lynch, Nancy A},
+ year={1981},
+ institution={DTIC Document}
+}
+
+@article{de2001k,
+ title={On k-set consensus problems in asynchronous systems},
+ author={De Prisco, Roberto and Malkhi, Dahlia and Reiter, Michael},
+ journal={Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on},
+ volume={12},
+ number={1},
+ pages={7--21},
+ year={2001},
+ publisher={IEEE}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{malpani2000leader,
+ author = {Malpani, Navneet and Welch, Jennifer L. and Vaidya, Nitin},
+ title = {Leader Election Algorithms for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks},
+ booktitle = {Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Discrete Algorithms and Methods for Mobile Computing and Communications},
+ series = {DIALM '00},
+ year = {2000},
+ isbn = {1-58113-301-4},
+ location = {Boston, Massachusetts, USA},
+ pages = {96--103},
+ numpages = {8},
+ url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/345848.345871},
+ doi = {10.1145/345848.345871},
+ acmid = {345871},
+ publisher = {ACM},
+ address = {New York, NY, USA},
+}
+
+
+@article{fischer1986easy,
+ title={Easy impossibility proofs for distributed consensus problems},
+ author={Fischer, Michael J and Lynch, Nancy A and Merritt, Michael},
+ journal={Distributed Computing},
+ volume={1},
+ number={1},
+ pages={26--39},
+ year={1986},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{Miller:2016:HBB:2976749.2978399,
+ author = {Miller, Andrew and Xia, Yu and Croman, Kyle and Shi, Elaine and Song, Dawn},
+ title = {The Honey Badger of BFT Protocols},
+ booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
+ series = {CCS '16},
+ year = {2016},
+ isbn = {978-1-4503-4139-4},
+ location = {Vienna, Austria},
+ pages = {31--42},
+ numpages = {12},
+ url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2976749.2978399},
+ doi = {10.1145/2976749.2978399},
+ acmid = {2978399},
+ publisher = {ACM},
+ address = {New York, NY, USA},
+ keywords = {BFT, asynchronous, atomic broadcast, blockchain},
+}
+
+
+@misc{cryptoeprint:2016:199,
+ author = {Andrew Miller and Yu Xia and Kyle Croman and Elaine Shi and Dawn Song},
+ title = {The Honey Badger of BFT Protocols},
+ howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/199},
+ year = {2016},
+ note = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/199}},
+}
+
+@misc{cryptoeprint:2016:1067,
+ author = {Ewa Syta and Philipp Jovanovic and Eleftherios Kokoris Kogias and Nicolas Gailly and Linus Gasser and Ismail Khoffi and Michael J. Fischer and Bryan Ford},
+ title = {Scalable Bias-Resistant Distributed Randomness},
+ howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/1067},
+ year = {2016},
+ note = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1067}, Accessed 22 Feb 2017},
+}
+
+@article{abd2005fault,
+ title={Fault-scalable Byzantine fault-tolerant services},
+ author={Abd-El-Malek, Michael and Ganger, Gregory R and Goodson, Garth R and Reiter, Michael K and Wylie, Jay J},
+ journal={ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review},
+ volume={39},
+ number={5},
+ pages={59--74},
+ year={2005},
+ publisher={ACM}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{kotla2007zyzzyva,
+ author = {Kotla, Ramakrishna and Alvisi, Lorenzo and Dahlin, Mike and Clement, Allen and Wong, Edmund},
+ title = {Zyzzyva: Speculative Byzantine Fault Tolerance},
+ booktitle = {Proceedings of Twenty-first ACM SIGOPS Symposium on Operating Systems Principles},
+ series = {SOSP '07},
+ year = {2007},
+ isbn = {978-1-59593-591-5},
+ location = {Stevenson, Washington, USA},
+ pages = {45--58},
+ numpages = {14},
+ url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1294261.1294267},
+ doi = {10.1145/1294261.1294267},
+ acmid = {1294267},
+ publisher = {ACM},
+ address = {New York, NY, USA},
+ keywords = {byzantine fault tolerance, output commit, replication, speculative execution},
+}
+
+
+@article{nakamoto2008bitcoin,
+ title={Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system},
+ author={Nakamoto, Satoshi},
+ journal={Consulted},
+ volume={1},
+ number={2012},
+ pages={28},
+ year={2008}
+}
+
+
+@incollection{rink2013mixed,
+ year={2013},
+ isbn={978-3-642-35842-5},
+ booktitle={SOFSEM 2013: Theory and Practice of Computer Science},
+ volume={7741},
+ series={Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
+ editor={van Emde Boas, Peter and Groen, FransC.A. and Italiano, GiuseppeF. and Nawrocki, Jerzy and Sack, Harald},
+ doi={10.1007/978-3-642-35843-2_31},
+ title={Mixed Hypergraphs for Linear-Time Construction of Denser Hashing-Based Data Structures},
+ url={http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35843-2_31},
+ publisher={Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
+ author={Rink, Michael},
+ pages={356-368},
+ language={English}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{goodrich2011invertible,
+ title={Invertible bloom lookup tables},
+ author={Goodrich, Michael T and Mitzenmacher, Michael},
+ booktitle={Communication, Control, and Computing (Allerton), 2011 49th Annual Allerton Conference on},
+ pages={792--799},
+ year={2011},
+ organization={IEEE}
+}
+
+
+@article{li2011theory,
+ title={Theory and applications of b-bit minwise hashing},
+ author={Li, Ping and K{\"o}nig, Arnd Christian},
+ journal={Communications of the ACM},
+ volume={54},
+ number={8},
+ pages={101--109},
+ year={2011},
+ publisher={ACM}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{adida2008helios,
+ author = {Adida, Ben},
+ title = {Helios: Web-based Open-audit Voting},
+ booktitle = {Proceedings of the 17th Conference on Security Symposium},
+ series = {SS'08},
+ year = {2008},
+ location = {San Jose, CA},
+ pages = {335--348},
+ numpages = {14},
+ url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1496711.1496734},
+ acmid = {1496734},
+ publisher = {USENIX Association},
+ address = {Berkeley, CA, USA},
+}
+
+
+@article{desmedt1994threshold,
+ title={Threshold cryptography},
+ author={Desmedt, Yvo G},
+ journal={European Transactions on Telecommunications},
+ volume={5},
+ number={4},
+ pages={449--458},
+ year={1994},
+ publisher={Wiley Online Library}
+}
+
+
+@article{shamir1979share,
+ title={How to share a secret},
+ author={Shamir, Adi},
+ journal={Communications of the ACM},
+ volume={22},
+ number={11},
+ pages={612--613},
+ year={1979},
+ publisher={ACM}
+}
+
+% Cite some of the voting stuff
+% what else is there about set reconciliation?
+
+
+
+% Just another SMC protocol that requires agreement
+% on potentially large sets.
+@incollection{bogetoft2009secure,
+ author = {Bogetoft, Peter and Christensen, Dan Lund and Damg{\aa}rd, Ivan and Geisler, Martin and Jakobsen, Thomas and Kr{\o}igaard, Mikkel and Nielsen, Janus Dam and Nielsen, Jesper Buus and Nielsen, Kurt and Pagter, Jakob and Schwartzbach, Michael and Toft, Tomas},
+ chapter = {Secure Multiparty Computation Goes Live},
+ title = {Financial Cryptography and Data Security},
+ editor = {Dingledine, Roger and Golle, Philippe},
+ year = {2009},
+ isbn = {978-3-642-03548-7},
+ pages = {325--343},
+ numpages = {19},
+ url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-03549-4_20},
+ doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-03549-4_20},
+ acmid = {1602018},
+ publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
+ address = {Berlin, Heidelberg},
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{evans2012efficient,
+ title={Efficient and secure decentralized network size estimation},
+ author={Evans, Nathan and Polot, Bartlomiej and Grothoff, Christian},
+ booktitle={Proceedings of the 11th international IFIP TC 6 conference on Networking-Volume Part I},
+ pages={304--317},
+ year={2012},
+ organization={Springer-Verlag}
+}
+
+
+@misc{green2016bolt,
+ author = {Matthew Green and Ian Miers},
+ title = {Bolt: Anonymous Payment Channels for Decentralized Currencies},
+ howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/701},
+ year = {2016},
+ note = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/701}},
+}
+
+
+
+@inproceedings{3DSsucks,
+ author = {Murdoch, Steven J. and Anderson, Ross},
+ title = {Verified by Visa and Mastercard Securecode: Or, How Not to Design Authentication},
+ booktitle = {Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security},
+ series = {FC'10},
+ year = {2010},
+ %isbn = {3-642-14576-0, 978-3-642-14576-6},
+ location = {Tenerife, Spain},
+ pages = {336--342},
+ numpages = {7},
+ doi_url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-14577-3_27},
+ doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-14577-3_27},
+ acmid = {2163598},
+ publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
+ address = {Berlin, Heidelberg},
+ url = {https://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~rja14/Papers/fc10vbvsecurecode.pdf}
+}
+
+
+@Inbook{izabachene2013divisible,
+ author="Izabach{\`e}ne, Malika
+ and Libert, Beno{\^i}t",
+ editor="Abdalla, Michel
+ and Lange, Tanja",
+ title="Divisible E-Cash in the Standard Model",
+ bookTitle="Pairing-Based Cryptography -- Pairing 2012: 5th International Conference, Cologne, Germany, May 16-18, 2012, Revised Selected Papers",
+ year="2013",
+ publisher="Springer Berlin Heidelberg",
+ address="Berlin, Heidelberg",
+ pages="314--332",
+ abstract="Off-line e-cash systems are the digital analogue of regular cash. One of the main desirable properties is anonymity: spending a coin should not reveal the identity of the spender and, at the same time, users should not be able to double-spend coins without being detected. Compact e-cash systems make it possible to store a wallet of O(2 L ) coins using O(L{\thinspace}+{\thinspace}$\lambda$) bits, where $\lambda$ is the security parameter. They are called divisible whenever the user has the flexibility of spending an amount of 2ℓ, for some ℓ{\thinspace}≤{\thinspace}L, more efficiently than by repeatedly spending individual coins. This paper presents the first construction of divisible e-cash in the standard model (i.e., without the random oracle heuristic). The scheme allows a user to obtain a wallet of 2 L coins by running a withdrawal protocol with the bank. Our construction is built on the traditional binary tree approach, where the wallet is organized in such a way that the monetary value of a coin depends on how deep the coin is in the tree.",
+ isbn="978-3-642-36334-4",
+ doi="10.1007/978-3-642-36334-4_20",
+ url="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36334-4_20"
+}
+
+
+@Inbook{pointcheval1996provably,
+author="Pointcheval, David
+and Stern, Jacques",
+editor="Kim, Kwangjo
+and Matsumoto, Tsutomu",
+title="Provably secure blind signature schemes",
+bookTitle="Advances in Cryptology --- ASIACRYPT '96: International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptology and Information Security Kyongju, Korea, November 3--7, 1996 Proceedings",
+year="1996",
+publisher="Springer Berlin Heidelberg",
+address="Berlin, Heidelberg",
+pages="252--265",
+abstract="In this paper, we give a provably secure design for blind signatures, the most important ingredient for anonymity in off-line electronic cash systems. Previous examples of blind signature schemes were constructed from traditional signature schemes with only the additional proof of blindness. The design of some of the underlying signature schemes can be validated by a proof in the so-called random oracle model, but the security of the original signature scheme does not, by itself, imply the security of the blind version. In this paper, we first propose a definition of security for blind signatures, with application to electronic cash. Next, we focus on a specific example which can be successfully transformed in a provably secure blind signature scheme.",
+isbn="978-3-540-70707-3",
+doi="10.1007/BFb0034852",
+url="https://doi.org/10.1007/BFb0034852"
+}
+
+
+@Article{bellare2003onemore,
+author="Bellare
+and Namprempre
+and Pointcheval
+and Semanko",
+title="The One-More-RSA-Inversion Problems and the Security of Chaum's Blind Signature Scheme ",
+journal="Journal of Cryptology",
+year="2003",
+month={6},
+day="01",
+volume="16",
+number="3",
+pages="185--215",
+abstract="We introduce a new class of computational problems which we call the ``one-more-RSA-inversion'' problems. Our main result is that two problems in this class, which we call the chosen-target and known-target inversion problems, respectively, have polynomially equivalent computational complexity. We show how this leads to a proof of security for Chaum's RSA-based blind signature scheme in the random oracle model based on the assumed hardness of either of these problems. We define and prove analogous results for ``one-more-discrete-logarithm'' problems. Since the appearence of the preliminary version of this paper, the new problems we have introduced have found other uses as well.",
+issn="1432-1378",
+doi="10.1007/s00145-002-0120-1",
+url="https://doi.org/10.1007/s00145-002-0120-1"
+}
+
+
+@InProceedings{fc2014murdoch,
+ author = {Stephen Murdoch and Ross Anderson},
+ title = {Security Protocols and Evidence: Where Many Payment Systems Fail},
+ booktitle = {Financial Cryptography and Data Security},
+ year = {2014},
+}
+
+
+
+@Inbook{pointcheval2017cut,
+ author="Pointcheval, David
+ and Sanders, Olivier
+ and Traor{\'e}, Jacques",
+ editor="Fehr, Serge",
+ title="Cut Down the Tree to Achieve Constant Complexity in Divisible E-cash",
+ bookTitle="Public-Key Cryptography -- PKC 2017: 20th IACR International Conference on Practice and Theory in Public-Key Cryptography, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, March 28-31, 2017, Proceedings, Part I",
+ year="2017",
+ publisher="Springer Berlin Heidelberg",
+ address="Berlin, Heidelberg",
+ pages="61--90",
+ abstract="Divisible e-cash, proposed in 1991 by Okamoto and Ohta, addresses a practical concern of electronic money, the problem of paying the exact amount. Users of such systems can indeed withdraw coins of a large value N and then divide it into many pieces of any desired values {\$}{\$}V{\backslash}le N{\$}{\$} . Such a primitive therefore allows to avoid the use of several denominations or change issues. Since its introduction, many constructions have been proposed but all of them make use of the same framework: they associate each coin with a binary tree, which implies, at least, a logarithmic complexity for the spendings.",
+ isbn="978-3-662-54365-8",
+ doi="10.1007/978-3-662-54365-8_4",
+ url="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-54365-8_4"
+}
+
+
+
+@Inbook{canard2015divisible,
+ author="Canard, S{\'e}bastien
+ and Pointcheval, David
+ and Sanders, Olivier
+ and Traor{\'e}, Jacques",
+ editor="Katz, Jonathan",
+ title="Divisible E-Cash Made Practical",
+ bookTitle="Public-Key Cryptography -- PKC 2015: 18th IACR International Conference on Practice and Theory in Public-Key Cryptography, Gaithersburg, MD, USA, March 30 -- April 1, 2015, Proceedings",
+ year="2015",
+ publisher="Springer Berlin Heidelberg",
+ address="Berlin, Heidelberg",
+ pages="77--100",
+ abstract="Divisible E-cash systems allow users to withdraw a unique coin of value {\$}{\$}2^n{\$}{\$} from a bank, but then to spend it in several times to distinct merchants. In such a system, whereas users want anonymity of their transactions, the bank wants to prevent, or at least detect, double-spending, and trace the defrauders. While this primitive was introduced two decades ago, quite a few (really) anonymous constructions have been introduced. In addition, all but one were just proven secure in the random oracle model, but still with either weak security models or quite complex settings and thus costly constructions. The unique proposal, secure in the standard model, appeared recently and is unpractical. As evidence, the authors left the construction of an efficient scheme secure in this model as an open problem.",
+ isbn="978-3-662-46447-2",
+ doi="10.1007/978-3-662-46447-2_4",
+ url="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-46447-2_4"
+}
+
+
+
+@Inbook{camenisch2005compact,
+ author="Camenisch, Jan
+ and Hohenberger, Susan
+ and Lysyanskaya, Anna",
+ editor="Cramer, Ronald",
+ title="Compact E-Cash",
+ bookTitle="Advances in Cryptology -- EUROCRYPT 2005: 24th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Aarhus, Denmark, May 22-26, 2005. Proceedings",
+ year="2005",
+ publisher="Springer Berlin Heidelberg",
+ address="Berlin, Heidelberg",
+ pages="302--321",
+ isbn="978-3-540-32055-5",
+ doi="10.1007/11426639_18",
+ url="https://doi.org/10.1007/11426639_18"
+}
+
+
+@misc{maertens2015practical,
+ author = {Patrick Märtens},
+ title = {Practical Compact E-Cash with Arbitrary Wallet Size},
+ howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2015/086},
+ year = {2015},
+ note = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/086}},
+}
+
+@Inbook{canard2015scalable,
+author="Canard, S{\'e}bastien
+and Pointcheval, David
+and Sanders, Olivier
+and Traor{\'e}, Jacques",
+editor="Malkin, Tal
+and Kolesnikov, Vladimir
+and Lewko, Allison Bishop
+and Polychronakis, Michalis",
+title="Scalable Divisible E-cash",
+bookTitle="Applied Cryptography and Network Security: 13th International Conference, ACNS 2015, New York, NY, USA, June 2-5, 2015, Revised Selected Papers",
+year="2015",
+publisher="Springer International Publishing",
+address="Cham",
+pages="287--306",
+abstract="Divisible E-cash has been introduced twenty years ago but no construction is both fully secure in the standard model and efficiently scalable. In this paper, we fill this gap by providing an anonymous divisible E-cash construction with constant-time withdrawal and spending protocols. Moreover, the deposit protocol is constant-time for the merchant, whatever the spent value is. It just has to compute and store {\$}{\$}2^l{\$}{\$} serial numbers when a value {\$}{\$}2^l{\$}{\$} is deposited, compared to {\$}{\$}2^n{\$}{\$} serial numbers whatever the spent amount (where {\$}{\$}2^n{\$}{\$} is the global value of the coin) in the recent state-of-the-art paper. This makes a very huge difference when coins are spent in several times.",
+isbn="978-3-319-28166-7",
+doi="10.1007/978-3-319-28166-7_14",
+url="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28166-7_14"
+}
+
+
+
+
+@Inbook{okamoto1995efficient,
+author="Okamoto, Tatsuaki",
+editor="Coppersmith, Don",
+title="An Efficient Divisible Electronic Cash Scheme",
+bookTitle="Advances in Cryptology --- CRYPT0' 95: 15th Annual International Cryptology Conference Santa Barbara, California, USA, August 27--31, 1995 Proceedings",
+year="1995",
+publisher="Springer Berlin Heidelberg",
+address="Berlin, Heidelberg",
+pages="438--451",
+abstract="Recently, several ``divisible'' untraceable off-line electronic cash schemes have been presented [8, 11, 19, 20]. This paper presents the first practical ``divisible'' untraceable1 off-line cash scheme that is ``single-term''2 in which every procedure can be executed in the order of log N, where N is the precision of divisibility, i.e., N = (the total coin value)/(minimum divisible unit value). Therefore, our ``divisible'' off-line cash scheme is more efficient and practical than the previous schemes. For example, when N = 217 (e.g., the total value is about {\$} 1000, and the minimum divisible unit is 1 cent), our scheme requires only about 1 Kbyte of data be transfered from a customer to a shop for one payment and about 20 modular exponentiations for one payment, while all previous divisible cash schemes require more than several Kbytes of transfered data and more than 200 modular exponentiations for one payment.",
+isbn="978-3-540-44750-4",
+doi="10.1007/3-540-44750-4_35",
+url="https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-44750-4_35"
+}
+
+@techreport{brands1993efficient,
+ author = {Brands, Stefan A.},
+ title = {An Efficient Off-line Electronic Cash System Based On The Representation Problem.},
+ year = {1993},
+ source = {http://www.ncstrl.org:8900/ncstrl/servlet/search?formname=detail\&id=oai%3Ancstrlh%3Aercim_cwi%3Aercim.cwi%2F%2FCS-R9323},
+ publisher = {CWI (Centre for Mathematics and Computer Science)},
+ address = {Amsterdam, The Netherlands, The Netherlands},
+}
+
+
+
+@inproceedings{tracz2001fair,
+ author = {Tracz, Robert and Wrona, Konrad},
+ title = {Fair Electronic Cash Withdrawal and Change Return for Wireless Networks},
+ booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Mobile Commerce},
+ series = {WMC '01},
+ year = {2001},
+ isbn = {1-58113-376-6},
+ location = {Rome, Italy},
+ pages = {14--19},
+ numpages = {6},
+ url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/381461.381464},
+ doi = {10.1145/381461.381464},
+ acmid = {381464},
+ publisher = {ACM},
+ address = {New York, NY, USA},
+ keywords = {electronic commerce, payment systems, wireless applications},
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{schoenmakers1997security,
+ author = {Schoenmakers, Berry},
+ title = {Security Aspects of the Ecash(TM) Payment System},
+ booktitle = {State of the Art in Applied Cryptography, Course on Computer Security and Industrial Cryptography - Revised Lectures},
+ year = {1998},
+ isbn = {3-540-65474-7},
+ location = {Leuven, Belgium},
+ pages = {338--352},
+ numpages = {15},
+ url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=647443.726912},
+ acmid = {726912},
+ publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
+ address = {London, UK, UK},
+}
+
+
+
+
+
+@Inbook{chaum1983blind,
+ author="Chaum, David",
+ editor="Chaum, David
+ and Rivest, Ronald L.
+ and Sherman, Alan T.",
+ title="Blind Signatures for Untraceable Payments",
+ bookTitle="Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of Crypto 82",
+ year="1983",
+ publisher="Springer US",
+ address="Boston, MA",
+ pages="199--203",
+ abstract="Automation of the way we pay for goods and services is already underway, as can be seen by the variety and growth of electronic banking services available to consumers. The ultimate structure of the new electronic payments system may have a substantial impact on personal privacy as well as on the nature and extent of criminal use of payments. Ideally a new payments system should address both of these seemingly conflicting sets of concerns.",
+ isbn="978-1-4757-0602-4",
+ doi="10.1007/978-1-4757-0602-4_18",
+ url="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-0602-4_18"
+}
+
+
+
+@Inbook{chaum1990untraceable,
+ author="Chaum, David
+ and Fiat, Amos
+ and Naor, Moni",
+ editor="Goldwasser, Shafi",
+ title="Untraceable Electronic Cash",
+ bookTitle="Advances in Cryptology --- CRYPTO' 88: Proceedings",
+ year="1990",
+ publisher="Springer New York",
+ address="New York, NY",
+ pages="319--327",
+ abstract="The use of credit cards today is an act of faith on the part of all concerned. Each party is vulnerable to fraud by the others, and the cardholder in particular has no protection against surveillance.",
+ isbn="978-0-387-34799-8",
+ doi="10.1007/0-387-34799-2_25",
+ url="https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-34799-2_25"
+}
+
+
+@INPROCEEDINGS{camenisch2007endorsed,
+ author={J. Camenisch and A. Lysyanskaya and M. Meyerovich},
+ booktitle={2007 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP '07)},
+ title={Endorsed E-Cash},
+ year={2007},
+ pages={101-115},
+ keywords={electronic money;protocols;e-cash;electronic cash scheme;fair exchange protocol;lightweight endorsement;onion routing;Authentication;Cryptographic protocols;Cryptography;Digital signatures;Explosions;Information security;Merchandise;Privacy;Routing},
+ doi={10.1109/SP.2007.15},
+ ISSN={1081-6011},
+ month={5},
+}
+
+
+
+@inproceedings{danezis2016rscoin,
+ author = {George Danezis and
+ Sarah Meiklejohn},
+ title = {Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies},
+ booktitle = {23nd Annual Network and Distributed System Security Symposium, {NDSS}
+ 2016, San Diego, California, USA, February 21-24, 2016},
+ year = {2016},
+ publisher = {The Internet Society},
+}
+
+
+
+@Misc{fatf1997,
+ title = {FATF-IX report on money laundering typologies},
+ howpublished = {\url{http://www.fatf-gafi.org/media/fatf/documents/reports/1996\%201997\%20ENG.pdf}},
+ month = {2},
+ year = {1998},
+}
+
+@article{bellare2003one,
+ title={The One-More-RSA-Inversion Problems and the Security of Chaum's Blind Signature Scheme.},
+ author={Bellare, Mihir and Namprempre, Chanathip and Pointcheval, David and Semanko, Michael},
+ journal={Journal of Cryptology},
+ volume={16},
+ number={3},
+ year={2003},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+
+@inbook{RSA-FDH-KTIvCTI,
+ author="Bellare, Mihir and Namprempre, Chanathip and Pointcheval, David and Semanko, Michael",
+ editor="Syverson, Paul",
+ chapter="The Power of RSA Inversion Oracles and the Security of Chaum's RSA-Based Blind Signature Scheme",
+ title="Financial Cryptography: 5th International Conference",
+ year="2002",
+ publisher="Springer",
+ address="Berlin, Heidelberg",
+ pages="319--338",
+ isbn="978-3-540-46088-6",
+ doi="10.1007/3-540-46088-8_25",
+ url="https://www.di.ens.fr/~pointche/Documents/Papers/2001_fcA.pdf"
+}
+
+@misc{LightningNetwork,
+ author = {Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja},
+ title = {The Bitcoin Lightning Network: Scalable Off-Chain Instant Payments},
+ month = {1},
+ year = {2016},
+ note = {\url{https://lightning.network/lightning-network-paper.pdf}},
+}
+
+
+@misc{RippleFined:FinCEN,
+ author = {Steve Hudak},
+ title = {FinCEN Fines Ripple Labs Inc. in First Civil Enforcement Action Against a Virtual Currency Exchanger},
+ month = {5},
+ day = {5},
+ year = {2015},
+ note = {\url{https://www.fincen.gov/news/news-releases/fincen-fines-ripple-labs-inc-first-civil-enforcement-action-against-virtual}},
+}
+
+@misc{RippleFined:ArsTechnica,
+ author = {Megan Geuss},
+ title = {Cryptocurrency maker Ripple Labs fined \$700K for flouting financial regs. Virtual currency Wild West is done, registration as a Money Services Business required.},
+ month = {5},
+ day = {5},
+ year = {2015},
+ note = {\url{https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2015/05/cryptocurrency-maker-ripple-labs-fined-700k-for-flouting-financial-regs/}},
+ url_coindesk = {http://www.coindesk.com/fincen-fines-ripple-labs-700000-bank-secrecy-act/}
+}
+
+@misc{RippleFined:CoinDesk,
+ author = {Stan Higgins},
+ title = {FinCEN Fines Ripple Labs for Bank Secrecy Act Violations},
+ month = {5},
+ day = {5},
+ year = {2015},
+ note = {\url{http://www.coindesk.com/fincen-fines-ripple-labs-700000-bank-secrecy-act/}},
+}
+
+
+@misc{rfc6818,
+ author="P. Yee",
+ title="{Updates to the Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile}",
+ howpublished="RFC 6818 (Proposed Standard)",
+ series="Internet Request for Comments",
+ type="RFC",
+ number="6818",
+ pages="1--8",
+ year=2013,
+ month={1},
+ issn="2070-1721",
+ publisher="RFC Editor",
+ institution="RFC Editor",
+ organization="RFC Editor",
+ address="Fremont, CA, USA",
+ url="https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6818.txt",
+ key="RFC 6818",
+ abstract={This document updates RFC 5280, the ``Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile''. This document changes the set of acceptable encoding methods for the explicitText field of the user notice policy qualifier and clarifies the rules for converting internationalized domain name labels to ASCII. This document also provides some clarifications on the use of self-signed certificates, trust anchors, and some updated security considerations. [STANDARDS-TRACK]},
+ keywords="",
+ doi="10.17487/RFC6818",
+}
+
+
+
+@inproceedings{rivest2004peppercoin,
+ title={Peppercoin micropayments},
+ author={Rivest, Ronald L},
+ booktitle={Financial Cryptography},
+ pages={2--8},
+ year={2004},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{Camenisch05compacte-cash,
+ author = {Jan Camenisch and Susan Hohenberger and Anna Lysyanskaya},
+ title = {Compact e-cash},
+ booktitle = {In EUROCRYPT, volume 3494 of LNCS},
+ year = {2005},
+ pages = {302--321},
+ publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
+ url = {http://cs.brown.edu/~anna/papers/chl05-full.pdf},
+ url_citeseerx = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.136.4640}
+}
+
+
+
+@article{martens2015practical,
+ title={Practical Divisible E-Cash.},
+ author={M{\"a}rtens, Patrick},
+ journal={IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
+ volume={2015},
+ pages={318},
+ year={2015}
+}
+
+@misc{Martens2015,
+ title = {Practical Compact E-Cash with Arbitrary Wallet Size},
+ author = {Patrick M{\"a}rtens},
+ howpublished = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive 2015/086},
+ year = {2015},
+ note = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/086}},
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{bensasson2014zerocash,
+ author = {Eli Ben-Sasson and Alessandro Chiesa and Christina Garman and Matthew Green and Ian Miers and Eran Tromer and Madars Virza},
+ title = {Zerocash: Decentralized Anonymous Payments from Bitcoin},
+ booktitle = {IEEE Symposium on Security \& Privacy},
+ year = {2014},
+}
+
+
+@book{molander1998cyberpayments,
+ title={Cyberpayments and money laundering: Problems and promise},
+ author={Molander, Roger C and Mussington, David A and Mussington, David and Wilson, Peter A},
+ volume={965},
+ year={1998},
+ publisher={Rand Corporation}
+}
+
+
+@InProceedings{sander1999escrow,
+ author = {Tomas Sander and Amnon Ta-Shma},
+ title = {On Anonymous Electronic Cash and Crime},
+ booktitle = {ISW'99},
+ year = {1999},
+ series = {LNCS 1729},
+ pages = {202--206},
+}
+
+@inproceedings{stadler1995fair,
+ title={Fair blind signatures},
+ author={Stadler, Markus and Piveteau, Jean-Marc and Camenisch, Jan},
+ booktitle={International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques},
+ pages={209--219},
+ year={1995},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@Article{solms1992perfect,
+ author = {Sebastiaan H. von Solms and David Naccache},
+ title = {On blind signatures and perfect crimes},
+ journal = {Computers \& Security},
+ year = {1992},
+ volume = {11},
+ number = {6},
+ pages = {581--583},
+}
+
+
+@Misc{guardian2015cap,
+ author = {Rupert Jones},
+ title = {Cap on card fees could lead to lower prices for consumers},
+ howpublished = {\url{http://www.theguardian.com/money/2015/jul/27/cap-on-card-fees-retailers}},
+ month = {7},
+ year = {2015},
+}
+
+
+@Misc{crinkey2011rundle,
+ author = {Guy Rundle},
+ title = {The humble credit card is now a political tool},
+ howpublished = {\url{http://www.crikey.com.au/2011/10/25/rundle-humble-credit-card-now-a-political-tool-just-ask-wikileaks/}},
+ month = {10},
+ year = {2011},
+}
+
+
+@unpublished{cryptonote,
+ author = {van Saberhagen, Nicolas},
+ month = {10},
+ posted-at = {2016-09-18 11:44:05},
+ priority = {2},
+ title = {{CryptoNote v 2.0}},
+ url = {https://cryptonote.org/whitepaper.pdf},
+ year = {2013}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{rupp2013p4r,
+ title={P4R: Privacy-preserving pre-payments with refunds for transportation systems},
+ author={Rupp, Andy and Hinterw{\"a}lder, Gesine and Baldimtsi, Foteini and Paar, Christof},
+ booktitle={International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security},
+ pages={205--212},
+ year={2013},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{dingledine2004tor,
+ title = {Tor: The Second-Generation Onion Router},
+ author = {Roger Dingledine and Nick Mathewson and Paul Syverson},
+ booktitle = {Proceedings of the 13th USENIX Security Symposium},
+ year = {2004},
+ month = {8},
+ www_important = {1},
+ www_tags = {selected},
+ www_html_url = {https://www.torproject.org/svn/trunk/doc/design-paper/tor-design.html},
+ www_pdf_url = {https://www.torproject.org/svn/trunk/doc/design-paper/tor-design.pdf},
+ www_section = {Anonymous communication},
+}
+
+
+@Misc{greece2015cash,
+ author = {Reuters},
+ title = {Greek council recommends 60 euro limit on ATM withdrawals from Tuesday},
+ howpublished = {\url{http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/06/28/eurozone-greece-limits-idUSA8N0Z302P20150628}},
+ month = {6},
+ year = {2015},
+}
+
+@Misc{france2015cash,
+ author = {Heinz-Peter Bader},
+ title = {France steps up monitoring of cash payments to fight low-cost terrorism},
+ howpublished = {\url{http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/03/18/us-france-security-financing-idUSKBN0ME14720150318}},
+ month = {3},
+ year = {2015},
+}
+
+
+@article{dent2008extensions,
+ title={Extensions to Chaum's Blind Signature Scheme and OpenCoin Requirements},
+ author={Dent, AW and Paterson, KG and Wild, PR},
+ year={2008}
+}
+
+@article{dent2008preliminary,
+ title={Preliminary Report on Chaum's Online E-Cash Architecture},
+ author={Dent, AW and Paterson, KG and Wild, PR},
+ journal={Royal Holloway, University of London},
+ year={2008}
+}
+
+
+@Misc{ibi2014,
+ author = {{ibi research}},
+ title = {Digitalisierung der Gesellschaft 2014 --- Aktuelle Einsch\"atzungen und Trends},
+ howpublished = {\url{http://www.ecommerce-leitfaden.de/digitalisierung-der-gesellschaft-2014.html}},
+ year = {2014},
+}
+
+@inproceedings{fujisaki-okamoto,
+ title={Secure integration of asymmetric and symmetric encryption schemes},
+ author={Fujisaki, Eiichiro and Okamoto, Tatsuaki},
+ booktitle={Annual International Cryptology Conference},
+ pages={537--554},
+ year={1999},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@article{bernstein2012high,
+ title={High-speed high-security signatures},
+ author={Bernstein, Daniel J and Duif, Niels and Lange, Tanja and Schwabe, Peter and Yang, Bo-Yin},
+ journal={Journal of Cryptographic Engineering},
+ volume={2},
+ number={2},
+ pages={77--89},
+ year={2012},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{bernstein2006curve25519,
+ title={Curve25519: new Diffie-Hellman speed records},
+ author={Bernstein, Daniel J},
+ booktitle={International Workshop on Public Key Cryptography},
+ pages={207--228},
+ year={2006},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@techreport{pagnia1999impossibility,
+ title={On the impossibility of fair exchange without a trusted third party},
+ author={Pagnia, Henning and G{\"a}rtner, Felix C},
+ year={1999},
+ institution={Technical Report TUD-BS-1999-02, Darmstadt University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Darmstadt, Germany}
+}
+
+@book{katz1996handbook,
+ title={Handbook of applied cryptography},
+ author={Katz, Jonathan and Menezes, Alfred J and Van Oorschot, Paul C and Vanstone, Scott A},
+ year={1996},
+ publisher={CRC press}
+}
+
+
+% ===== PROVABLE SECURITY =====
+
+% see also https://www.baigneres.net/downloads/2007_provable_security.pdf
+
+@article{koblitz2007another,
+ title={Another look at" provable security"},
+ author={Koblitz, Neal and Menezes, Alfred J},
+ journal={Journal of Cryptology},
+ volume={20},
+ number={1},
+ pages={3--37},
+ year={2007},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+@incollection{pointcheval2005provable,
+ title={Provable security for public key schemes},
+ author={Pointcheval, David},
+ booktitle={Contemporary cryptology},
+ pages={133--190},
+ year={2005},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+@article{shoup2004sequences,
+ title={Sequences of games: a tool for taming complexity in security proofs.},
+ author={Shoup, Victor},
+ journal={IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
+ volume={2004},
+ pages={332},
+ year={2004}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{coron2000exact,
+ title={On the exact security of full domain hash},
+ author={Coron, Jean-S{\'e}bastien},
+ booktitle={Annual International Cryptology Conference},
+ pages={229--235},
+ year={2000},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{damgaard2007proof,
+ title={A “proof-reading” of some issues in cryptography},
+ author={Damg{\aa}rd, Ivan},
+ booktitle={International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming},
+ pages={2--11},
+ year={2007},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@article{koblitz2010brave,
+ title={The brave new world of bodacious assumptions in cryptography},
+ author={Koblitz, Neal and Menezes, Alfred},
+ journal={Notices of the American Mathematical Society},
+ volume={57},
+ number={3},
+ pages={357--365},
+ year={2010}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{bellare1993random,
+ title={Random oracles are practical: A paradigm for designing efficient protocols},
+ author={Bellare, Mihir and Rogaway, Phillip},
+ booktitle={Proceedings of the 1st ACM conference on Computer and communications security},
+ pages={62--73},
+ year={1993},
+ organization={ACM}
+}
+
+@article{koblitz2015random,
+ title={The random oracle model: a twenty-year retrospective},
+ author={Koblitz, Neal and Menezes, Alfred J},
+ journal={Designs, Codes and Cryptography},
+ volume={77},
+ number={2-3},
+ pages={587--610},
+ year={2015},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+@article{canetti2004random,
+ title={The random oracle methodology, revisited},
+ author={Canetti, Ran and Goldreich, Oded and Halevi, Shai},
+ journal={Journal of the ACM (JACM)},
+ volume={51},
+ number={4},
+ pages={557--594},
+ year={2004},
+ publisher={ACM}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{dreier2015formal,
+ title={Formal analysis of e-cash protocols},
+ author={Dreier, Jannik and Kassem, Ali and Lafourcade, Pascal},
+ booktitle={e-Business and Telecommunications (ICETE), 2015 12th International Joint Conference on},
+ volume={4},
+ pages={65--75},
+ year={2015},
+ organization={IEEE}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{brickell1995trustee,
+ title={Trustee-based Tracing Extensions to Anonymous Cash and the Making of Anonymous Change.},
+ author={Brickell, Ernest F and Gemmell, Peter and Kravitz, David W},
+ booktitle={SODA},
+ volume={95},
+ pages={457--466},
+ year={1995}
+}
+
+
+
+% ===== CRYPTO BASICS =====
+
+@inproceedings{boneh1998decision,
+ title={The decision diffie-hellman problem},
+ author={Boneh, Dan},
+ booktitle={International Algorithmic Number Theory Symposium},
+ pages={48--63},
+ year={1998},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+
+@article{goldwasser1988digital,
+ title={A digital signature scheme secure against adaptive chosen-message attacks},
+ author={Goldwasser, Shafi and Micali, Silvio and Rivest, Ronald L},
+ journal={SIAM Journal on Computing},
+ volume={17},
+ number={2},
+ pages={281--308},
+ year={1988},
+ publisher={SIAM}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{bellare1998relations,
+ title={Relations among notions of security for public-key encryption schemes},
+ author={Bellare, Mihir and Desai, Anand and Pointcheval, David and Rogaway, Phillip},
+ booktitle={Annual International Cryptology Conference},
+ pages={26--45},
+ year={1998},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{blanchet2006automated,
+ title={Automated security proofs with sequences of games},
+ author={Blanchet, Bruno and Pointcheval, David},
+ booktitle={Annual International Cryptology Conference},
+ pages={537--554},
+ year={2006},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{bellare2006code,
+ title={Code-based game-playing proofs and the security of triple encryption},
+ author={Bellare, Mihir and Rogaway, Phillip},
+ booktitle={Advances in Cryptology--EUROCRYPT},
+ volume={4004},
+ pages={10},
+ year={2006}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{fischlin2009security,
+ title={Security of blind signatures under aborts},
+ author={Fischlin, Marc and Schr{\"o}der, Dominique},
+ booktitle={International Workshop on Public Key Cryptography},
+ pages={297--316},
+ year={2009},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+
+@incollection{lindell2017simulate,
+ title={How to simulate it--a tutorial on the simulation proof technique},
+ author={Lindell, Yehuda},
+ booktitle={Tutorials on the Foundations of Cryptography},
+ pages={277--346},
+ year={2017},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+@book{guo2018introduction,
+ title={Introduction to Security Reduction},
+ author={Guo, Fuchun and Susilo, Willy and Mu, Yi},
+ year={2018},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+@book{stallman2002essays,
+ title={Free software, free society: Selected essays of Richard M. Stallman},
+ author={Stallman, Richard},
+ year={2002},
+ publisher={Lulu.com}
+}
+
+
+@misc{adyen2016global,
+ title={The Global E-Commerce Payments Guide},
+ author={{Adyen}},
+ year={2016}
+}
+
+@article{paypers2016ecommerce,
+ title={Ecommerce Payment Methods Report 2016},
+ author={Lupu, Sebastian and Mual, Melisande and van Stiphout, Mees},
+ year={2016}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{beikverdi2015trend,
+ title={Trend of centralization in Bitcoin's distributed network},
+ author={Beikverdi, Alireza and Song, JooSeok},
+ booktitle={Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD), 2015 16th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on},
+ pages={1--6},
+ year={2015},
+ organization={IEEE}
+}
+
+@article{bohme2015bitcoin,
+ title={Bitcoin: Economics, technology, and governance},
+ author={B{\"o}hme, Rainer and Christin, Nicolas and Edelman, Benjamin and Moore, Tyler},
+ journal={Journal of Economic Perspectives},
+ volume={29},
+ number={2},
+ pages={213--38},
+ year={2015}
+}
+
+
+@article{provos2007ghost,
+ title={The Ghost in the Browser: Analysis of Web-based Malware.},
+ author={Provos, Niels and McNamee, Dean and Mavrommatis, Panayiotis and Wang, Ke and Modadugu, Nagendra and others},
+ journal={HotBots},
+ volume={7},
+ pages={4--4},
+ year={2007}
+}
+
+@misc{riksbank2017riksbank,
+ title={The Riksbank’s e-krona project},
+ author={Riksbank, Sveriges},
+ year={2017},
+ publisher={Report}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{fuchsbauer2009transferable,
+title={Transferable constant-size fair e-cash},
+author={Fuchsbauer, Georg and Pointcheval, David and Vergnaud, Damien},
+booktitle={International Conference on Cryptology and Network Security},
+pages={226--247},
+year={2009},
+organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{au2011electronic,
+ title={Electronic cash with anonymous user suspension},
+ author={Au, Man Ho and Susilo, Willy and Mu, Yi},
+ booktitle={Australasian Conference on Information Security and Privacy},
+ pages={172--188},
+ year={2011},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@article{schroder2017security,
+ title={Security of blind signatures revisited},
+ author={Schr{\"o}der, Dominique and Unruh, Dominique},
+ journal={Journal of Cryptology},
+ volume={30},
+ number={2},
+ pages={470--494},
+ year={2017},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{camenisch2004signature,
+ title={Signature schemes and anonymous credentials from bilinear maps},
+ author={Camenisch, Jan and Lysyanskaya, Anna},
+ booktitle={Annual International Cryptology Conference},
+ pages={56--72},
+ year={2004},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@article{paquin2011u,
+ title={U-prove cryptographic specification v1. 1},
+ author={Paquin, Christian and Zaverucha, Greg},
+ journal={Technical Report, Microsoft Corporation},
+ year={2011}
+}
+
+@misc{next1999digicash,
+ publisher={NEXT Magazine},
+ year={1999},
+ title={How DigiCash Blew Everything},
+ author={{Anonymous}}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{canard2007divisible,
+ title={Divisible e-cash systems can be truly anonymous},
+ author={Canard, S{\'e}bastien and Gouget, Aline},
+ booktitle={Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques},
+ pages={482--497},
+ year={2007},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{canard2006handy,
+ title={A handy multi-coupon system},
+ author={Canard, S{\'e}bastien and Gouget, Aline and Hufschmitt, Emeline},
+ booktitle={International Conference on Applied Cryptography and Network Security},
+ pages={66--81},
+ year={2006},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+
+@Article{batten2018offline,
+ author="Batten, Lynn and Yi, Xun",
+ title="Off-line digital cash schemes providing untraceability, anonymity and change",
+ journal="Electronic Commerce Research",
+ year={2018},
+ month={1},
+ day={27},
+ issn="1572-9362",
+ doi="10.1007/s10660-018-9289-8",
+ url="https://doi.org/10.1007/s10660-018-9289-8"
+}
+
+@inproceedings{chaum1992wallet,
+ title={Wallet databases with observers},
+ author={Chaum, David and Pedersen, Torben Pryds},
+ booktitle={Annual International Cryptology Conference},
+ pages={89--105},
+ year={1992},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{davida1997anonymity,
+ title={Anonymity control in e-cash systems},
+ author={Davida, George and Frankel, Yair and Tsiounis, Yiannis and Yung, Moti},
+ booktitle={International Conference on Financial Cryptography},
+ pages={1--16},
+ year={1997},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{chaum1989efficient,
+ title={Efficient offline electronic checks},
+ author={Chaum, David and den Boer, Bert and van Heyst, Eug{\`e}ne and Mj{\o}lsnes, Stig and Steenbeek, Adri},
+ booktitle={Workshop on the theory and application of of cryptographic techniques},
+ pages={294--301},
+ year={1989},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@article{pointcheval2000security,
+ title={Security arguments for digital signatures and blind signatures},
+ author={Pointcheval, David and Stern, Jacques},
+ journal={Journal of cryptology},
+ volume={13},
+ number={3},
+ pages={361--396},
+ year={2000},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{damgaard1988payment,
+ title={Payment systems and credential mechanisms with provable security against abuse by individuals},
+ author={Damg{\aa}rd, Ivan Bjerre},
+ booktitle={Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptography},
+ pages={328--335},
+ year={1988},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{haber1990time,
+ title={How to time-stamp a digital document},
+ author={Haber, Stuart and Stornetta, W Scott},
+ booktitle={Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptography},
+ pages={437--455},
+ year={1990},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+
+@article{wust2017you,
+ title={Do you need a Blockchain?},
+ author={W{\"u}st, Karl and Gervais, Arthur},
+ journal={IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
+ volume={2017},
+ pages={375},
+ year={2017}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{pedersen1996electronic,
+ title={Electronic payments of small amounts},
+ author={Pedersen, Torben P},
+ booktitle={International Workshop on Security Protocols},
+ pages={59--68},
+ year={1996},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@article{poon2016bitcoin,
+ title={The bitcoin lightning network: Scalable off-chain instant payments},
+ author={Poon, Joseph and Dryja, Thaddeus},
+ journal={draft version 0.5},
+ pages={14},
+ year={2016}
+}
+
+@misc{poon2017plasma,
+ title={Plasma: Scalable autonomous smart contracts},
+ author={Poon, Joseph and Buterin, Vitalik},
+ howpublished={White paper},
+ year={2017}
+}
+
+@article{eyal2018majority,
+ title={Majority is not enough: Bitcoin mining is vulnerable},
+ author={Eyal, Ittay and Sirer, Emin G{\"u}n},
+ journal={Communications of the ACM},
+ volume={61},
+ number={7},
+ pages={95--102},
+ year={2018},
+ publisher={ACM}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{vukolic2015quest,
+ title={The quest for scalable blockchain fabric: Proof-of-work vs. BFT replication},
+ author={Vukoli{\'c}, Marko},
+ booktitle={International Workshop on Open Problems in Network Security},
+ pages={112--125},
+ year={2015},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{eyal2016bitcoin,
+ title={Bitcoin-NG: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol.},
+ author={Eyal, Ittay and Gencer, Adem Efe and Sirer, Emin G{\"u}n and Van Renesse, Robbert},
+ booktitle={NSDI},
+ pages={45--59},
+ year={2016}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{bentov2016cryptocurrencies,
+ title={Cryptocurrencies without proof of work},
+ author={Bentov, Iddo and Gabizon, Ariel and Mizrahi, Alex},
+ booktitle={International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security},
+ pages={142--157},
+ year={2016},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{gilad2017algorand,
+ title={Algorand: Scaling byzantine agreements for cryptocurrencies},
+ author={Gilad, Yossi and Hemo, Rotem and Micali, Silvio and Vlachos, Georgios and Zeldovich, Nickolai},
+ booktitle={Proceedings of the 26th Symposium on Operating Systems Principles},
+ pages={51--68},
+ year={2017},
+ organization={ACM}
+}
+
+@misc{kwon2014tendermint,
+ title={Tendermint: Consensus without mining},
+ author={Kwon, Jae},
+ note={Draft v. 0.6, fall},
+ year={2014}
+}
+
+
+@misc{rocket2018snowflake,
+ title={Snowflake to Avalanche: A Novel Metastable Consensus Protocol Family for Cryptocurrencies},
+ author={{Team Rocket}},
+ howpublished={IPFS},
+ year={2018}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{androulaki2018hyperledger,
+ title={Hyperledger fabric: a distributed operating system for permissioned blockchains},
+ author={Androulaki, Elli and Barger, Artem and Bortnikov, Vita and Cachin, Christian and Christidis, Konstantinos and De Caro, Angelo and Enyeart, David and Ferris, Christopher and Laventman, Gennady and Manevich, Yacov and others},
+ booktitle={Proceedings of the Thirteenth EuroSys Conference},
+ pages={30},
+ year={2018},
+ organization={ACM}
+}
+
+@article{wood2014ethereum,
+ title={Ethereum: A secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger},
+ author={Wood, Gavin},
+ journal={Ethereum project yellow paper},
+ volume={151},
+ pages={1--32},
+ year={2014}
+}
+
+@article{reijers2016governance,
+ title={Governance in blockchain technologies \& social contract theories},
+ author={Reijers, Wessel and O'Brolch{\'a}in, Fiachra and Haynes, Paul},
+ journal={Ledger},
+ volume={1},
+ pages={134--151},
+ year={2016}
+}
+
+@article{levy2017book,
+ title={Book-smart, not street-smart: blockchain-based smart contracts and the social workings of law},
+ author={Levy, Karen EC},
+ journal={Engaging Science, Technology, and Society},
+ volume={3},
+ pages={1--15},
+ year={2017}
+}
+
+@incollection{reid2013analysis,
+ title={An analysis of anonymity in the bitcoin system},
+ author={Reid, Fergal and Harrigan, Martin},
+ booktitle={Security and privacy in social networks},
+ pages={197--223},
+ year={2013},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{bonneau2014mixcoin,
+ title={Mixcoin: Anonymity for Bitcoin with accountable mixes},
+ author={Bonneau, Joseph and Narayanan, Arvind and Miller, Andrew and Clark, Jeremy and Kroll, Joshua A and Felten, Edward W},
+ booktitle={International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security},
+ pages={486--504},
+ year={2014},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{heilman2017tumblebit,
+ title={TumbleBit: An untrusted Bitcoin-compatible anonymous payment hub},
+ author={Heilman, Ethan and Alshenibr, Leen and Baldimtsi, Foteini and Scafuro, Alessandra and Goldberg, Sharon},
+ booktitle={Network and Distributed System Security Symposium},
+ year={2017}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{sun2017ringct,
+ title={RingCT 2.0: a compact accumulator-based (linkable ring signature) protocol for blockchain cryptocurrency monero},
+ author={Sun, Shi-Feng and Au, Man Ho and Liu, Joseph K and Yuen, Tsz Hon},
+ booktitle={European Symposium on Research in Computer Security},
+ pages={456--474},
+ year={2017},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{wahby2018doubly,
+ title={Doubly-efficient zkSNARKs without trusted setup},
+ author={Wahby, Riad S and Tzialla, Ioanna and Shelat, Abhi and Thaler, Justin and Walfish, Michael},
+ booktitle={2018 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP)},
+ pages={926--943},
+ year={2018},
+ organization={IEEE}
+}
+
+@article{ben2018scalable,
+ title={Scalable, transparent, and post-quantum secure computational integrity},
+ author={Ben-Sasson, Eli and Bentov, Iddo and Horesh, Yinon and Riabzev, Michael},
+ journal={Cryptol. ePrint Arch., Tech. Rep},
+ volume={46},
+ pages={2018},
+ year={2018}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{garman2016accountable,
+ title={Accountable privacy for decentralized anonymous payments},
+ author={Garman, Christina and Green, Matthew and Miers, Ian},
+ booktitle={International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security},
+ pages={81--98},
+ year={2016},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@online{crockford_base32,
+author = {Crockford, Douglas},
+title = {Base32 Encoding},
+url = {https://www.crockford.com/wrmg/base32.html}
+}
+
+@misc{rfc4634,
+ series = {Request for Comments},
+ number = 4634,
+ howpublished = {RFC 4634},
+ publisher = {RFC Editor},
+ doi = {10.17487/RFC4634},
+ url = {https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc4634.txt},
+ author = {Tony Hansen and Donald E. Eastlake 3rd},
+ title = {{US Secure Hash Algorithms (SHA and HMAC-SHA)}},
+ pagetotal = 108,
+ year = 2006,
+ month = aug,
+}
+
+@misc{rfc5869,
+ series = {Request for Comments},
+ number = 5869,
+ howpublished = {RFC 5869},
+ publisher = {RFC Editor},
+ doi = {10.17487/RFC5869},
+ url = {https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc5869.txt},
+ author = {Dr. Hugo Krawczyk and Pasi Eronen},
+ title = {{HMAC-based Extract-and-Expand Key Derivation Function (HKDF)}},
+ pagetotal = 14,
+ year = 2010,
+ month = may,
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{boldyreva2003threshold,
+ title={Threshold signatures, multisignatures and blind signatures based on the gap-Diffie-Hellman-group signature scheme},
+ author={Boldyreva, Alexandra},
+ booktitle={International Workshop on Public Key Cryptography},
+ pages={31--46},
+ year={2003},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+
+@article{zhang2018new,
+ title={A New Post-Quantum Blind Signature From Lattice Assumptions},
+ author={Zhang, Pingyuan and Jiang, Han and Zheng, Zhihua and Hu, Peichu and Xu, Qiuliang},
+ journal={IEEE Access},
+ volume={6},
+ pages={27251--27258},
+ year={2018},
+ publisher={IEEE}
+}
+
+
+@article{brandt2006obtain,
+ title={How to obtain full privacy in auctions},
+ author={Brandt, Felix},
+ journal={International Journal of Information Security},
+ volume={5},
+ number={4},
+ pages={201--216},
+ year={2006},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{blanchet2007cryptoverif,
+ title={CryptoVerif: Computationally sound mechanized prover for cryptographic protocols},
+ author={Blanchet, Bruno},
+ booktitle={Dagstuhl seminar “Formal Protocol Verification Applied},
+ volume={117},
+ year={2007}
+}
+
+@article{tolia2006quantifying,
+ title={Quantifying interactive user experience on thin clients},
+ author={Tolia, Niraj and Andersen, David G and Satyanarayanan, Mahadev},
+ journal={Computer},
+ number={3},
+ pages={46--52},
+ year={2006},
+ publisher={IEEE}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{abe2000provably,
+ title={Provably secure partially blind signatures},
+ author={Abe, Masayuki and Okamoto, Tatsuaki},
+ booktitle={Annual International Cryptology Conference},
+ pages={271--286},
+ year={2000},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{bellare1996exact,
+ title={The exact security of digital signatures-How to sign with RSA and Rabin},
+ author={Bellare, Mihir and Rogaway, Phillip},
+ booktitle={International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques},
+ pages={399--416},
+ year={1996},
+ organization={Springer}
+}
+
+@book{fielding2000architectural,
+ title={Architectural styles and the design of network-based software architectures},
+ author={Fielding, Roy T and Taylor, Richard N},
+ volume={7},
+ year={2000},
+ publisher={University of California, Irvine Doctoral dissertation}
+}
+
+@article{rfc8259,
+ author = {Tim Bray},
+ title = {The JavaScript Object Notation {(JSON)} Data Interchange Format},
+ journal = {{RFC}},
+ volume = {8259},
+ pages = {1--16},
+ year = {2017},
+ url = {https://doi.org/10.17487/RFC8259},
+ doi = {10.17487/RFC8259},
+}
+
+@misc{rfc7049,
+ series = {Request for Comments},
+ number = 7049,
+ howpublished = {RFC 7049},
+ publisher = {RFC Editor},
+ doi = {10.17487/RFC7049},
+ url = {https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7049.txt},
+ author = {Carsten Bormann and Paul E. Hoffman},
+ title = {{Concise Binary Object Representation (CBOR)}},
+ pagetotal = 54,
+ year = 2013,
+ month = {10},
+ abstract = {The Concise Binary Object Representation (CBOR) is a data format whose design goals include the possibility of extremely small code size, fairly small message size, and extensibility without the need for version negotiation. These design goals make it different from earlier binary serializations such as ASN.1 and MessagePack.},
+}
+
+@misc{rfc5246,
+ series = {Request for Comments},
+ number = 5246,
+ howpublished = {RFC 5246},
+ publisher = {RFC Editor},
+ doi = {10.17487/RFC5246},
+ url = {https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc5246.txt},
+ author = {Eric Rescorla and Tim Dierks},
+ title = {{The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2}},
+ pagetotal = 104,
+ year = 2008,
+ month = {8},
+ abstract = {This document specifies Version 1.2 of the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol. The TLS protocol provides communications security over the Internet. The protocol allows client/server applications to communicate in a way that is designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, or message forgery. {[}STANDARDS-TRACK{]}},
+}
+
+@misc{rfc6454,
+ series = {Request for Comments},
+ number = 6454,
+ howpublished = {RFC 6454},
+ publisher = {RFC Editor},
+ doi = {10.17487/RFC6454},
+ url = {https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6454.txt},
+ author = {Adam Barth},
+ title = {{The Web Origin Concept}},
+ pagetotal = 20,
+ year = 2011,
+ month = {12},
+ abstract = {This document defines the concept of an "origin", which is often used as the scope of authority or privilege by user agents. Typically, user agents isolate content retrieved from different origins to prevent malicious web site operators from interfering with the operation of benign web sites. In addition to outlining the principles that underlie the concept of origin, this document details how to determine the origin of a URI and how to serialize an origin into a string. It also defines an HTTP header field, named "Origin", that indicates which origins are associated with an HTTP request. {[}STANDARDS-TRACK{]}},
+}
+
+
+@misc{rfc6838,
+ series = {Request for Comments},
+ number = 6838,
+ howpublished = {RFC 6838},
+ publisher = {RFC Editor},
+ doi = {10.17487/RFC6838},
+ url = {https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6838.txt},
+ author = {Ned Freed and Dr. John C. Klensin and Tony Hansen},
+ title = {{Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures}},
+ pagetotal = 32,
+ year = 2013,
+ month = {1},
+ abstract = {This document defines procedures for the specification and registration of media types for use in HTTP, MIME, and other Internet protocols. This memo documents an Internet Best Current Practice.},
+}
+
+@misc{rfc7413,
+ series = {Request for Comments},
+ number = 7413,
+ howpublished = {RFC 7413},
+ publisher = {RFC Editor},
+ doi = {10.17487/RFC7413},
+ url = {https://rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7413.txt},
+ author = {Yuchung Cheng and Jerry Chu and Sivasankar Radhakrishnan and Arvind Jain},
+ title = {{TCP Fast Open}},
+ pagetotal = 26,
+ year = 2014,
+ month = {12},
+ abstract = {This document describes an experimental TCP mechanism called TCP Fast Open (TFO). TFO allows data to be carried in the SYN and SYN-ACK packets and consumed by the receiving end during the initial connection handshake, and saves up to one full round-trip time (RTT) compared to the standard TCP, which requires a three-way handshake (3WHS) to complete before data can be exchanged. However, TFO deviates from the standard TCP semantics, since the data in the SYN could be replayed to an application in some rare circumstances. Applications should not use TFO unless they can tolerate this issue, as detailed in the Applicability section.},
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{goldberg2007improving,
+ title={Improving the robustness of private information retrieval},
+ author={Goldberg, Ian},
+ booktitle={Security and Privacy, 2007. SP'07. IEEE Symposium on},
+ pages={131--148},
+ year={2007},
+ organization={IEEE}
+}
+
+@article{persily2017election,
+ title={The 2016 US Election: Can democracy survive the internet?},
+ author={Persily, Nathaniel},
+ journal={Journal of democracy},
+ volume={28},
+ number={2},
+ pages={63--76},
+ year={2017},
+ publisher={Johns Hopkins University Press}
+}
+
+@article{richet2016extortion,
+ title={Extortion on the internet: the rise of crypto-ransomware},
+ author={Richet, Jean-Loup},
+ journal={Harvard},
+ year={2016}
+}
+
+@article{jawaheri2018small,
+ title={When A Small Leak Sinks A Great Ship: Deanonymizing Tor Hidden Service Users Through Bitcoin Transactions Analysis},
+ author={Jawaheri, Husam Al and Sabah, Mashael Al and Boshmaf, Yazan and Erbad, Aimen},
+ journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:1801.07501},
+ year={2018}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{meiklejohn2013fistful,
+ title={A fistful of bitcoins: characterizing payments among men with no names},
+ author={Meiklejohn, Sarah and Pomarole, Marjori and Jordan, Grant and Levchenko, Kirill and McCoy, Damon and Voelker, Geoffrey M and Savage, Stefan},
+ booktitle={Proceedings of the 2013 conference on Internet measurement conference},
+ pages={127--140},
+ year={2013},
+ organization={ACM}
+}
+
+
+@article{luu2016challenge,
+ title={The challenge of Bitcoin pseudo-anonymity to computer forensics},
+ author={Luu, Jason and Imwinkelried, Edward J},
+ journal={Criminal Law Bulletin},
+ volume={52},
+ number={1},
+ year={2016}
+}
+
+@article{shrier2016blockchain,
+ title={Blockchain \& infrastructure (identity, data security)},
+ author={Shrier, David and Wu, Weige and Pentland, Alex},
+ journal={Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Connection Science},
+ volume={1},
+ number={3},
+ year={2016}
+}
+
+@article{hsueh1997fault,
+ title={Fault injection techniques and tools},
+ author={Hsueh, Mei-Chen and Tsai, Timothy K and Iyer, Ravishankar K},
+ journal={Computer},
+ volume={30},
+ number={4},
+ pages={75--82},
+ year={1997},
+ publisher={IEEE}
+}
+
+@incollection{lomne2011side,
+ title={Side channel attacks},
+ author={Lomne, Victor and Dehaboui, A and Maurine, Philippe and Torres, L and Robert, M},
+ booktitle={Security trends for FPGAS},
+ pages={47--72},
+ year={2011},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+
+@misc{force2015money,
+ title={Money laundering through the physical transportation of cash},
+ author={Force, Financial Action Task and East, Middle and Force, North Africa Financial Action Task},
+ year={2015},
+ publisher={October}
+}
+
+@article{hammer2018billion,
+ title={The Billion-Dollar Bank Job},
+ author={Hammer, Joshua},
+ year={2018},
+ journal={The New York Times Magazine}
+}
+
+
+@book {mankiw2010macroeconomics,
+ title = {Macroeconomics, 7th Edition},
+ year = {2010},
+ publisher = {Worth Publishers},
+ organization = {Worth Publishers},
+ author = {N.G. Mankiw}
+}
+
+@article{dold2017byzantine,
+ author="Dold, Florian and Grothoff, Christian",
+ title="Byzantine set-union consensus using efficient set reconciliation",
+ journal="EURASIP Journal on Information Security",
+ year="2017",
+ month={7},
+ day="27",
+ volume="2017",
+ number="1",
+ pages="14",
+ issn="2510-523X",
+ doi="10.1186/s13635-017-0066-3",
+ url="https://doi.org/10.1186/s13635-017-0066-3"
+}
+
+@article{zandi2013impact,
+ title={The impact of electronic payments on economic growth},
+ author={Zandi, Mark and Singh, Virendra and Irving, Justin},
+ journal={Moody’s Analytics: Economic and Consumer Credit Analytics},
+ volume={217},
+ year={2013}
+}
+
+@article{dalebrant2016monetary,
+ title={The Monetary Policy Effects of Sweden’s Transition Towards a Cashless Society: An Econometric Analysis},
+ author={Dalebrant, Ther{\'e}se},
+ year={2016}
+}
+
+@article{singh2017does,
+ title={Does easy availability of cash affect corruption? Evidence from a panel of countries},
+ author={Singh, Sunny Kumar and Bhattacharya, Kaushik},
+ journal={Economic Systems},
+ volume={41},
+ number={2},
+ pages={236--247},
+ year={2017},
+ publisher={Elsevier}
+}
+
+@book{voigt2017eu,
+ title={The EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)},
+ author={Voigt, Paul and Von dem Bussche, Axel},
+ volume={18},
+ year={2017},
+ publisher={Springer}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{garera2007framework,
+ title={A framework for detection and measurement of phishing attacks},
+ author={Garera, Sujata and Provos, Niels and Chew, Monica and Rubin, Aviel D},
+ booktitle={Proceedings of the 2007 ACM workshop on Recurring malcode},
+ pages={1--8},
+ year={2007},
+ organization={ACM}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{sahin2010overview,
+ title={An overview of business domains where fraud can take place, and a survey of various fraud detection techniques},
+ author={Sahin, Y and Duman, E},
+ booktitle={Proceedings of the 1st international symposium on computing in science and engineering, Aydin, Turkey},
+ year={2010}
+}
+
+@article{danezis2018blockmania,
+ title={Blockmania: from Block DAGs to Consensus},
+ author={Danezis, George and Hrycyszyn, David},
+ journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:1809.01620},
+ year={2018}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{johnson2013users,
+ title={Users get routed: Traffic correlation on Tor by realistic adversaries},
+ author={Johnson, Aaron and Wacek, Chris and Jansen, Rob and Sherr, Micah and Syverson, Paul},
+ booktitle={Proceedings of the 2013 ACM SIGSAC conference on Computer \& communications security},
+ pages={337--348},
+ year={2013},
+ organization={ACM}
+}
+
+
+@article{arner2018identity,
+ title={The Identity Challenge in Finance: From Analogue Identity to Digitized Identification to Digital KYC Utilities},
+ author={Arner, Douglas W and Zetzsche, Dirk A and Buckley, Ross P and Barberis, Janos Nathan},
+ journal={European Banking Institute},
+ year={2018}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{zakai2011emscripten,
+ title={Emscripten: an LLVM-to-JavaScript compiler},
+ author={Zakai, Alon},
+ booktitle={Proceedings of the ACM international conference companion on Object oriented programming systems languages and applications companion},
+ pages={301--312},
+ year={2011},
+ organization={ACM}
+}
+
+@inproceedings{mulazzani2013fast,
+ title={Fast and reliable browser identification with javascript engine fingerprinting},
+ author={Mulazzani, Martin and Reschl, Philipp and Huber, Markus and Leithner, Manuel and Schrittwieser, Sebastian and Weippl, Edgar and Wien, FC},
+ booktitle={Web 2.0 Workshop on Security and Privacy (W2SP)},
+ volume={5},
+ year={2013},
+ organization={Citeseer}
+}
+
+@misc{sheets1998level,
+ label={CSS},
+ title={{Cascading Style Sheets Level 2 Revision 1 (CSS 2.1) Specification}},
+ publisher={W3C},
+ year={2011},
+ editor={Bos, Bert}
+}
+
+@article{walch2019deconstructing,
+ title={Deconstructing'Decentralization': Exploring the Core Claim of Crypto Systems},
+ author={Walch, Angela},
+ journal={Crypto Assets: Legal and Monetary Perspectives (OUP, forthcoming 2019)},
+ year={2019}
+}
+
+
+@inproceedings{goldwasser1982probabilistic,
+ title={Probabilistic encryption \& how to play mental poker keeping secret all partial information},
+ author={Goldwasser, Shafi and Micali, Silvio},
+ booktitle={Proceedings of the fourteenth annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing},
+ pages={365--377},
+ year={1982},
+ organization={ACM}
+}
+
+@article{goldwasser1989knowledge,
+ title={The knowledge complexity of interactive proof systems},
+ author={Goldwasser, Shafi and Micali, Silvio and Rackoff, Charles},
+ journal={SIAM Journal on computing},
+ volume={18},
+ number={1},
+ pages={186--208},
+ year={1989},
+ publisher={SIAM}
+}
+
+
diff --git a/doc/system/snippets/donations.py b/doc/system/snippets/donations.py
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..217e4c70
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/snippets/donations.py
@@ -0,0 +1,42 @@
+@app.route("/donate")
+def donate():
+ donation_amount = expect_parameter("donation_amount")
+ donation_donor = expect_parameter("donation_donor")
+ fulfillment_url = flask.url_for("fulfillment", _external=True)
+ order = dict(
+ amount=donation_amount,
+ extra=dict(donor=donation_donor, amount=donation_amount),
+ fulfillment_url=fulfillment_url,
+ summary="Donation to the GNU Taler project",
+ )
+ # ask backend to create new order
+ order_resp = backend_post("order", dict(order=order))
+ order_id = order_resp["order_id"]
+ return flask.redirect(flask.url_for("fulfillment", order_id=order_id))
+
+
+@app.route("/receipt")
+def fulfillment():
+ order_id = expect_parameter("order_id")
+ pay_params = dict(order_id=order_id)
+
+ # ask backend for status of payment
+ pay_status = backend_get("check-payment", pay_params)
+
+ if pay_status.get("payment_redirect_url"):
+ return flask.redirect(pay_status["payment_redirect_url"])
+
+ if pay_status.get("paid"):
+ # The "extra" field in the contract terms can be used
+ # by the merchant for free-form data, interpreted
+ # by the merchant (avoids additional database access)
+ extra = pay_status["contract_terms"]["extra"]
+ return flask.render_template(
+ "templates/fulfillment.html",
+ donation_amount=extra["amount"],
+ donation_donor=extra["donor"],
+ order_id=order_id,
+ currency=CURRENCY)
+
+ # no pay_redirect but article not paid, this should never happen!
+ err_abort(500, message="Internal error, invariant failed", json=pay_status)
diff --git a/doc/system/system.tex b/doc/system/system.tex
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..b5be6356
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/system.tex
@@ -0,0 +1,98 @@
+\documentclass[10pt]{book}
+\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
+\usepackage{titlesec}
+\usepackage{xspace}
+\usepackage{microtype}
+\usepackage{amssymb,amsmath,amsthm}
+\newtheorem{theorem}{Theorem}
+\newtheorem{lemma}{Lemma}
+\usepackage{url}
+\usepackage{graphicx}
+\usepackage{caption}
+\usepackage{subcaption}
+\usepackage{enumitem}
+\usepackage{hyperref}
+% bold math
+\usepackage{bm}
+\usepackage{booktabs}
+\usepackage{adjustbox}
+\usepackage{array}
+\usepackage{verbatim}
+\usepackage{listings}
+\usepackage{multicol}
+
+
+% stuff like \ding for symbols
+\usepackage{pifont}
+
+\usepackage[
+ natbib=true,
+ style=alphabetic,
+ backref=true,
+ doi=false,
+ isbn=false,
+ maxbibnames=99,
+]{biblatex}
+\addbibresource{ref.bib}
+
+\usepackage{epsfig}
+\usepackage{textpos}
+\usepackage{ifthen}
+\usepackage{makeidx}
+\usepackage{float}
+\usepackage{calc}
+\usepackage{vmargin}
+\usepackage{letterspace}
+\usepackage[pass]{geometry}
+
+\usepackage{eurosym}
+\usepackage{bytefield}
+\usepackage[binary-units,detect-weight=true,detect-family=true]{siunitx}
+\usepackage[usenames,dvipsnames,svgnames,table]{xcolor}
+\usepackage{qrcode}
+\usepackage{cryptocode}
+\usepackage{tikz}
+\usetikzlibrary{shapes,arrows}
+\usetikzlibrary{positioning}
+\usetikzlibrary{calc}
+\usepackage{mdframed}
+% Typography
+\usepackage[sc,osf]{mathpazo}
+\linespread{1.05}
+\usepackage[scaled]{helvet} % ss
+\usepackage{courier} % tt
+\normalfont
+\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
+
+\usepackage{pdfpages}
+
+\author{Florian Dold \and the GNU Taler Developers}
+\title{The GNU Taler System}
+
+\begin{document}
+
+\newcommand{\astfootnote}[1]{
+\let\oldthefootnote=\thefootnote%
+\setcounter{footnote}{0}%
+\renewcommand{\thefootnote}{\fnsymbol{footnote}}%
+\footnote{#1}%
+\let\thefootnote=\oldthefootnote%
+}
+
+\frontmatter
+\include{abstract}
+\include{acknowledgements}
+\tableofcontents
+\listoffigures
+\mainmatter
+
+
+\include{introduction}
+\include{taler/design}
+\include{taler/security}
+\include{taler/implementation}
+\include{conclusions}
+
+\printbibliography[heading=bibintoc]
+
+\end{document}
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+\chapter{Exchange-accountable e-cash}
diff --git a/doc/system/taler/design.tex b/doc/system/taler/design.tex
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@@ -0,0 +1,1286 @@
+
+% FIXME: maybe move things around a bit, structure it better into
+% sections and subsections?
+
+% FIXME: talk about amounts and anonymity
+
+
+\chapter{GNU Taler, an Income-Transparent Anonymous E-Cash System}\label{chapter:design}
+
+This chapter gives a high-level overview of the design of GNU Taler, based on
+the requirements discussed in Chapter~\ref{chapter:introduction}. The
+cryptographic protocols and security properties are described and analyzed in detail in
+Chapter~\ref{chapter:security}. A complete implementation with focus on of Web
+payments is discussed in Chapter~\ref{chapter:implementation}.
+
+
+\section{Design of GNU Taler}
+
+GNU Taler is based on the idea of Chaumian e-cash \cite{chaum1983blind}, with
+some differences and additions explained in the following sections. Other
+variants and extensions of anonymous e-cash and blind signatures are discussed in
+Section~\ref{sec:related-work:e-cash}.
+
+
+\subsection{Entities and Trust Model}
+GNU Taler consists of the following entities (see \ref{fig:taler-arch}):
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item The \emph{exchanges} serve as payment service provider for a
+ financial transaction between a customer and a merchant. They hold bank money
+ in escrow in exchange for anonymous digital \emph{coins}.
+ \item The \emph{customers} keep e-cash in their electronic \emph{wallets}.
+ \item The \emph{merchants} accept digital coins in exchange for digital or physical
+ goods and services. The digital coins can be deposited with the exchange,
+ in exchange for bank money.
+ \item The \emph{banks} receive wire transfer instructions from customers
+ and exchanges. A customer, merchant and exchange involved in one
+ GNU Taler payment do not need to have accounts with the same bank,
+ as long as wire transfers can be made between the respective banks.
+ \item The \emph{auditors}, typically run by trusted financial regulators,
+ monitor the behavior of exchanges to assure customers and merchants that
+ exchanges operate correctly.
+\end{itemize}
+
+\begin{figure}
+ \begin{center}
+ \begin{tikzpicture}
+ \tikzstyle{def} = [node distance= 5em and 6.5em, inner sep=1em, outer sep=.3em];
+ \node (origin) at (0,0) {};
+ \node (exchange) [def,above=of origin,draw]{Exchange};
+ \node (customer) [def, draw, below left=of origin] {Customer};
+ \node (merchant) [def, draw, below right=of origin] {Merchant};
+ \node (auditor) [def, draw, above right=of origin]{Auditor};
+
+ \tikzstyle{C} = [color=black, line width=1pt]
+
+ \draw [<-, C] (customer) -- (exchange) node [midway, above, sloped] (TextNode) {withdraw coins};
+ \draw [<-, C] (exchange) -- (merchant) node [midway, above, sloped] (TextNode) {deposit coins};
+ \draw [<-, C] (merchant) -- (customer) node [midway, above, sloped] (TextNode) {spend coins};
+ \draw [<-, C] (exchange) -- (auditor) node [midway, above, sloped] (TextNode) {verify};
+
+ \end{tikzpicture}
+ \end{center}
+ \caption[High-level overview of GNU Taler components.]{High-level overview of the different components of GNU Taler, banks are omitted.}
+ \label{fig:taler-arch}
+\end{figure}
+
+In GNU Taler, the exchanges can be separate entities from the banks. This fosters
+competition between exchanges, and allows Taler to be deployed in an
+environment with legacy banks that do not support Taler directly.
+
+If a customer wants to pay a merchant, the customer needs to hold coins at an
+exchange that the merchant trusts. To make the selection of trusted exchanges
+simpler, merchants and customers can choose to automatically trust all
+exchanges audited by a certain auditor.
+
+The exchange is trusted to hold funds of its customers in escrow and to make
+payments to merchants when digital coins are deposited. Customer and merchant
+can have assurances about the exchange's liquidity and operation though the
+auditor, which would typically be run by financial regulators or other trusted
+third parties.
+
+\subsection{System Assumptions}
+
+We assume that an anonymous, bi-directional communication channel\footnote{%
+An anonymization layer like Tor \cite{dingledine2004tor} can provide a
+practical approximation of such a communication channel, but does not provide
+perfect anonymity \cite{johnson2013users}.
+} is used for
+all communication between the customer and the merchant, as well as for
+obtaining unlinkable change for partially spent coins from the exchange and for
+retrieving the exchange's public keys used in verifying and blindly signing
+coins. The withdrawal protocol, on the other hand, does not require an
+anonymous channel to preserve the anonymity of electronic coins.
+
+During withdrawal, the exchange knows the identity of the withdrawing customer,
+as there are laws, or bank policies, that limit the amount of cash that an
+individual customer can withdraw in a given time
+period~\cite{france2015cash,greece2015cash}. GNU Taler is thus only anonymous with
+respect to \emph{payments}. While the exchange does know their customer (KYC),
+it is unable to link the known identity of the customer that withdrew anonymous
+digital coins to the \emph{purchase} performed later at the merchant.
+
+While customers can make untraceable digital cash payments, the exchange will
+always learn the merchants' identity, which is necessary to credit their
+accounts. This information can also be used for taxation, and GNU Taler
+deliberately exposes these events as anchors for tax audits on merchants'
+income. Note that while GNU Taler \emph{enables} taxation, it does not
+\emph{implement} any automatic taxation.
+
+GNU Taler assumes that each participant has full control over their
+system%
+\footnote{%
+ Full control goes both ways: it gives the customer the freedom to run their own software,
+ but also means that the behavior of fraudulent customers cannot be restricted by
+ simpler technical means such as keeping balances on tamper-proof smart cards,
+ and thus can lead to an overall more complex system.
+}. We assume the contact information of the exchange is known to
+both customer and merchant from the start, and the customer
+can authenticate the merchant, for example, by using X.509
+certificates~\cite{rfc6818}. A GNU Taler merchant is expected to deliver
+the service or goods to the customer upon receiving payment. The
+customer can seek legal relief to achieve this, as the customer
+receives cryptographic evidence of the contract and the associated
+payment.
+
+% FIXME: who needs to be trusted for anonymity?
+
+
+\subsection{Reserves}
+A \emph{reserve} refers to a customer's non-anonymous funds at an exchange,
+identified by a reserve public key. Suppose a customer wants to convert money
+into anonymized digital coins. To do that, the customer first creates a
+reserve private/public key pair, and then transfers money via their bank to the
+exchange. The wire transfer instruction to the bank must include the reserve
+public key. To withdraw coins from a reserve, the customer authenticates
+themselves using the corresponding reserve private key.
+
+Typically, each wire transfer is made with a fresh reserve public key and thus
+creates a new reserve, but making another wire transfer with the same reserve
+public key simply adds funds to the existing reserve. Even after all funds
+have been withdrawn from a reserve, customers should keep the reserve key pair
+until all coins from the corresponding reserve have been spent, as in the event
+of a denomination key revocation (see Section \ref{sec:revocation-payback}) the
+customer needs this key to recover coins of revoked denominations.
+
+The exchange automatically transfers back to the customer's bank account any
+funds that have been left in a reserve for an extended amount of time, allowing
+customers that lost their reserve private key to eventually recover their
+funds. If a wire transfer to the exchange does not include a valid reserve public key,
+the exchange transfers the money back to the sender.
+
+% FIXME: this really needs a diagram
+
+Instead of requiring the customer to manually generate reserve key pairs and
+copy them onto a wire transfer form, banks can offer tight integration with the
+GNU Taler wallet software. In this scenario, the bank's website or banking app
+provides a ``withdraw to GNU Taler wallet'' action. After selecting this
+action, the user is asked to choose the amount to withdraw from their bank
+account into the wallet. The bank then instructs the GNU Taler wallet software
+to create record of the corresponding reserve; this request contains the anticipated amount, the
+reserve key pair and the URL of the exchange to be used. When invoked by the
+bank, the wallet asks the customer to select an exchange and to confirm the
+reserve creation. The exchange chosen by the customer must support the wire
+transfer method used by the bank, which will be automatically checked by the
+wallet. Typically, an exchange is already selected by default, as banks can
+suggest a default exchange provider to the wallet, and additionally wallets
+have a pre-defined list of trusted exchange providers. Subsequently, the wallet
+hands the reserve public key and the bank account information of the selected
+exchange back to the bank. The bank---typically after asking for a second authentication
+factor from the customer---will then trigger a wire transfer to the exchange with
+the information obtained from the wallet.
+
+When the customer's bank does not offer tight integration with GNU Taler, the
+customer can still manually instruct their wallet to create a reserve. The public
+key must then be included in a bank transaction to the exchange. When the
+customer's banking app supports pre-filling wire transfer details from a URL or
+a QR code, the wallet can generate such a URL or QR code that includes the
+pre-filled bank account details of the exchange as well as the reserve public
+key. The customer clicks on this link or scans the QR code to invoke their
+banking app with pre-filled transaction details. Since there currently is no
+standardized format for pre-filled wire transfer details, we are proposing the
+\texttt{payto://} URI format explained in
+Section~\ref{implementation:wire-method-identifiers}, currently under review
+for acceptance as an IETF Internet Standard.
+
+
+% FIXME: withdrawal strategy, coin selection
+
+\subsection{Coins and Denominations}
+Unlike plain Chaumian e-cash, where a coin just contains a serial number, a
+\emph{coin} in Taler is a public/private key pair where the private key is only
+known to the owner of the coin.
+
+A coin derives its financial value from a blind signature on the coin's
+public key. The exchange has multiple \emph{denomination key} pairs available
+for blind-signing coins of different financial values. Other approaches for representing
+different denominations are discussed in Section~\ref{design:related-different-denominations}.
+
+Denomination keys have an expiration date, before which any coins signed with
+it must be spent or exchanged into newer coins using the refresh protocol
+explained in Section \ref{sec:design-refresh}. This allows the exchange to
+eventually discard records of old transactions, thus limiting the records that
+the exchange must retain and search to detect double-spending attempts. If a
+denomination's private key were to be compromised, the exchange can detect this
+once more coins are redeemed than the total that was signed into existence
+using that denomination key. Should such an incident occur, the exchange can allow authentic
+customers to redeem their unspent coins that were signed with the compromised
+private key, while refusing further deposits involving coins signed by the
+compromised denomination key (see Section~\ref{sec:revocation-payback}). As a result, the
+financial damage of losing a private signing key is limited to at most the
+amount originally signed with that key, and denomination key rotation can be
+used to bound that risk.
+
+To prevent the exchange from deanonymizing users by signing each coin with a
+fresh denomination key, exchanges publicly announce their denomination keys
+in advance with validity periods that imply sufficiently strong anonymity sets.
+These announcements are expected to be signed with an offline long-term
+private \emph{master signing key} of the exchange and the auditor.
+Customers should obtain these announcements using an anonymous
+communication channel.
+
+After a coin is issued, the customer is the only entity that knows the
+private key of the coin, making them the \emph{owner} of the coin. Due
+to the use of blind signatures, the exchange does not learn the
+public key during the withdrawal process. If the private key is
+shared with others, they become co-owners of the coin. Knowledge of
+the private key of the coin and the signature over the coin's public
+key by an exchange's denomination key enables spending the
+coin.
+
+\subsection{Partial Spending and Unlinkable Change}
+
+Customers are not required to have exact change ready when making a payment.
+In fact, it should be encouraged to withdraw a larger amount of e-cash
+beforehand, as this blurs the correlation between the non-anonymous withdrawal
+event and the anonymous spending event, increasing the anonymity set.
+
+A customer spends a coin at a merchant by cryptographically signing a
+\emph{deposit permission} with the coin's private key. A deposit permission
+contains the hash of the \emph{contract terms}, i.e., the details of the
+purchase agreement between the customer and merchant. Coins can be
+\emph{partially} spent, and a deposit permission specifies the fraction of the
+coin's value to be paid to the merchant. As digital coins are trivial to copy,
+the merchant must immediately deposit them with the exchange, in order to get a
+deposit confirmation or an error that indicates double spending.
+
+When a coin is used in a completed or attempted/aborted payment, the coin's
+public key is revealed to the merchant/exchange, and further payments with the
+remaining amount would be linkable to the first spending event. To obtain
+unlinkable change for a partially spent (or otherwise revealed coin), GNU Taler
+introduces a \emph{refresh protocol}. The refresh protocol allows the customer
+to obtain new coins for the remaining amount on a coin. The old coin is marked
+as spent after it has been refreshed into new coins. Using blind signatures to
+withdraw the refreshed coins makes them unlinkable from the old coin.
+
+% FIXME: talk about logarithmic time, simulation
+
+\subsection{Refreshing and Taxability}\label{sec:design-refresh}
+% FIXME: maybe put section on how to avoid withdraw loophole here!
+One goal of GNU Taler is to make merchants' income transparent to state auditors,
+so that income can be taxed appropriately. Naively implemented, however, a simple
+refresh protocol could be used to evade taxes: the payee of an untaxed
+transaction would generate the private keys for the coins that result from
+refreshing a (partially spent) old coin, and send the corresponding public keys
+to the payer. The payer would execute the refresh protocol, provide the
+payee's coin public keys for blind signing, and provide the signatures to the
+payee, who would now have exclusive control over the coins.
+
+To remedy this, the refresh protocol introduces a \emph{link threat}: coins are
+refreshed in such a way that the owner of the old coin can always obtain the
+private key and exchange's signature on the new coins resulting from refreshes,
+using a separate \emph{linking protocol}. This introduces a threat to
+merchants that try to obtain untaxed income. Until the coins are finally
+deposited at the exchange, the customer can always re-gain ownership of them
+and could deposit them before the merchant gets a chance to do so. This
+disincentivizes the circulation of unreported income among untrusted parties in
+the system.
+
+In our implementation of the refresh and linking protocols, there is a
+non-negligible success chance ($\frac{1}{\kappa}$, depending on system parameter
+$\kappa$, typically $\ge 3$) for attempts to cheat during the refresh protocol,
+resulting in refreshed coins that cannot be recovered from the old coin via the
+linking protocol. Cheating during refresh, however, is still not
+\emph{profitable}, as an unsuccessful attempt results in completely losing the
+amount that was intended to be refreshed.
+
+% FIXME: mention that we don't want to use DRM/HSMs for this
+
+For purposes of anti-money-laundering and taxation, a more detailed audit of
+the merchant's transactions can be desirable. A government tax authority can
+request the merchant to reveal the business agreement details that match the
+contract terms hash recorded with the exchange. If a merchant is not able to
+provide theses values, they can be subjected to financial penalties by the
+state in relation to the amount transferred by the traditional currency
+transfer.
+
+\subsection{Transactions vs. Sharing}
+
+Sharing---in contrast to a transaction---happens when mutually trusted parties
+simultaneously have access to the private keys and signatures on coins.
+Sharing is not considered a transaction, as subsequently both parties have equal control
+over the funds. A useful application for sharing are peer-to-peer payments
+between mutually trusting parties, such as families and friends.
+
+\subsection{Aggregation}
+For each payment, the merchant can specify a deadline before which the exchange
+must issue a wire transfer to the merchant's bank account. Before this
+deadline occurs, multiple payments from deposited coins to the same merchant
+can be \emph{aggregated} into one bigger payment. This reduces transaction
+costs from underlying banking systems, which often charge a fixed fee per
+transaction. To incentivize merchants to choose a longer wire transfer
+deadline, the exchange can charge the merchant a fee per aggregated wire
+transfer.
+
+
+\subsection{Refunds}
+The aggregation period also opens the opportunity for cheap \emph{refunds}. If
+a customer is not happy with their product, the merchant can instruct the
+exchange to give the customer a refund before the wire transfer deadline has
+occurred. This effectively ``undoes'' the deposit of the coin, and restores the
+available amount left on it. The refresh protocol is then used by the customer
+on the coins involved in a refund, so that payments remain unlinkable.
+
+
+% FIXME: mention EU customer laws / 14 weeks?
+
+\subsection{Fees}
+In order to subsidize the operation of the exchange and enable a sustainable
+business model, the exchange can charge fees for most operations. For
+withdrawal, refreshing, deposit and refunds, the fee is dependent on the denomination,
+as different denominations might have different key sizes, security and storage
+requirements.
+
+Most payment systems hide fees from the customer by putting them to the merchant.
+This is also possible with Taler. As different exchanges (and denominations)
+can charge different fees, the merchant can specify a maximum amount of fees it
+is willing to cover. Fees exceeding this amount must be explicitly paid by the
+customer.
+
+Another consideration for fees is the prevention of denial-of-service attacks.
+To make ``useless'' operations, such as repeated refreshing on coins
+(causing the exchange to use relatively expensive storage), unattractive to an
+adversary, these operations must charge a fee. Again, for every refresh
+following a payment, the merchant can cover the costs up to a limit set by the
+merchant, effectively hiding the fees from the customer.
+
+Yet another type of fee are the \emph{wire transfer fees}, which are charged
+by the exchange for every wire transfer to a merchant in order to compensate for
+the cost of making a transaction in the underlying bank system. The wire
+transfer fees encourage merchants to choose longer aggregation periods, as the
+fee is charged per transaction and independant of the amount.
+
+Merchants can also specify the maximum wire fee they are willing to cover for
+customers, along with an \emph{amortization rate} for the wire fees. In case
+the wire fees for a payment exceed the merchant's chosen maximum, the customer
+must additionally pay the excess fee divided by the amortization rate. The
+merchant should set amortization rate to the expected number of transactions
+per wire transfer aggregation window. This allows the merchant to adjust
+the total expected amount that it needs to pay for wire fees.
+
+
+\subsection{The Withdraw Loophole and Tipping}\label{taler:design:tipping}
+The withdraw protocol can be (ab)used to illicitly transfer money, when the
+receiver generates the coin's secret key, and gives the public key to the party
+executing the withdraw protocol. We call this the ``withdraw loophole''. This
+is only possible for one ``hop'', as money can still not circulate among
+mutually distrusted parties, due to the properties of the refresh protocol.
+
+A ``benevolent'' use of the withdraw loophole is \emph{tipping}, where merchants give
+small rewards to customers (for example, for filling out a survey or installing
+an application), without any contractual obligations or digitally signed
+agreement.
+
+% FIXME: argue that this can't be done on scale for money laundering
+
+\subsubsection{Fixing the Withdraw Loophole}\label{taler:design:fixing-withdraw-loophole}
+
+In order to discourage the usage of the withdraw loophole for untaxed payments,
+the following approach would be possible: Normal withdraw operations and
+unregistered reserves are disabled, except for special tip reserves that are
+registered by the merchant as part of a tipping campaign. Customers are
+required to pre-register at the exchange and obtain a special withdraw key pair
+against a small safety deposit. Customer obtain new coins via a refresh
+operation from the withdraw key to a new coin. If customers want to abuse
+Taler for untaxed payments, they either need to risk losing money by lying
+during the execution of the refresh protocol, or share their reserve private
+key with the payee. In order to discourage the latter, the exchanges gives the
+safety deposit to the first participant who reports the corresponding private
+key as being used in an illicit transaction, and requires a new safety deposit
+before the customer is allowed to withdraw again.
+
+However since the withdraw loophole allows only one additional ``payment'' (without any
+cryptographic evidence that can be used in disputes) before the coin must be deposited,
+these additional mitigations might not even be justified considering their additional cost.
+
+
+\section{Auditing}
+The auditor is a component of GNU Taler which would typically be deployed by a
+financial regulator, fulfilling the following functionality:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item It regularly examines the exchange's database and
+ bank transaction history to detect discrepancies.
+ \item It accepts samples of certain protocol responses that merchants
+ received from an audited exchange, to verify that what the exchange signed
+ corresponds to what it stored in its database.
+ \item It certifies exchanges that fulfill the operational and financial requirements
+ demanded by regulators.
+ \item It regularly runs anonymous checks to ensure that the required protocol
+ endpoints of the exchange are available.
+ \item In some deployment scenarios, merchants need to pre-register with exchanges to fulfill know-your-customer (KYC) requirements.
+ The auditor provides a list of certified exchanges to merchants,
+ to which the merchant then can automatically KYC-register.
+ \item It provides customers with an interface to submit cryptographic proof that an exchange
+ misbehaved. If a customer claims that the exchange denies service, it can execute a request on
+ behalf of the customer.
+\end{itemize}
+
+%An exchange operator would typically run their own instance of the auditor software,
+%to ensure correct operation.
+
+% FIXME: live auditing
+
+% FIXME: discuss indian merchant scenario
+
+\subsection{Exchange Compromise Modes}
+The exchange is an attractive target for hackers and insider threats. We now
+discuss different ways that the exchange can be compromised, how to reduce the
+likelihood of such a compromise, and how to detect and react to such an event
+if it happens.
+
+\subsubsection{Compromise of Denomination Keys and Revocation}\label{sec:revocation-payback}
+When a denomination key pair is compromised, an attacker can ``print money'' by
+using it to sign coins of that denomination. An exchange (or its auditor) can
+detect this when the number of deposits for a certain denomination exceed the
+number of withdrawals for that same denomination.
+
+We allow the exchange to revoke denomination keys, and wallets periodically
+check for such revocations. We call a coin of a revoked denomination a revoked
+coin. If a denomination key has been revoked, the wallets use the
+\emph{payback} protocol to recover funds from coins of revoked denominations.
+Once a denomination is revoked, new coins of this denomination can't be
+withdrawn or used as the target denomination for a refresh operation. A revoked
+coin cannot be spent, and can only be refreshed if its public key was recorded
+in the exchange's database (as spending/refresh operations) before it was
+revoked.
+
+The following cases are possible for payback:
+\begin{enumerate}
+ \item The revoked coin has never been seen by the exchange before, but the
+ customer can prove via a withdraw protocol transcript and blinding factor
+ that the coin resulted from a legitimate withdrawal from a reserve. In
+ this case, the exchange credits the reserve that was used to withdraw the
+ coin with the value of the revoked coin.
+ \item The coin has been partially spent. In this case, the exchange allows
+ the remaining amount on the coin to be refreshed into fresh coins of
+ non-revoked denominations.
+ \item The revoked coin $C_R$ has never been seen by the exchange before, was
+ obtained via the refresh protocol, and the exchange has an existing record
+ of either a deposit or refresh for the ancestor coin $C_A$ that was
+ refreshed into the revoked coin $C_R$. If the customer can prove this by
+ showing a corresponding refresh protocol transcript and blinding factors, the exchange credits
+ the remaining value of $C_R$ on $C_A$. It is explicitly permitted for $C_A$
+ to be revoked as well. The customer can then obtain back their funds by
+ refreshing $C_A$.
+\end{enumerate}
+
+These rules limit the maximum financial damage that the exchange can incur from
+a compromised denomination key $D$ to $2nv$, with $n$ being the
+maximum number of $D$-coins simultaneously in circulation and $v$ the financial
+value of a single $D$-coin. Say denomination $D$ was withdrawn by
+legitimate users $n$ times. As soon as the exchange sees more
+than $n$ pairwise different $D$-coins, it must immediately
+revoke $D$. An attacker can thus at most gain $nv$ by either
+refreshing into other non-revoked denominations or spending the forged $D$-coins.
+The legitimate users can then request a payback for their coins, resulting in
+a total financial damage of at most $2nv$.
+
+With one rare exception, the payback protocol does not negatively impact the
+anonymity of customers. We show this by looking at the three different cases
+for payback on a revoked coin. Specifically, in case (1), the coin obtained
+from the credited reserve is blindly signed, in case (2) the refresh protocol
+guarantees unlinkability of the non-revoked change, and in case (3) the revoked
+coin $C_R$ is assumed to be fresh. If $C_R$ from case (3) has been seen by a
+merchant before in an aborted/unfinished transaction, this transaction would be
+linkable to transactions on $C_A$. Thus, anonymity is not preserved when an
+aborted transaction coincides with revoked denomination, which should be rare
+in practice.
+
+Unlike most other operations, the
+payback protocol does not incur any transaction fees. The primary use of the
+protocol is to limit the financial loss in cases where an audit reveals that
+the exchange's private keys were compromised, and to automatically pay back
+balances held in a customers' wallet if an exchange ever goes out of business.
+
+To limit the damage of a compromise, the exchange can employ a hardware
+security module that contains the denomination secret keys, and is
+pre-programmed with a limit on the number of signatures it can produce. This
+might be mandated by certain auditors, who will also audit the operational
+security of an exchange as part of the certification process.
+
+\subsubsection{Compromise of Signing Keys}
+When a signing key is compromised, the attacker can pretend to be a
+merchant and forge deposit confirmations. To forge a deposit
+confirmation, the attacker also needs to get a customer to sign a
+contract from the adversary (which should include the adversary's
+banking details) with a valid coin. The attack here is that the
+customer is allowed to have spent the coin already. Thus, a deposit of
+the resulting deposit permission would result in a rejection from the
+exchange due to double spending. By forging the deposit confirmation
+using the compromised signing key, the attacker can thus claim in
+court that they properly deposited the coin first and demand payment
+from the exchange.
+
+We note that indeed an evil exchange could simply fail to record
+deposit permissions in its database and then fail to execute them.
+Thus, given a merchant presenting a deposit confirmation, we need
+a way to establish whether this is a case of an evil exchange that
+should be compelled to pay, or a case of a compromised signing key
+and where payouts (and thus financial damage to the exchange)
+can legitimately be limited.
+
+To limit the financial damage of a compromised signing key, merchants
+must be required to work with auditors to perform a
+\emph{probabilistic deposit auditing} of the exchange. Here, the goal
+is to help detect the compromise of a signing key by making sure that
+the exchange does indeed properly record deposit confirmations.
+However, double-checking with the auditor if every deposit
+confirmation is recorded in the exchange's database would be too
+expensive and time-consuming. Fortunately, a probabilistic method
+where merchants only send a small fraction of their deposit
+confirmations to the auditor suffices. Then, if the auditor sees a
+deposit confirmation that is not recorded in the exchange's database
+(possibly after performing the next synchronization with the
+exchange's database), it signals the exchange that the signing key has
+been compromised.
+
+At this point, the signing key must be revoked and the exchange will
+be required to investigate the security of its systems and address the
+issue before resuming normal operations.
+%
+%If the exchange had separate short-term signing keys just for signing deposit
+%confirmations, it could also employ hardware security modules with a counter,
+%and check if the value of the counter matches matches the deposit confirmations
+%recorded in the database.
+
+Still, at this point various actors (including the attacker) could still
+step forward with deposit confirmations signed by the revoked key and
+claim that the exchange owes them for their deposits. Simply revoking
+a signing key cannot lift the exchange's payment obligations, and the
+attacker could have signed an unlimited number of such deposit confirmations
+with the compromised key. However, in contrast to honest merchants, the
+attacker will not have participated {\em proportionally} in the auditor's
+probabilistic deposit auditing scheme for those deposit confirmations:
+in that case, the key compromise would have been detected and the key
+revoked.
+
+The exchange must still pay all deposit permissions it signed for
+coins that were not double-spent. However, for all coins where
+multiple merchants claim that they have a deposit confirmation, the
+exchange will pay the merchants proportionate to the fraction of the
+coins that they reported to the auditor as part of probabilistic
+deposit auditing. For example, if 1\% of deposits must be reported to
+the auditor according to the protocol, a merchant might be paid at
+most say 100+X times the number of reported deposits where $X>0$
+serves to ensure proper payout despite the probabilistic nature of the
+reporting. As a result, honest merchants have an {\em incentive} to
+correctly report the deposit confirmations to the auditor.
+
+Given this scheme, the attacker can only report a small number of
+deposit confirmations to the auditor before triggering the signing key
+compromise detection. Suppose again that 1\% of deposit confirmations
+are reported by honest merchants, then the attacker can only expect to
+submit 100 deposit permissions created by the compromised signing key
+before being detected. The attacker's expected financial benefit from
+the key compromise would then be the value of $(100+X) \cdot 100$
+deposit permissions.
+
+Thus, the financial benefit to the attacker can be limited by
+probabilistic deposit auditing, and honest merchants have proper
+incentives to participate in the process.
+
+\subsubsection{Compromise of the Database}
+If an adversary would be able to modify the exchange, this would be detected
+rather quickly by the auditor, provided that the database has appropriate
+integrity mechanisms. An attacker could also prevent database updates to block
+the recording of spend operations, and then double spend. This is effectively
+equivalent to the compromise of signing keys, and can be detected with the same
+strategies.
+
+\subsubsection{Compromise of the Master Key}
+If the master key was compromised, an attacker could de-anonymize customers by
+announcing different sets of denomination keys to each of them. If the
+exchange was audited, this would be detected quickly, as these denominations
+will not be signed by auditors.
+
+\subsection{Cryptographic Proof}
+
+We use the term ``proof'' in many places as the protocol provides cryptographic
+proofs of which parties behave correctly or incorrectly. However,
+as~\cite{fc2014murdoch} point out, in practice financial systems need to
+provide evidence that holds up in courts. Taler's implementation is designed
+to export evidence and upholds the core principles described
+in~\cite{fc2014murdoch}. In particular, in providing the cryptographic proofs
+as evidence none of the participants have to disclose their core secrets.
+
+\subsection{Perfect Crime Scenarios}\label{sec:design:blackmailing}
+GNU Taler can be slightly modified to thwart blackmailing or kidnapping
+attempts by criminals who intend to use the anonymity properties of the system
+and demand to be paid ransom in anonymous e-cash.
+
+Our modification incurs a slight penalty on the latency for customers during normal use and
+requires slightly more data to be stored in the exchange's database, and thus
+should only be used in deployments where resistance against perfect crime
+scenarios is necessary. A payment system for a school cafeteria likely does
+not need these extra measures.
+
+The following modifications are made:
+\begin{enumerate}
+ \item Coins can now only be used in either a transaction or in a refresh operations, not a mix of both.
+ Effectively, the customer's wallet then needs to use the refresh protocol to prepare exact change
+ before a transaction is made, and that transaction is made with exact change.
+
+ This change is necessary to preserve anonymity in face of the second modification, but increases
+ storage requirements and latency.
+ \item The payback protocol is changed so that a coin obtained
+ via refreshing must be recovered differently when revoked: to recover a revoked coin
+ obtained via refreshing, the customer needs to show the transcripts for the
+ chain of all refresh operations and the initial withdrawal operation
+ (including the blinding factor). Refreshes on revoked coins are not
+ allowed anymore.
+\end{enumerate}
+
+After an attacker has been paid ransom, the exchange simply revokes all currently offered denominations
+and registers a new set of denomination with the auditor.
+Reserves used to pay the attacker are marked as blocked in the exchange's
+database. Normal users can use the payback protocol to obtain back the money
+they've previously had in revoked denominations. The attacker can try to
+recover funds via the (now modified) payback protocol, but this attempt will
+not be successful, as the initial reserve is blocked. The criminal could also
+try to spend the e-cash anonymously before it is revoked, but this is likely
+difficult for large amounts, and furthermore due to income transparency all
+transactions made between the payment of the ransom and the revocation can be
+traced back to merchants that might be complicit in laundering the ransom
+payment.
+
+Honest customers can always use the payback protocol to transfer the funds to
+the initial reserve. Due to modification (1), unlinkability of transactions is
+not affected, as only coins that were purely used for refreshing can now be
+correlated.
+
+We believe that our approach is more practical than the approaches based on
+tracing, since in a scheme with tracing, the attacker can always ask for a
+plain blind signature. With our approach, the attacker will always lose funds
+that they cannot immediately spend. Unfortunately our approach is limited to a
+kidnapping scenario, and not applicable in those blackmail scenarios where the
+attacker can do damage after they find out that their funds have been erased.
+
+\section{Related Work}
+% FIXME: Stuff to review/include:
+% Blindly Signed Contracts: Anonymous On-Blockchain and Off-Blockchain Bitcoin Transactions
+% zcash taxability stuff
+
+\subsection{Anonymous E-Cash}\label{sec:related-work:e-cash}
+
+Chaum's seminal paper \cite{chaum1983blind} introduced blind signatures and
+demonstrated how to use them for online e-cash. Later work
+\cite{chaum1989efficient,chaum1990untraceable} introduced offline spending, where additional
+information is encoded into coins in such a way that double spending reveals
+the culprit's identity.
+
+Okamoto \cite{okamoto1995efficient} introduced the first efficient offline
+e-cash scheme with divisibility, a feature that allows a single coin to be
+spent in parts. With Okamoto's protocol, different spending operations that
+used parts of the same coin were linkable. An unlinkable version of
+divisible e-cash was first presented by Canard~\cite{canard2007divisible}.
+
+Camenisch's compact e-cash \cite{camenisch2005compact} allows wallets with $2^\ell$ coins to be stored
+and withdrawn with storage, computation and computational costs in $\mathcal{O}(\ell)$.
+Each coin in the wallet, however, still needs to be spent separately.
+
+The protocol that can currently be considered the state-of-the-art for efficient
+offline e-cash was introduced by Pointcheval et al. \cite{pointcheval2017cut}.
+It allows constant-time withdrawal of a divisible coin, and constant-time
+spending of a continuous ``chunk'' of a coin. While the pre-determined number
+of divisions of a coin is independent from the storage, bandwidth and
+computational complexity of the wallet, the exchange needs to check for
+double-spending at the finest granularity. Thus, highly divisible coins incur
+large storage and computational costs for the exchange.
+
+An e-cash system with multiple denominations with different financial values
+was proposed by Canard and Gouget~\cite{canard2006handy} in the context of a divisible
+coupon system.
+
+One of the earliest mentions of an explicit change protocol can be found in
+\cite{brickell1995trustee}. Ian Goldberg's HINDE system is another design that
+allows the merchant to provide change, but the mechanism could be abused to
+hide income from taxation.\footnote{Description based on personal
+communication. HINDE was never published, but supposedly publicly discussed at
+Financial Crypto '98.} Another online e-cash protocol with change was proposed
+by Tracz \cite{tracz2001fair}. The use of an anonymous change protocol (called
+a ``refund'' in their context) for fractional payments has also been suggested
+for a public transit fees payment system \cite{rupp2013p4r}. Change protocols
+for offline e-cash were recently proposed \cite{batten2018offline}. To the
+best of our knowledge, no change protocol with protections against tax evasion
+has been proposed so far, and all change protocols suggested so far can be
+(ab)used to make a payment into another wallet.
+
+Transferable e-cash allows the transfer of funds between customers without
+using the exchange as in intermediary \cite{fuchsbauer2009transferable}.
+
+Chaum also proposed wallets with observers \cite{chaum1992wallet} as a
+mechanism against double spending. The observer is a tamper-proof hardware
+security module that prevents double-spending, while at the same time being
+unable to de-anonymize the user.
+
+Various works propose mechanisms to selectively de-anonymize customers or
+transactions that are suspected of criminal activities
+\cite{stadler1995fair,davida1997anonymity}. Another approach suspends
+customers that were involved in a particular transaction, while keeping the
+customer anonymous \cite{au2011electronic}.
+
+One of the first formal treatments of the provable security of e-cash was given
+in \cite{damgaard2007proof}. The first complete security definition for blind
+signatures was given by Pointcheval \cite{pointcheval1996provably} and applied
+to RSA signatures later \cite{pointcheval2000security}. While the security
+proof of RSA signatures requires the random oracle model, many blind signature
+schemes are provably secure in the standard model
+\cite{izabachene2013divisible,pointcheval2017cut}. While most literature
+provides only ``human-verified'' security arguments, the security of a simple
+e-cash scheme has been successfully modeled in
+ProVerif~\cite{dreier2015formal}, albeit only in the symbolic model.
+
+\subsubsection{Implementations}
+DigiCash was the first commercial implementation of Chaum's e-cash. It
+ultimately failed to be widely adopted, and the company filed for bankruptcy in
+1998. Some details of the implementation are available
+\cite{schoenmakers1997security}. In addition to Chaum's infamously paranoid
+management style \cite{next1999digicash}, reasons for DigiCash's failure could
+have been the following:
+
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item DigiCash did not allow account-less operations. To use DigiCash,
+ customers had to sign up with a bank that natively supports DigiCash.
+ \item DigiCash did not support change or partial spending, negating a lot of
+ the convenience and security of e-cash by requiring frequent withdrawals
+ from the customer's bank account.
+ \item The technology used by DigiCash was protected by patents,
+ which stifled innovation from competitors.
+ \item Chaum's published design does not clearly limit the financial damage an
+ exchange might suffer from the disclosure of its private online signing key.
+\end{itemize}
+
+To our knowledge, the only publicly available effort to implement anonymous
+e-cash is Opencoin~\cite{dent2008extensions}. However, Opencoin is neither
+actively developed nor used, and it is not clear to what degree the
+implementation is even complete. Only a partial description of the Opencoin
+protocol is available to date.
+
+
+\subsubsection{Representing Denominations}\label{design:related-different-denominations}
+
+For GNU Taler, we chose to represent denominations of different values by a
+different public key for every denomination, together with a mapping from
+public key to financial value and auxiliary information about fees and
+expiration dates. This approach has the advantage that coins of higher denominations
+can be signed by denominations with a larger key size.
+
+Schoenmakers~\cite{schoenmakers1997security} proposes an optimized
+implementation of multiple denomination that specifically works with RSA keys,
+which encodes the denomination in the public exponent $e$ of the RSA public
+key, while the modulus $N$ stays the same for all denominations. An advantage
+of this scheme is the reduced size of the public keys for a set of
+denominations. As this encoding is specific to RSA, it would be difficult for
+future versions of this protocol to switch to different blind signature
+primitives. More importantly, factoring $N$ would lead to a compromise of all
+denominations instead of just one.
+
+Partially blind signatures can be used to represent multiple denominations
+by blindly signing the coin's serial number and including the financial value of the coin
+in the common information seen by both the signer and signee \cite{abe2000provably}.
+
+The compact e-cash scheme of Märtens~\cite{maertens2015practical} allows
+constant-time withdrawal of wallets with an arbitrary number of coins, as long
+as the number of coins is smaller than some system parameter. This approach
+effectively dispenses with the need to have different denominations.
+
+
+\subsubsection{Comparison}
+
+\newcommand\YES{\ding{51}} % {\checkmark}
+\newcommand\NO{\ding{55}}
+
+\newcommand*\rot{\multicolumn{1}{R{45}{1em}}}% no optional argument here, please!
+%\newcommand*\rot{}% no optional argument here, please!
+
+
+\newcolumntype{H}{>{\setbox0=\hbox\bgroup}c<{\egroup}@{}}
+
+\newcolumntype{R}[2]{%
+ >{\adjustbox{angle=#1,lap=\width-(#2)}\bgroup}%
+ l%
+ <{\egroup}%
+}
+
+{\footnotesize
+\begin{tabular}{r|ccccccccccc}
+&
+\rot{Year} &
+\rot{Implementation} &
+%
+\rot{Offline spending} &
+\rot{Safe aborts/backups} &
+\rot{Key expiration} &
+%
+\rot{Income transparency} &
+%
+% \rot{Withdrawal cost} & \rot{Deposit cost} &
+\rot{No trusted setup} &
+\rot{Storage for wallet} &
+\rot{Storage for exchange} &
+%
+\rot{Change/Divisibility} &
+\rot{Receipts \& Refunds}
+\\ \hline
+Chaum \cite{chaum1983blind}
+& 1983 & P
+& \NO & \NO & ?
+& ?
+% & $\log n$ & $\log n$
+& \YES & $\log n$ & $\log n$
+& \NO & \NO
+\\
+DigiCash \cite{schoenmakers1997security}
+& 1990 & P
+& \NO & \YES & \YES
+& \NO
+& \YES & $\log n$ & $\log n$
+& \NO & \NO
+\\
+Offline Chaum \cite{chaum1990untraceable}
+& 1990 & ?
+& \YES & \NO & ?
+& ?
+& \YES & $\log n$ & $\log n$
+& \NO & \NO
+\\
+Tracz \cite{tracz2001fair} % HINDE
+& 2001 & E
+& \NO & \YES & ?
+& \NO
+& \YES & $\log n$ & $\log n$
+& Onl. & \NO
+\\
+Compact \cite{camenisch2005compact}
+& 2005 & \NO
+& \YES & \NO & ?
+& ?
+& \YES & $\log n$ & $n$ % We're guessing trustless anonymity because not trusted setup
+& Off. & \NO
+% \\
+% Martens \cite{maertens2015}
+% & 2015 & \NO
+% & \NO & \NO & %?
+% & \NO & S & \NO
+% % & $\log n$ & $\log n$
+% & \YES & \NO & W % We're guessing trustless anonymity because not trusted setup
+% & OFF & \NO
+\\
+Divisible \cite{pointcheval2017cut}
+& 2017 & \NO
+& \YES & \NO & ?
+& ?
+& \NO & $1$ & $n$
+& Off. & \NO
+\\
+GNU Taler
+& 2017 & FS
+& \NO & \YES & \YES
+& \YES
+% & $\log n$ & $\log n$
+& \YES & $\log n$ & $\log n$
+& Onl. & \YES
+\\ \hline
+\end{tabular}
+}
+
+
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item \textbf{Implementation.}
+ Is there an implementation? Is it proprietary (P), experimental (E), or free software (FS).
+ \item \textbf{Offline Spending}
+ Can spending happen offline with delayed detection of double spenders, or
+ is double spending detected immediately during spending?
+ \item \textbf{Safe abort/backup.}
+ Is anonymity preserved in the presence of interrupted operations
+ or restoration from backups? Inherently conflicts with offline double
+ spending detection in all approaches that we are aware of.
+ We specify ``\YES'' also for schemes that do not explicitly treat aborts/backup,
+ but would allow a safe implementation when aborts/backups happen.
+ \item \textbf{Key expiration.}
+ We specify ``?'' for schemes that do not explicitly discuss key expiration,
+ but do not fundamentally conflict with the concept.
+ \item \textbf{Income transparency.}
+ We specify ``\YES'' if income transparency is supported, ``\NO'' if some feature of
+ the scheme conflicts with income transparency and ``?'' if it might be possible
+ to add income transparency.
+ \item \textbf{No trusted setup.}
+ In a trusted setup, some parameters and cryptographic keys are generated
+ by a trusted third party. A compromise of the trusted setup phase can mean loss
+ of anonymity.
+ \item \textbf{Storage for wallet/exchange.}
+ The expected storage for coins adding up to arbitrary value $n$ is specified,
+ with some reasonable upper bound for $n$.
+ \item \textbf{Change/Divisibility.}
+ Can customers pay without possessing exact change? If so, is it handled
+ by giving change online (Onl.) or by divisible coins that support offline
+ operation (Off.)?
+ \item \textbf{Receipts \& Refunds.}
+ The customer either can prove that they payed for
+ a contract, or they can get their (unlinkable) money back.
+ Also merchants can issue refunds for completed transactions.
+ These operations must not introduce linkability or otherwise
+ compromise the customer's anonymity.
+\end{itemize}
+
+
+\subsection{Blockchains}
+The term ``blockchain'' refers to a wide variety of protocols and systems concerned with
+maintaining a ledger---typically involving financial transactions---in a
+distributed and decentralized manner.\footnote{Even though there is a centralization tendency
+from various sources in practice \cite{walch2019deconstructing}.}
+
+The first and most prominent system that would be categorized as a
+``blockchain'' today\footnote{The paper that introduces Bitcoin does not
+mention the term ``blockchain''} is Bitcoin \cite{nakamoto2008bitcoin},
+published by an individual or group under the alias ``Satoshi Nakamoto''. The
+document timestamping service described in \cite{haber1990time} could be seen
+as an even earlier blockchain that predates Bitcoin by about 13
+years and is still in use today.
+
+As the name implies, blockchains are made up of a chain of blocks, each block
+containing updates to the ledger and the hash code of its predecessor block. The
+chain terminates in a ``genesis block'' that determines the initial state of
+the ledger.
+
+Some of the most important decisions for the design of blockchains are the following:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item The \emph{consensus mechanism}, which determines how the participants
+ agree on the current state of the ledger.
+
+ In the simplest possible blockchain, a trusted authority would validate
+ transactions and publish new blocks as the head of the chain. In order to
+ increase fault tolerance, multiple trusted authorities can use Byzantine
+ consensus to agree on transactions. With classical Byzantine consensus
+ protocols, this makes the system robust with a malicious minority of up to
+ $1/3$ of nodes. While fast and appropriate for some applications,
+ classical Byzantine consensus only works with a known set of participants
+ and does not scale well to many nodes.
+
+ Bitcoin instead uses Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus, where the head of the
+ chain that determines the current ledger state is chosen as the block that
+ provably took the most ``work'' to construct, including the accumulated
+ work of ancestor blocks. The work consists of finding a hash preimage $n
+ \Vert c$, where $c$ are the contents of the block and $n$ is a nonce, such
+ that the hash $H(n \Vert c)$ ends with a certain number of zeroes (as
+ determined by the difficulty derived from previous blocks). Under the
+ random oracle, the only way to find such a nonce is by trial-and-error.
+ This nonce proves to a verifier that the creator of the block spent
+ computational resources to construct it, and the correctness is easily
+ verified by computing $H(n \Vert c)$. The creator of a block is rewarded
+ with a mining reward and transaction fees for transactions within the
+ block.
+
+ PoW consensus is not final: an adversary with enough computational power
+ can create an alternate chain branching off an earlier block. Once this
+ alternative, longer chain is published, the state represented by the
+ earlier branch is discarded. This creates a potential for financial fraud,
+ where an earlier transaction is reversed by publishing an alternate history
+ that does not contain it. While it was originally believed that PoW
+ consensus process is resistant against attackers that have less than a
+ $51\%$ majority of computational power, closer analysis has shown that a
+ $21\%$ majority sufficies \cite{eyal2018majority}.
+
+ A major advantage of PoW consensus is that the participants need not be
+ known beforehand, and that Sybil attacks are impossible since consensus
+ decisions are only dependent on the available computational power, and not
+ on the number of participants.
+
+ In practice, PoW consensus is rather slow: Bitcoin can currently support
+ 3-7 transactions per second on a global scale. Some efforts have been made
+ to improve Bitcoin's efficiency \cite{eyal2016bitcoin,vukolic2015quest},
+ but overall PoW consensus needs to balance speed against security.
+
+ Proof-of-Stake (PoS) is a different type of consensus protocol for
+ blockchains, which intends to securely reach consensus without depleting
+ scarce resources such as energy for computation
+ \cite{bentov2016cryptocurrencies,kwon2014tendermint}. Blocks are created
+ by randomly selected validators, which obtain a reward for serving as a
+ validator. To avoid Sybil attacks and create economic incentives for good
+ behavior, the probability to get selected as a validator is proportional to
+ one's wealth on the respective blockchain. Realizing PoS has some
+ practical challenges with respect to economic incentives: As blocks do not
+ take work to create, validators can potentially benefit from creating
+ forks, instead of validating on just one chain.
+
+ Algorand \cite{gilad2017algorand} avoids some of the problems with PoW
+ consensus by combining some of the ideas of PoW with classical Byzantine
+ consensus protocols. Their proposed system does not have any incentives
+ for validators.
+
+ Avalance \cite{rocket2018snowflake} has been proposed as a scalable
+ Byzantine Consensus algorithm for use with blockchains. It is based on a
+ gossip protocol and is only shown to work in the synchronous model.
+
+ \item Membership and visibility. Blockchains such as Bitcoin or Ethereum with
+ public membership and public visibility are called \emph{permissionless blockchains}.
+ Opposed to that, \emph{permissioned} blockchains have been proposed for usage in
+ banking, health and asset tracking applications \cite{androulaki2018hyperledger}.
+
+ \item Monetary policy and wealth accumulation.
+ Blockchains that are used as cryptocurrencies come with their own monetary
+ policy. In the case of Bitcoin, the currency supply is limited, and due to
+ difficulty increase in mining the currency is deflationary. Other
+ cryptocurrencies such as duniter\footnote{See
+ \url{https://duniter.org/}.} have been proposed with built-in rules for
+ inflation, and a basic income mechanism for participants.
+
+ \item Expressivity of transactions. Transactions in Bitcoin are small programs
+ in a stack-based programming language that are guaranteed to terminate.
+ Ethereum \cite{wood2014ethereum} takes this idea further and allows smart contracts with
+ Turing-complete computation and access to external oracles.
+
+ \item Governance. Blockchain governance \cite{reijers2016governance,levy2017book} is a
+ topic that received relatively little attention so far. As blockchains
+ interact with existing legal and social systems across national borders,
+ different sources of ``truth'' must be reconciled.
+
+ Furthermore, consensus is not just internal to the operation of
+ blockchains, but also external in the development of the technology.
+ Currently small groups of developers create the rules for the operation of
+ blockchains, and likewise have the power to change them. There is
+ currently very little research on social and technological processes to
+ find a ``meta-consensus'' on the rules that govern such systems, and how
+ these rules can be adapted and changed in a consensus process.
+
+ \item Anonymity and Zero-Knowledge Proofs. Bitcoin transactions are only
+ pseudoymous, the full transaction history is publicly available and leads
+ to reduced anonymity in practice \cite{reid2013analysis}. Tumblers
+ \cite{bonneau2014mixcoin,heilman2017tumblebit} are an approach to increase
+ the anonymity in Bitcoin-style cryptocurrencies by creating additional
+ transactions to cover up the real owner and sources of funds. While newer tumblers
+ such as TumbleBit \cite{heilman2017tumblebit} provide rather strong security guarantees,
+ mixing incurs transaction costs.
+
+ Some cryptocurrencies have direct support for anonymous transactions
+ \cite{sun2017ringct}. ZeroCash \cite{bensasson2014zerocash} uses
+ zero-knowledge proofs to hide the sender, receiver and amount of a
+ transaction. While ZeroCash currently relies on a trusted setup for
+ unforgeability of its currency, more recent proposals dispense with that
+ requirement \cite{ben2018scalable,wahby2018doubly}. As the anonymity
+ provided by ZeroCash facilitates tax evasion and use in other crimes, an
+ additional, optional layer for privacy-preserving policy for taxation,
+ spending limits and identity escrow has been proposed
+ \cite{garman2016accountable}.
+\end{itemize}
+
+Practical guidance on what kind of blockchain is appropriate for an
+application, and if a blockchain is required in the first place, can be found
+in \cite{wust2017you}.
+
+
+\subsection{Approaches to Micropayments}
+Micropayments refer to payments of very small value. Microtransactions would
+not be feasible in traditional payment systems due to high transaction costs,
+which might even exceed that value that is to be transferred.
+
+\subsubsection{Peppercoin}
+
+Peppercoin~\cite{rivest2004peppercoin} is a microdonation protocol.
+The main idea of the protocol is to reduce transaction costs by
+minimizing the number of transactions that are processed directly by
+the exchange. Instead of always paying, the customer ``gambles'' with the
+merchant for each microdonation. Only if the merchant wins, the
+microdonation is upgraded to a macropayment to be deposited at the
+exchange. Peppercoin does not provide customer-anonymity. The proposed
+statistical method by which exchanges detect fraudulent cooperation between
+customers and merchants at the expense of the exchange not only creates
+legal risks for the exchange, but would also require that the exchange learns
+about microdonations where the merchant did not get upgraded to a
+macropayment. It is therefore unclear how Peppercoin would actually
+reduce the computational burden on the exchange.
+
+\subsubsection{Tick Payments}
+% FIXME: also works off-line
+Tick payments were proposed by Pedersen \cite{pedersen1996electronic} as a
+general technique to amortize the cost for small, recurring payments to the
+same payee. The payer first makes an up-front deposit as one larger payment
+that involves the payment processor. To make a micropayment, the payer sends a
+message to the payee that authorizes the payee to claim a fraction of this
+deposit. Each further micropayment simply increases the fraction of the
+deposit that can be claimed, and only requires communication between payer and
+payee. The payee only needs to show the last message received from the payer
+to the payment processor in order to receive the accumulated amounts received
+through tick payments.
+
+\subsubsection{Payment Channels and Lightning Network}
+The Lightning Network \cite{poon2016bitcoin} is a proposed payment system that
+is meant to run on top of Bitcoin and enable faster, cheaper
+(micro-)transactions. It is based on establishing \emph{payment channels}
+between Bitcoin nodes. A payment channel is essentially a tick payment where
+the deposit and settlement happens on a blockchain. The goal of the
+Lightning network is to route a payment between two arbitrary nodes by finding a
+path that connects the two routes through payment channels. The protocol is
+designed in such a way that a node on the path between the initial sender and
+final receiver can only receive a payment on a payment channel if it correctly
+forwards it to the next node.
+
+Experimental deployments of the Lightning network recently suffered heavily
+from denial-of-service attacks. % FIXME: citation needed!
+
+BOLT \cite{green2016bolt} is an anonymous payment channel for ZeroCash, and is
+intended to be used as a building block for a second-layer payment protocol
+like the Lightning Network.
+
+\subsubsection{Side-chains}
+% FIXME: what about polkadot?
+Side-chains are an alternative approach to improve the scalability of
+blockchains, intended to be useful in conjunction with arbitrary smart
+contracts. The approach currently developed by the Ethereum project is
+described in the Plasma white paper \cite{poon2017plasma}. Side-chains are
+separate blockchains, possibly with different rules and even consensus
+protocols than the main chain. Side-chains operate in parallel to the main
+Ethereum chain, and regularly publish ``pointers'' to the current head of the
+sidechain on the main chain. Funds can be moved from the main chain to the
+side-chain, and subsequently be moved off the side-chain by performing an
+``exit'', during which the main chain verifies claims to funds on the
+side-chain according to the side-chain's rules.
+
+At the time of writing, Plasma is not yet implemented. Potential problems with
+Plasma include the high costs of exits, lack of access to data needed to verify
+exit claims, and associated potential for denial-of-service attacks.
+
+
+%\subsection{Other Payment Systems}
+
+%\subsubsection{Credit Card Payments}
+
+\subsection{Walled Garden Payment Systems}
+
+Walled garden payment systems offer ease of use by processing payments using a
+trusted payment service provider. Here, the customer authenticates to the
+trusted service, and instructs the payment provider to execute a transaction on
+their behalf. In these payment systems, the provider basically acts like a
+bank with accounts carrying balances for the various users. In contrast to
+traditional banking systems, both customers and merchants are forced to have an
+account with the same provider. Each user must take the effort to establish
+his identity with a service provider to create an account. Merchants and
+customers obtain the best interoperability in return for their account creation
+efforts if they start with the biggest providers. As a result, there are a few
+dominating walled garden providers, with AliPay, ApplePay, GooglePay,
+SamsungPay and PayPal being the current oligopoly.
+%In this paper, we
+%will use PayPal as a representative example for our discussion of these payment
+%systems.
+
+As with card payment systems, these oligopolies are politically
+dangerous~\cite{crinkey2011rundle}, and the lack of competition
+can result in excessive profit taking that may require political
+solutions~\cite{guardian2015cap} to the resulting market
+ failure. The use of non-standard proprietary interfaces to
+the payment processing service of these providers serves to reinforce
+the customer lock-in.
+
+%TODO: discuss popularity/abundance of digital wallets in other countries (India!)
+%and different requirements (connectivity)
+
+%\subsubsection{Ripple}
+
+\subsection{Web Integration}
+
+Finally, we will discuss software solutions to web payments. We
+consider other types of payments, including general payments and in
+particular hardware solutions as out of scope for this thesis.
+
+\subsubsection{Web Payments API}
+The Web Payments API\footnote{See \url{https://www.w3.org/TR/payment-request/}}
+is a JavaScript API offered by browsers, and currently still under development.
+It allows merchant to offer a uniform checkout experience across different
+payment systems. Unlike GNU Taler, the Web Payments API is only concerned with
+aspects of the checkout process, such as display of a payment request,
+selection of a shipping address and selection of a payment method.
+
+Currently only basic-card is supported across popular browsers.
+
+The Payment Handler API\footnote{See
+\url{https://www.w3.org/TR/payment-handler/}} supports the registration of
+user-defined payment method handlers. Unfortunately the only way to add
+payment method handlers is via an HTTPS URL. This leaks all information to the
+payment service provider and precludes the implementation of privacy-preserving
+payment system handlers.
+
+In order to integrate Taler as a payment method, browsers would need to either
+offer Taler as a native, built-in payment method or allow an extension to
+register web payment handlers.
+
+
+The Web Payments Working Group discontinued work on a HTTP-based API for
+machine-to-machine payments.\footnote{See
+\url{https://www.w3.org/TR/webpayments-http-api/}.}
+
+\subsubsection{Payment Pointers}
+Payment pointers are a proposed standard syntax for accounts that are able to
+receive payments. Unlike \texttt{payto://} URIs ( discussed in
+Section~\ref{implementation:wire-method-identifiers}), payment pointers do not
+follow the generic URI syntax and only specify a \emph{pointer} to the
+receiver's bank account in form of a HTTPS URI. Payment pointers do not
+specify any mechanism for the payment, but instead direct the user's browser to
+a website to carry out the payment.
+
+\subsubsection{3-D Secure}
+3-D Secure is a complex and widely deployed protocol that is intended to add an
+additional security layer on top of credit and debit card transactions.
+
+The 3-D Secure protocol requires the use of inline frames on the HTML page of
+the merchant for extended verification/authentication of the user. This makes
+it hard or sometimes -- such as when using a mobile browser -- even impossible
+to tell whether the inline frame is legitimate or an attempt to steal
+information from the user.
+
+Traditionally, merchants bear most of the financial risk, and a key
+``feature'' of the 3DS process compared to traditional card payments
+is to shift dispute {\em liability} to the issuer of the card---who
+may then try to shift it to the customer \cite[\S2.4]{3DSsucks}.
+%
+% online vs offline vs swipe vs chip vs NFC ???
+% extended verification
+%
+Even in cases where the issuer or the merchant remain legally first in
+line for liabilities, there are still risks customers incur from the
+card dispute procedures, such as neither them nor the payment
+processor noticing fraudulent transactions, or them noticing
+fraudulent transactions past the {\em deadline} until which their bank
+would reimburse them. The customer also typically only has a
+merchant-generated comment and the amount paid in their credit card
+statement as a proof for the transaction. Thus, the use of credit
+cards online does not generate any cryptographically {\em verifiable}
+electronic receipts for the customer, which theoretically enables
+malicious merchants to later change the terms of the contract.
+
+Beyond these primary issues, customers face secondary risks of
+identity theft from the personal details exposed by the authentication
+procedures. In this case, even if the financial damages are ultimately
+covered by the bank, the customer always has to deal with the procedure
+of {\em notifying} the bank in the first place. As a result,
+customers must remain wary about using their cards, which limits their
+online shopping~\cite[p. 50]{ibi2014}.
+
+\subsubsection{Other Proprietary Payment APIs}
+The Electronic Payment Standard URI scheme \texttt{epspayment:} is a
+proprietary/unregistered URI scheme used by predominantly Austrian banks and
+merchants to trigger payments from within websites on mobile devices.
+Merchants can register an invoice with a central server. The user's banking
+app is associated with the \texttt{epspayment} URI scheme and will open to
+settle the invoice. It lies conceptually between \texttt{payto://} and
+\texttt{taler:pay} (see Section~\ref{sec:loose-browser-integration}). A
+technical problem of \texttt{epspayment} is that when a user has multiple bank
+accounts at different banks that support \texttt{epspayment}, some platforms
+decide non-deterministically and without asking the user which application to
+launch. Thus, a user with two banking applications on their phone can often not
+chose which bank account is used for the payment. If \texttt{payto} were
+widely supported, the problem of registering/choosing bank accounts for payment
+methods could be centrally addressed by the browser / operating system.
+
+PayPal is a very popular, completely proprietary payment system provider. Its offer-based
+API is similar in the level of abstraction to Taler's reference merchant backend API.
+
+LaterPay is a proprietary payment system for online content as well as
+donations. It offers similar functionality to session-bound payments in Taler.
+LaterPay does not provide any anonymity.
+
+
+% FIXME: mention these
+% Stripe
+% paydirekt
+% mention this somewhere: https://www.focus.de/finanzen/banken/paydirekt-so-reagieren-kunden-auf-die-sparkassen-plaene_id_7511393.html
+% but not in this section. good argument for anonymity
diff --git a/doc/system/taler/implementation.tex b/doc/system/taler/implementation.tex
new file mode 100644
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--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/taler/implementation.tex
@@ -0,0 +1,2198 @@
+\chapter{Implementation of GNU Taler}\label{chapter:implementation}
+
+This chapter describes the implementation of GNU Taler in detail. Concrete
+design decisions, protocol details and our reference implementation are
+discussed.
+
+We implemented the GNU Taler protocol in the context of a payment system for
+the web, as shown in Figure~\ref{fig:taler-arch}. The system was designed for
+real-world usage with current web technologies and within existing
+financial systems.
+
+The following technical goals and constraints influenced the design of the
+concrete protocol and implementation:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item The implementation should allow payments in browsers with hardened
+ security settings. In particular, it must be possible to make a payment
+ without executing JavaScript on a merchant's website and without having to
+ store (session-)cookies or requiring a login.
+ \item Cryptographic evidence should be available to all parties in case of a
+ dispute.
+ \item In addition to the guarantees provided by the GNU Taler protocol, the
+ implementation must take care to not introduce additional threats to
+ security and privacy. Features that trade privacy for convenience should
+ be clearly communicated to the user, and the user must have the choice to
+ deactivate them. Integration with the web should minimize the potential
+ for additional user tracking.
+ \item The integration for merchants must be simple. In particular, merchants
+ should not have to write code involving cryptographic operations or have to
+ manage Taler-specific secrets in their own application processes.
+ \item The web integration must not be specific to a single browser platform, but
+ instead must be able to use the lowest common denominator of what is
+ currently available. User experience enhancements supported for only
+ specific platforms are possible, but fallbacks must be provided for other
+ platforms.
+ \item URLs should be clean, user-friendly and must have the expected
+ semantics when sharing them with others or revisiting them after a session
+ expired.
+ \item Multiple currencies must be supported. Conversion between
+ different currencies is out of scope.
+ \item The implementation should offer flexibility with regards to what
+ context or applications it can be used for. In particular, the
+ implementation must make it possible to provide plugins for different
+ underlying banking systems and provide hooks to deal with different
+ regulatory requirements.
+ \item The implementation must be robust against network failures and crash
+ faults, and recover as gracefully as possible from data loss. Operations
+ must be idempotent if possible, e.g., accidentally clicking a payment button twice should
+ only result in one payment, and refreshing a page should not lead to
+ failures in the payment process.
+ \item Authorization should be preferred to authentication. In particular,
+ there should be no situations in which the user must enter confidential
+ information on a page that cannot be clearly identified as secure.
+ \item No flickering or unnecessary redirects. To complete a payment, the
+ number of request, especially in the user's navigation context, should be
+ minimized.
+ \item While the implementation should integrate well with browsers, it must
+ be possible to request and make payments without a browser. This makes at
+ least part of the implementation completely independent of the extremely
+ complex browser standards, and makes Taler usable for machine-to-machine
+ payments.
+ %\item Backwards compatibility (with what?)
+\end{itemize}
+
+We now recapitulate how a GNU Taler payment works, with some more details
+specific to the implementation.
+
+By instructing their bank to send money to an exchange, the customer creates a
+(non-anonymous) balance, called a \emph{reserve}, at the exchange. Once the
+exchange has received and processed the bank transfer, the customer's
+\emph{wallet} automatically \emph{drains} the reserve by withdrawing coins from
+it until the reserve is empty. Withdrawing immediately before a purchase should
+be avoided, as it decreases the customer's anonymity set by creating a
+correlation between the non-anonymous withdrawal and the spending.
+
+To withdraw coins from the exchange, the customer's wallet authenticates itself
+using an Ed25519 private key for the customer's reserve. The customer must
+include the corresponding reserve public key in the payment instruction from
+the customer's bank to the exchange's bank that funded their reserve. With a
+bank that directly supports Taler on their online banking website, this process
+is streamlined for the user, since the wallet automatically creates the key
+pair for the reserve and adds the public key to the payment instruction.
+
+
+While browsing a merchant's website, the website can signal the wallet to
+request a payment from a user. The user is then asked to confirm or reject this
+proposal. If the user accepts, the wallet spends coins with the merchant. The
+merchant deposits coins received from the customer's wallet at the exchange.
+Since bank transfers are usually costly, the exchange delays and aggregates
+multiple deposits into a bigger wire transfer. This allows GNU Taler to be
+used even for microtransactions of amounts smaller than usually handled by the
+underlying banking system.
+
+\begin{figure}
+ \includegraphics[width=\columnwidth]{taler-arch-full.pdf}
+ \caption[Components of GNU Taler in the context of a banking system.]{The different components of the Taler system in the
+ context of a banking system providing money creation,
+ wire transfers and authentication. (Auditor omitted.)}
+ \label{fig:taler-arch-full}
+\end{figure}
+
+As shown in Figure~\ref{fig:taler-arch-full}, the merchant is internally split
+into multiple components. The implementation of the Taler protocol and
+cryptographic operations is isolated into a separate component, called the
+\emph{merchant backend}, which the merchant accesses through an API or software
+development kit (SDK) in the programming language of their choice.
+
+Our implementations of the exchange (70,000 LOC) and merchant backend
+(20,000 LOC) are written in C using PostgreSQL as the database and
+libgcrypt for cryptographic operations. The \emph{wallet} (10,000
+LOC) is implemented in TypeScript as a cross-browser extension using
+the WebExtensions API, which is available for a majority of widely
+used browsers. It also uses libgcrypt (compiled to JavaScript) for
+cryptographic operations as the required primitives are not yet
+natively supported by web browsers. Sample merchant websites (1,000
+LOC) and an example bank (2,000 LOC) with tight Taler integration are
+provided in Python.
+
+The code is available at \url{https://git.taler.net/} and a demo
+is publicly available at \url{https://demo.taler.net/}.
+
+\section{Overview}
+
+We provide a high-level overview over the implementation,
+before discussing the respective components in detail.
+
+\subsection{Taler APIs}
+The components of Taler communicate over an HTTP-based, RESTful\footnote{
+Some REST purists might disagree, because the Taler APIs do not follow
+all REST principles religiously. In particular, the HATEOAS principle is not followed.
+} \cite{fielding2000architectural}
+API. All request payloads and responses are JSON \cite{rfc8259} documents.
+
+Binary data (such as key material, signatures and hashes) is encoded as a
+base32-crockford \cite{crockford_base32} string. Base32-crockford is a simple,
+case-insensitive encoding of binary data into a subset of the ASCII alphabet
+that encodes 5 bits per character. While this is not the most space-efficient
+encoding, it is relatively resilient against human transcription errors.
+
+Financial amounts are treated as fixed-point decimal numbers. The
+implementation internally uses a pair of integers $(v,f)$ with value part $0
+\le v \le 2^{52}$ and fractional part $0 \le f < 10^8$ to represent the amount
+$a = v + f\cdot 10^{-8}$. This representation was chosen as the smallest
+representable amount is equal to one Satoshi (the smallest representable amount
+in Bitcoin), and the largest possible value part (besides being large enough
+for typical financial applications) is still accurately representable in 64-bit
+IEEE 754 floating point numbers. These constraints are useful as some
+languages such as JavaScript\footnote{Big integers are currently in the process
+of being added to the JavaScript language standard.} provide IEEE 753 floating
+point numbers as the only numeric type. More importantly, fixed-point decimal
+numbers allow exact representation of decimal values (say \EUR{0.10}), which
+is not possible with floating point numbers but essential in financial applications.
+
+Signatures are made over custom binary representations of the respective
+values, prefixed with a 64-bit tag consisting of the size of the message (32
+bits) and an integer tag (32 bits) uniquely identifying the purpose of the message.
+To sign a free-form JSON object, a canonical representation as a string is
+created by removing all white space and sorting objects' fields.
+
+In the future, more space-efficient representations (such as BSON\footnote{http://bsonspec.org/} or CBOR \cite{rfc7049})
+could be used. The representation can be negotiated between client and server
+in a backwards-compatible way with the HTTP ``Accept'' header.
+
+% signatures!
+
+\subsection{Cryptographic Algorithms}
+The following cryptographic primitives are used by Taler:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item SHA512 \cite{rfc4634} as a cryptographic hash function
+ \item Ed25519 \cite{bernstein2006curve25519} for non-blind signing operations
+ \item Curve25519 \cite{bernstein2006curve25519} for the refreshing operation
+ \item HKDF \cite{rfc5869} as a key derivation function for the refreshing operation
+ \item FDH-RSA blind signatures \cite{bellare2003onemore}
+\end{itemize}
+
+We chose these primitives as they are simple, cheap enough and relatively well
+studied. Note that other signature schemes that have the syntax and properties
+described in Section~\ref{sec:crypto:instantiation}, such as
+\cite{boldyreva2003threshold}, could be used instead of FDH-RSA.
+
+\subsection{Entities and Public Key Infrastructure}
+
+\begin{figure}
+ \includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{diagrams/taler-diagram-signatures.png}
+ \caption[Entities/PKI in Taler]{Entities/PKI in Taler. Solid arrows denote signatures, dotted arrows denote blind signatures.}
+\end{figure}
+
+The public key infrastructure (PKI) used by Taler is orthogonal to the PKI used
+by TLS \cite{rfc5246}. While TLS is used as the transport layer for Taler API
+messages, we do not rely on TLS for authenticity or integrity of API queries
+and responses. We do rely on TLS for the confidentiality of digital business
+contracts and the authenticity, integrity and confidentiality of digital
+product delivery. For the anonymity properties to hold, the customer must
+access the merchant and exchange through an anonymity layer (approximated
+by practical implementations like Tor \cite{dingledine2004tor}).
+
+In the case of merchants, we cannot use a trusted auditor or exchange as a
+trust anchor, since merchants are not required to register within our PKI to
+accept Taler payments. Here we rely on TLS instead: The merchant is required
+to include their Taler-specific merchant public key in their TLS certificate.
+If a merchant fails to do this, the wallet will show a warning when asking the
+user to confirm a payment.
+
+\subsubsection{Auditor}
+Auditors serve as trust anchors for Taler, and are identified by a single Ed25519 public key.
+Wallet implementations come with a pre-defined list of trusted auditors, similar to the certificate
+store of browsers or operating systems.
+
+\subsubsection{Exchange}
+An exchange is identified by a long term Ed25519 master key and the exchange's
+base URL. The master key is used as an offline signing key, typically stored
+on an air-gapped machine. API requests to the exchange are made by appending
+the name of the endpoint to the base URL.
+
+The exchange uses the master key to sign the following data offline:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item The exchange's online Ed25519 signing keys. The online signing keys
+ are used to sign API responses from the exchange. Each signing key has a
+ validity period.
+ \item The denominations offered by the exchange (explained further in Section~\ref{sec:implementation:denoms}).
+ \item The bank accounts supported by the exchange (for withdrawals and deposits) and associated fees.
+\end{itemize}
+
+% FIXME: maybe put this later?
+The \texttt{<base-url>/keys} HTTP endpoint of the exchange is used by wallets
+and merchants to obtain the exchange's signing keys, currently offered
+denominations and other details. In order to reduce traffic, clients can also
+request only signing keys and denominations that were created after a specific
+time. The response to \texttt{/keys} is signed by a currently active signing
+key, so that customers would have proof in case the exchange gave different sets of
+denomination keys to different customers in an attempt to deanonymize them.
+
+
+\begin{figure}
+ \begin{multicols}{2}
+ \lstinputlisting[language=C,basicstyle=\ttfamily\tiny,numbers=left]{taler/snippet-keys.txt}
+ \end{multicols}
+ \caption{Example response for /keys}
+\end{figure}
+
+
+\subsubsection{Coins and Denominations}\label{sec:implementation:denoms}
+Denominations are the RSA public keys used to blindly sign coins of a fixed amount, together with information about their
+validity and associated fees. The following information is signed by the exchanges master key for every denomination:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item The RSA public key.
+ \item The start date, after which coins of this denomination can be withdrawn and deposited.
+ \item The withdraw expiration date, after which coins cannot be withdrawn anymore, must be after the start date.
+ \item The deposit expiration date, after which coins cannot be deposited anymore, must be after the withdraw expiration date.
+ \item The legal expiration date, after which the exchange can delete all records about operations with coins of this denominations,
+ must be (typically quite a long time!) after the deposit expiration date.
+ \item The fees for a withdraw, deposit, refresh and refund operation with this coin, respectively.
+\end{itemize}
+
+\begin{figure}
+ \centering
+ \includegraphics[width=0.7\textwidth]{diagrams/taler-diagram-denom-expiration.png}
+ \caption{A denomination's lifetime.}
+\end{figure}
+
+An exchange can be audited by zero, one or multiple auditors. An auditor must
+monitor all denominations currently offered by the exchange, and an audit of a
+subset of denominations is not intended in the current design. To allow
+customers of an exchange to confirm that it is audited properly, the auditor
+signs an auditing request from the exchange, containing basic information about
+the exchange as well as all keys offered during the auditing period. In
+addition to the full auditing request, the auditor also signs an individual
+certificate for each denomination individually, allowing clients of the
+exchange to incrementally verify newly offered denominations.
+
+\subsubsection{Merchant}
+The merchant has one Ed25519 key pair that is used to sign responses to the
+customer and authenticate some requests to the exchange. Depending on the
+legislation that applies to a particular GNU Taler deployment, merchants might
+not need to establish an a priori relationship with the exchange, but instead
+send their bank account information during or after the first deposit of a
+payment from a customer.
+
+% FIXME: we never write here that the merchant accepts payments from all trusted auditors/exchanges
+% automatically
+% FIXME: citation for this?
+% FIXME: are there jurisdictions where KYC would apply to the exchange's customer?
+In some jurisdictions, exchanges are required to follow know-your-customer
+(KYC) regulations and to verify the identity of merchants \cite{arner2018identity} using that particular
+exchange for deposits. Typically, the identity of a merchant only has to be
+verified if a merchant exceeds a certain threshold of transactions in a given
+time span. As the KYC registration process can be costly to the exchange, this
+requirement is somewhat at odds with merchants accepting payments from all
+exchanges audited by a trusted auditor, since KYC registration needs to be done
+at every exchange separately. It is, however, unavoidable to run a legally
+compliant payment system.
+
+A merchant is typically configured with a set of trusted auditors and
+exchanges, and consequently accepts payments with coins of denominations from a
+trusted exchange and denominations audited by a trusted auditor.
+
+In order to make the deployment of Taler easier and more secure, the parts that
+deal with the merchant's private key and cryptographic operations are isolated
+into a separate service (the merchant backend) with a well-defined RESTful HTTP API.
+This concept is similar to payment gateways used commonly for credit card
+payments. The merchant backend can be deployed on-premise by the online shop,
+or run by a third party provider that is fully trusted by the merchant.
+
+\subsubsection{Bank}
+Since the banks are third parties that are not directly part of Taler, they do
+not participate directly in Taler's PKI.
+
+\subsubsection{Customer}
+Customers are not registered with an exchange, instead they use the private
+keys of reserves that they own to authenticate with the exchange. The exchange
+knows the reserve's public key from the subject/instruction data of the wire
+transfer. Wire transfers that do not contain a valid public key are
+automatically reversed.
+
+
+\subsection{Payments}
+
+\newlength{\maxheight}
+\setlength{\maxheight}{\heightof{\small W}}
+\newcommand{\bffmt}[1]{%
+ \footnotesize
+ \centering
+ \raisebox{0pt}[\maxheight][0pt]{#1}%
+}
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centering
+\begin{bytefield}[bitwidth=0.2em,bitheight=3ex,boxformatting=\bffmt]{128}
+ \bitheader{0,31,63,95,127} \\
+ \bitbox{32}{size} & \bitbox{32}{purpose} & \bitbox{64}{timestamp} \\
+ \wordbox{2}{merchant public key} \\
+ \wordbox{4}{contract terms hash} \\
+ \bitbox{64}{deposit deadline} & \bitbox{64}{refund deadline} \\
+ \wordbox{4}{KYC / account info hash}
+\end{bytefield}
+\caption{The contract header that is signed by the merchant.}
+\end{figure}
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centering
+\begin{bytefield}[bitwidth=0.2em,bitheight=3ex,boxformatting=\bffmt]{128}
+ \bitheader{0,31,63,95,127} \\
+ \bitbox{32}{size} & \bitbox{32}{purpose} & \bitbox{64}{timestamp} \\
+ \wordbox{4}{contract header hash} \\
+ \wordbox{2}{coin public key} \\
+ \bitbox[lrt]{128}{contributed amount} \\
+ \bitbox[lrb]{64}{} & \bitbox[ltr]{64}{} \\
+ \bitbox[lrb]{128}{deposit fee} \\
+\end{bytefield}
+\caption{The deposit permission signed by the customer's wallet.}
+\end{figure}
+
+
+Payments in Taler are based on \emph{contract terms}, a JSON object that
+describes the subject and modalities of a business transaction. The
+cryptographic hash of such a contract terms object can be used as a globally
+unique identifier for the business transaction. Merchants must sign the
+contract terms before sending them to the customer, allowing a customer to
+prove in case of a dispute the obligations of the merchant resulting from the
+payment.
+
+Unless a third party needs to get involved in a dispute, it is sufficient (and
+desirable for data minimization) that only the merchant and the customer know
+the full content of the contract terms. The exchange, however, must still
+know the parts of the contract terms that specify payment modalities, such as
+the refund policy, micropayment aggregation deadline and the merchant's KYC
+registration data (typically a hash to prove the KYC enrollment of the
+merchant).
+
+Thus, the merchant's signature is made over the \emph{contract header},
+which contains the contract terms hash, as well as the payment modalities.
+
+In addition to the data provided by the merchant, the contract terms contain a
+\emph{claim\_pub} field whose value is provided by the customer.
+This field is an Ed25519 public key, and the customer can use the corresponding
+private key to prove that they have indeed obtained the individual contract
+terms from the merchant, and did not copy contract terms that the merchant gave
+to another customer. Note that this key is not a permanent identity of the
+customer, but should be freshly generated for each payment.
+
+The signed contract header is created by the merchant's backend from an
+\emph{order}, which is the ``blueprint'' for the contract terms. The order is
+generated by the merchant's frontend and contains a subset of the data
+contained in the contract terms. Missing data (in particular the merchant's
+bank account information, public key and accepted auditors/exchanges) and
+the claim public key obtained from the customer is automatically added by the merchant
+backend. This allows applications to process payments without having to
+specify Taler-internal details. In fact, the smallest possible order only
+needs to contain two fields: the amount to be paid and a human-readable
+summary of the payment's subject.
+
+An order contains an \emph{order ID}, which is an identifier that is unique
+within a given merchant and can be a human-friendly identifier such as a
+booking number. If the order ID is not manually provided, it is automatically
+filled in by the merchant backend. It can be used to refer to the payment
+associated with the order without knowing the contract terms hash, which is
+only available once the customer has provided their claim public key.
+
+To initiate a payment, the merchant sends the customer an \emph{unclaimed}
+contract terms URL. The customer can download and thereby claim ownership of
+the contract by appending their claim public key $p$ as a query parameter to the unclaimed
+contract terms URL and making an HTTP \texttt{GET} request to the resulting URL.
+The customer must then verify that the resulting contract terms are signed
+correctly by the merchant and that the contract terms contain their claim public key $p$.
+A malicious customer could try to claim other customers' contracts by guessing
+contract term URLs and appending their own claim public key. For products that have
+limited availability, the unclaimed contract URL must have enough entropy so
+that malicious customers are not able to guess them and claim them before the
+honest customer.\footnote{Note that this URL cannot be protected by a session
+cookie, as it might be requested from a different session context than the
+user's browser, namely in the wallet.}
+
+% FIXME: put this in a sidebox?
+To give an example, an online shop for concert tickets might allow users to put
+themselves on a waiting list, and will send them an email once a ticket
+becomes available. The contract terms URL that allows the customer to purchase
+the ticket (once they have visited a link in this email), should contain an
+unguessable nonce, as otherwise an attacker might be able to predict the URL
+and claim the contract for the concert ticket before the customer's wallet can.
+
+In order to settle the payment, the customer must sign a \emph{deposit
+permission} for each coin that comprises the payment. The deposit permission
+is a message signed by the coin's private key, containing
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item the amount contributed by this coin to the payment,
+ \item the merchant's public key
+ \item the contract header together with the merchant's signature on it,
+ \item the time at which the deposit permission was signed.
+\end{itemize}
+
+After constructing the deposit permissions for a contract, the customer sends
+them to the merchant by doing an HTTP \texttt{POST} request to the
+\texttt{pay\_url} indicated by the merchant in the contract terms. The
+merchant individually \emph{deposits} each deposit permission with the
+exchange.
+
+The merchant responds with a payment confirmation to the customer after it has
+successfully deposited the customer's coins with the exchange. The payment
+confirmation can be used by the customer to prove that they completed the
+payment before the payment deadline indicated in the contract terms.
+
+Note that the depositing multiple coins with the exchange deliberately does not
+have transactional semantics. Instead, each coin is deposited in an individual
+transaction. This allows the exchange to be horizontally scaled (as discussed
+in Section~\ref{sec:implementation-improvements}) more easily, as deposit
+transaction might otherwise have to span multiple database shards.
+
+The lack of transactional semantics, however, means that it must be possible to
+recover from partially completed payments. There are several cases: If one of
+the coins that the customer submitted as payment to the merchant is invalid
+(e.g., because the wallet's state was restored from a backup), the customer can
+re-try the partially completed payment and provide a different coin instead.
+If that is not possible or desired by the customer, the merchant may voluntarily give a
+refund on the coins that have been previously deposited. The reference
+implementation of the merchant backend offers refunds for partially completed
+payments automatically.
+
+% FIXME: explain why!
+If refunds were disabled for the payment, the merchant does not cooperate in
+giving refunds for a partially completed payment, or becomes unresponsive after
+partially depositing the customer's coin, the customer has two options: They
+can either complete the deposits on the merchant's behalf, and then use the
+deposit permissions to prove (either to the merchant or to a court) that they
+completed the payment.
+
+% FIXME: put this in info box?
+Another possibility would be to allow customers to request refunds for partially
+completed payments themselves, directly from the exchange.
+This requires that the merchant additionally
+includes the amount to be paid for the contract in the contract header, as the
+exchange needs to know that amount to decide if a payment with multiple coins
+is complete. We do not implement this approach, since it implies that the
+exchange always learns the exact prices of products that the merchant sells, as
+opposed to just the merchant's total revenue.
+
+The customer could also reveal the contract terms to the exchange to prove that
+a payment is incomplete, but this is undesirable for privacy reasons, as the
+exchange should not learn about the full details of the business agreement
+between customer and merchant.
+
+\subsection{Resource-based Web Payments}
+In order to integrate natively with the concepts and architecture of the web,
+Taler supports paying for a web resource in the form of a URL. In fact all
+Taler contract terms contain a \emph{fulfillment URL}, which identifies the
+resource that is being paid for. If the customer is not paying for a digital
+product (such as an movie, song or article), the fulfillment URL can point to a
+confirmation page that shows further information, such as a receipt for a
+donation or shipment tracking information for a physical purchase. A
+fulfillment URL does not necessarily refer to a single item, but could also
+represent a collection such as a shopping basket.
+
+The following steps illustrate a typical payment with the online shop
+\nolinkurl{alice-shop.example.com}.
+
+\newcommand{\contl}[0]{\mbox{\textcolor{blue}{$\hookrightarrow$}\space}}
+
+\lstdefinelanguage{none}{
+ identifierstyle=
+}
+\lstdefinestyle{myhttp}{
+ breaklines=true,
+ breakindent=3em,
+ escapechar=*,
+ postbreak=\contl,
+ basicstyle=\ttfamily,
+ showspaces=true,
+}
+
+\begin{enumerate}
+ \item The user opens the shop's page and navigates to a paid resource, such
+ as \nolinkurl{https://alice-shop.example.com/essay-24.pdf}.
+ \item The shop sends a response with HTTP status ``402 Payment Required''
+ with the headers (\contl marks a continued line)
+\begin{lstlisting}[style=myhttp]
+Taler-Contract-Url: https://alice-shop.example.com/*\break\contl*contract?product=essay-24.pdf
+Taler-Resource-Url: https://alice-shop.example.com/*\break\contl*essay-24.pdf
+\end{lstlisting}
+ \item Since the user's wallet does not yet contain contract terms with the
+ fulfillment URL \nolinkurl{https://alice-shop.example.com/esasy-24.pdf}
+ that matches the resources URL, it claims the contract by generating a
+ claim key pair $(s, p)$ and requesting the contract URL with the claim
+ public key $p$ as additional parameter:
+ \nolinkurl{https://alice-shop.example.com/contract?product=essay-24.pdf\&claim_pub=}$p$.
+ \item The wallet displays the contract terms to the customer and asks them to
+ accept or decline. If the customer accepted the contract, the wallet sends
+ a payment to the merchant. After the merchant received a valid payment,
+ it marks the corresponding order as paid.
+ \item The wallet constructs the extended fulfillment URL by adding the order
+ id from the contract as an additional parameter and navigates the browser
+ to the resulting URL
+ \nolinkurl{https://alice-shop.example.com/esasy-24.pdf?order\_id=...}.
+ \item The shop receives the request to the extended fulfillment URL and
+ checks if the payment corresponding to the order ID was completed. In case
+ the payment was successful, it serves the purchased content.
+\end{enumerate}
+
+To avoid checking the status of the payment every time, the merchant can
+instead set a session cookie (signed/encrypted by the merchant) in the user's
+browser which indicates that \texttt{essay-24.pdf} has been purchased.
+
+The resource-based payment mechanism must also handle the situation where a
+customer navigates again to a resource that they already paid for, without
+directly navigating to the extended fulfillment URL. In case no session cookie
+was set for the purchase or the cookie was deleted / has expired, the customer would
+be prompted for a payment again. To avoid this, the wallet tries to find an
+existing contract whose plain fulfillment URL matches the resource URL
+specified in the merchant's HTTP 402 response. If such an existing payment was
+found, the wallet instead redirects the user to the extended fulfillment URL
+for this contract, instead of downloading the new contract terms and prompting
+for payment.
+
+In the example given above, the URL that triggers the payment is the same as the fulfillment URL.
+This may not always the case in practice. When the merchant backend is hosted by a third
+party, say \nolinkurl{https://bob.example.com/}, the page that triggers the payment
+even has a different origin, i.e., the scheme, host or port may differ \cite{rfc6454}.
+
+This cross-origin operation presents a potential privacy risk if not
+implemented carefully.
+To check whether a user has already paid for a particular
+resource with URL $u$, an arbitrary website could send an HTTP 402 response with
+the ``Taler-Resource-Url'' header set to $u$ and the ``Taler-Contract-Url''
+set to a URL pointing to the attacker's server. If the user paid for $u$, the
+wallet will navigate to the extended fulfillment URL corresponding to $u$.
+Otherwise, the wallet will try to download a contract from the URL given by the
+attacker. In order to prevent this attack on privacy, the wallet must only
+redirect to $u$ if the origin of the page responding with HTTP 402 is the same
+origin as either the $u$ or the pay URL.\footnote{This type of countermeasure is well
+known in browsers as the same origin policy, as also outlined in \cite{rfc6454}.}
+
+\subsubsection{Loose Browser Integration}\label{sec:loose-browser-integration}
+
+The payment process we just described does not directly work in browsers that do not
+have native Taler integration, as the browser (or at least a browser extension)
+would have to handle the HTTP status code 402 and handle the Taler-specific headers correctly.
+We now define a fallback, which is transparently implemented in the reference merchant backend.
+
+In addition to indicating that a payment is required for a resource in the HTTP status code and header,
+the merchant includes a fallback URL in the body of the ``402 Payment Required'' response. This URL must have the custom URL scheme
+\texttt{taler}, and contains the contract terms URL (and other Taler-specific settings normally specified in headers)
+as parameters. The above payment would include a link (labled, e.g., ``Pay with GNU Taler'') to the following URL, encoding
+the same information as the headers:
+\begin{lstlisting}[style=myhttp]
+taler:pay?*\break\contl*contract_url=*\break\contl*https%3A%2F%2Falice-shop.example.com%2Fcontract%3Fproduct%3Dessay-24.pdf*\break\contl*&resource_url=*\break\contl*https%3A%2F%2Falice-shop.example.com%2Fessay-24.pdf
+\end{lstlisting}
+
+This fallback can be disabled for requests from user agents that are known to
+natively support GNU Taler.
+
+GNU Taler wallet applications register themselves as a handler for the
+\texttt{taler} URI scheme, and thus following a \texttt{taler:pay} link opens
+the dedicated wallet, even if GNU Taler is not supported by the browser or a
+browser extension. Registration a custom protocol handler for a URI scheme is
+possible on all modern platforms with web browsers that we are aware of.
+
+Note that wallets communicating with the merchant do so from a different
+browsing context, and thus the merchant backend cannot rely on cookies that
+were set in the customer's browser when using the shop page.
+
+We chose HTTP headers as the primary means of signaling to the wallet (instead
+of relying on, e.g., a new content media type), as it allows the fallback content
+to be an HTML page that can be rendered by all browsers. Furthermore,
+current browser extension mechanism allow intercepting headers synchronously
+before the rendering of the page is started, avoiding visible flickering caused by
+intermediate page loads.
+
+\subsection{Session-bound Payments and Sharing}
+As we described the payment protocol so far, an extended fulfillment URL
+is
+not bound to a browser session. When sharing an extended fulfillment
+URL, another user would get access to the same content. This might be appropriate
+for some types of fulfillment pages (such as a donation receipt), but is generally not
+appropriate when digital content is sold. Even though it is trivial to share digital content
+unless digital restrictions management (DRM) is employed, the ability to share
+links might set the bar for sharing too low.
+
+While the validity of a fulfillment URL could be limited to a certain time,
+browser session or IP address, this would be too restrictive for scenarios where
+the user wants to purchase permanent access to the content.
+
+As a compromise, Taler provides \emph{session-bound} payments. For
+session-bound payments, the seller's website assigns the user a random session
+ID, for example, via a session cookie. The extended fulfillment URL for
+session-bound payments is constructed by additionally specifying the URL
+parameter \texttt{session\_sig}, which contains proof that the user completed
+(or re-played) the payment under their current session ID.
+
+To initiate a session-bound payment, the HTTP 402 response must additionally
+contain the ``Taler-Session-Id'' header, which will cause the wallet to
+additionally obtain a signature on the session ID from the merchant's pay URL,
+by additionally sending the session ID when executing (or re-playing) the
+payment.
+As an optimization, instead of re-playing the full payment, the wallet can also
+send the session ID together with the payment receipt it obtained from the
+completed payment with different session ID.
+
+Before serving paid content to the user, the merchant simply checks if the
+session signature matches the assigned session and contract terms. To simplify
+the implementation of the frontend, this signature check can be implemented as
+a request to the GNU Taler backend. Using session signatures instead of storing
+all completed session-bound payments in the merchant's database saves storage.
+
+While the coins used for the payment or the payment receipt could be shared
+with other wallets, it is a higher barrier than just sharing a URL. Furthermore, the
+merchant could restrict the rate at which new sessions can be created for the
+same contract terms and restrict a session to one IP address, limiting sharing.
+
+For the situation where a user accesses a session-bound paid resource and
+neither has a corresponding contract in their wallet nor does the merchant
+provide a contract URL to buy access to the resource, the merchant can specify
+an \emph{offer URL} in the ``Taler-Offer-Url'' header. If the wallet is not
+able to take any other steps to complete the payment, it will redirect the user
+to the offer URL. As the name suggests, the offer URL can point to a page with
+alternative offers for the resource, or some other explanation as to why the
+resource is not available anymore.
+
+\subsection{Embedded Content}
+So far we only considered paying for a single, top-level resource,
+namely the fulfillment URL. In practice, however, websites are composed of
+many subresources such as embedded images and videos.
+
+We describe two techniques to ``paywall'' subresources behind a GNU Taler
+payment. Many other approaches and variations are possible.
+\begin{enumerate}
+ \item Visiting the fulfillment URL can set a session cookie. When a
+ subresource is requested, the server will check that the customer has the
+ correct session cookie set.
+ \item When serving the fulfillment page, the merchant can add an additional
+ authentication token to the URLs of subresources. When the subresource is
+ requested, the validity of the authentication token is checked. If the
+ merchant itself (instead of a Content Delivery Network that supports token
+ authentication) is serving the paid subresource, the order ID and session
+ signature can also be used as the authentication token.
+\end{enumerate}
+
+It would technically be possible to allow contract terms to refer to multiple
+resources that are being purchased by including a list or pattern that defines
+a set of URLs. The browser would then automatically include information to
+identify the completed payment in the request for the subresource. We
+deliberately do not implement this approach, as it would require deeper
+integration in the browser than possible on many platforms. If not restricted
+carefully, this feature could also be used as an additional method to track the
+user across the merchant's website.
+
+\subsection{Contract Terms}
+The contract terms, only seen by the customer and the merchant (except when a tax audit of the merchant is requested)
+contain the following information:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item The total amount to be paid,
+ \item the \texttt{pay\_url}, an HTTP endpoint that receives the payment,
+ \item the deadline until the merchant accepts the payment (repeated in the signed contract header),
+ \item the deadline for refunds (repeated in the signed contract header),
+ \item the claim public key provided by the customer, used to prove they have claimed the contract terms,
+ \item the order ID, which is a short, human-friendly identifier for the contract terms within
+ the merchant,
+ \item the \texttt{fulfillment\_url}, which identifies the resources that is being paid for,
+ \item a human-readable summary and product list,
+ \item the fees covered by the merchant (if the fees for the payment exceed this value, the
+ customer must explicitly pay the additional fees),
+ \item depending on the underlying payment system, KYC registration information
+ or other payment-related data that needs to be passed on to the exchange (repeated in the signed contract header),
+ \item the list of exchanges and auditors that the merchants accepts for the payment,
+ \item information about the merchant, including the merchant public key and contact information.
+\end{itemize}
+
+
+\subsection{Refunds}
+By signing a \emph{refund permission}, the merchant can ``undo'' a deposit on a
+coin, either fully or partially. The customer can then spend (or refresh) the
+refunded value of the coin again. A refund is only possible before the refund
+deadline (specified in the contract header). After the refund deadline has
+passed (and before the deposit deadline) the exchange makes a bank transfer the
+merchant with the aggregated value from deposits, a refund after this point
+would require a bank transfer back from the merchant to the exchange.
+
+Each individual refund on each coin incurs fees; the
+refund fee is subtracted from the amount given back to the customer and kept by
+the exchange.
+
+Typically a refund serves either one of the following purposes:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item An automatic refund is given to the customer when a payment only
+ partially succeeded. This can happen when a customer's wallet accidentally
+ double-spends, which is possible even with non-malicious customers and caused by data
+ loss or delayed/failed synchronization between the same user's wallet on
+ multiple devices. In these cases, the user can choose to re-try the
+ payment with different, unspent coins (if available) or to ask for a refund
+ from the merchant.
+ \item A voluntary refund can be given at the discretion of the merchant,
+ for example, when the customer is not happy with their purchase.
+\end{itemize}
+Refunds require a signature by the merchant, but no consent from the customer.
+
+A customer is notified of a refund with the HTTP 402 Payment Required status
+code and the ``Taler-Refund'' header. The value of the refund header is a
+URL. An HTTP \texttt{GET} request on that URL will return a list of refund confirmations that the
+merchant received from the exchange.
+
+\subsection{Tipping}
+Tipping in Taler uses the ``withdraw loophole'' (see \ref{taler:design:tipping}) to allow the
+merchant\footnote{We still use the term ``merchant'', since donations use the same software component
+as the merchant, but ``donor'' would be more accurate.} to donate small amounts (without any associated contract terms or legal
+obligations) into the user's wallet.
+
+To be able to give tips, the merchant must create a reserve with an exchange. The reserve private key
+is used to sign blinded coins generated by the user that is being given the tip.
+
+The merchant triggers the wallet by returning an HTTP 402 Payment Required
+response that includes the ``Taler-Tip'' header. The value of the tip header (called the
+tip token) contains
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item the amount of the tip,
+ \item the exchange to use,
+ \item a URL to redirect after processing the tip,
+ \item a deadline for picking up the tip,
+ \item a merchant-internal unique ID for the tip, and
+ \item the \emph{pickup URL} for the tip.
+\end{itemize}
+Upon receiving the tip token, the wallet creates coin planchets that sum up to at most
+the amount specified in the tip token, with denominations offered by the exchange specified in the tip token.
+
+The list of planchets is then sent to the merchant via an HTTP \texttt{POST}
+request to the tip-pickup URL. The merchant creates a withdrawal confirmation
+signature for each planchet, using the private key of the tipping reserve, and
+responds to the HTTP \texttt{POST} request with the resulting list of
+signatures. The user then uses these signatures in the normal withdrawal
+protocol with the exchange to obtain coins ``paid for'' by the merchant, but
+anonymized and only spendable by the customer.
+
+
+\section{Bank Integration}
+In order to use Taler for real-world payments, it must be integrated with the
+existing banking system. Banks can choose to tightly integrate with Taler and
+offer the ability to withdraw coins on their website. Even existing banks can
+be used to withdraw coins via a manual bank transfer to the exchange, with the
+only requirement that the 52 character alphanumeric, case-insensitive encoding
+of the reserve public key can be included in the transaction without
+modification other than case folding and white space
+normalization.\footnote{Some banking systems specify that the subject of the
+can be changed, and provide an additional machine-readable ``instruction''
+field. }
+
+\subsection{Wire Method Identifiers}\label{implementation:wire-method-identifiers}
+We introduce a new URI scheme \texttt{payto}, which is used in Taler to
+identify target accounts across a wide variety of payment systems with uniform
+syntax.
+
+In in its simplest form, a \texttt{payto} URI identifies one account of a particular payment system:
+
+\begin{center}
+ \texttt{'payto://' TYPE '/' ACCOUNT }
+\end{center}
+
+When opening a \texttt{payto} URI, the default action is to open an application
+that can handle payments with the given type of payment system, with the target
+account pre-filled. In its extended form, a \texttt{payto} URL can also specify
+additional information for a payment in the query parameters of the URI.
+
+In the generic syntax for URIs, the payment system type corresponds to the
+authority, the account corresponds to the path, and additional parameters for
+the payment correspond to the query parameters. Conforming to the generic URI
+syntax makes parsing of \texttt{payto} URIs trivial with existing parsers.
+
+Formally, a \texttt{payto} URI is an encoding of a partially filled out pro
+forma invoice. The full specification of the \texttt{payto} URI is RFC XXXX. % FIXME!
+
+In the implementation of Taler, \texttt{payto} URIs are used in various places:
+\begin{enumerate}
+ \item The exchange lists the different ways it can accept money as \texttt{payto} URIs.
+ If the exchange uses payment methods that do not have tight Taler integration.
+ \item In order to withdraw money from an exchange that uses a bank account type that
+ does not typically have tight Taler integration, the wallet can generate a link and a QR code
+ that already contains the reserve public key. When scanning the QR code with a mobile device that
+ has an appropriate banking app installed, a bank transfer form can be pre-filled and the user only has to confirm the
+ transfer to the exchange.
+ \item The merchant specifies the account it wishes to be paid on as a \texttt{payto} URI, both in
+ the configuration of the merchant backend as well as in communication with the exchange.
+\end{enumerate}
+
+A major advantage of encoding payment targets as URIs is that URI schemes can be registered
+with an application on most platforms, and will be ``clickable'' in most applications and open the right
+application when scanned as a QR code. This is especially useful for the first use case listed above; the other use cases
+could be covered by defining a media type instead \cite{rfc6838}.
+
+% FIXME: put into side box
+As an example, the following QR code would open a banking application that supports SEPA payments,
+pre-filled with a 15\EUR{} donation to the bank account of GNUnet:
+
+\begin{center}
+\qrcode[hyperlink,height=5em]{payto://sepa/DE67830654080004822650?amount=EUR:15}
+\end{center}
+
+\subsection{Demo Bank}
+For demonstration purposes and integration testing, we use our toy bank
+implementation\footnote{\url{https://git.taler.net/bank.git}}, which might be
+used in the future for regional currencies or accounting systems (e.g., for a
+company cafeteria). The payment type identifier is \texttt{taler-bank}. The
+authority part encodes the base URL of the bank, and the path must be the
+decimal representation of a single integer between $1$ and $2^{52}$, denoting
+the internal demo bank account number.
+
+\subsection{EBICS and SEPA}
+The Electronic Banking Internet Communication Standard\footnote{\url{http://www.ebics.org}} (EBICS) is a standard
+for communicating with banks, and is widely used in Germany, France and
+Switzerland, which are part of the Single European Payment Area (SEPA). EBICS
+itself is just a container format. A commonly supported payload for EBICS is
+ISO 2022, which defines messages for banking-related business processes.
+
+Integration of GNU Taler with EBICS is currently under development, and would
+allow Taler to be easily deployed in many European countries, provided that the
+exchange provider can obtain the required banking license.
+
+\subsection{Blockchain Integration}
+Blockchains such as Bitcoin could also be used as the underlying financial
+system for GNU Taler, provided that merchants and customers trust the exchange to be honest.
+
+With blockchains that allow more complex smart contracts, the auditing
+functionality could be implemented by the blockchain itself. In particular,
+the exchange can be incentivized to operate correctly by requiring an initial
+safety deposit to the auditing smart contract, which is distributed to
+defrauded participants if misbehavior of the exchange is detected.
+
+\section{Exchange}
+
+\begin{figure}
+ \includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{diagrams/taler-diagram-exchange.png}
+ \caption{Architecture of the exchange reference implementation}
+\end{figure}
+
+The exchange consists of three independent processes:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item The \texttt{taler-exchange-httpd} process handles HTTP requests from clients,
+ mainly merchants and wallets.
+ \item The \texttt{taler-exchange-wirewatch} process watches for wire transfers
+ to the exchange's bank account and updates reserves based on that.
+ \item The \texttt{taler-exchange-aggregator} process aggregates outgoing transactions
+ to merchants.
+\end{itemize}
+All three processes exchange data via the same database. Only
+\texttt{taler-exchange-httpd} needs access to the exchanges online signing keys
+and denomination keys.
+
+The database is accessed via a Taler-specific database abstraction layer.
+Different databases can be supported via plugins; at the time of writing this,
+only a PostgreSQL plugin has been implemented.
+
+Wire plugins are used as an abstraction to access the account layer that Taler
+runs on. Specifically, the \textit{wirewatch} process uses the plugin to monitor
+incoming transfers, and the aggregator process uses the wire plugin to make
+wire transfers to merchants.
+
+The following APIs are offered by the exchange:
+\begin{description}
+ \item[Announcing keys, bank accounts and other public information] The
+ exchange offers the list of denomination keys, signing keys, auditors,
+ supported bank accounts, revoked keys and other general information needed
+ to use the exchange's services via the \texttt{/keys} and \texttt{/wire}
+ APIs.
+ \item[Reserve status and withdrawal] After having wired money to the exchange,
+ the status of the reserve can be checked via the \texttt{/reserve/status} API. Since
+ the wire transfer usually takes some time to arrive at the exchange, wallets should periodically
+ poll this API, and initiate a withdrawal with \texttt{/reserve/withdraw} once the exchange received the funds.
+ \item[Deposits and tracking] Merchants transmit deposit permissions they have received from customers
+ to the exchange via the \texttt{/deposit} API. Since multiple deposits are aggregated into one wire transfer,
+ the merchant additionally can use the exchange's \texttt{/track/transfer} API that returns the list of deposits for an
+ identifier included in the wire transfer to the merchant, as well as the \texttt{/track/transaction} API to look up
+ which wire transfer included the payment for a given deposit.
+ \item[Refunds] The refund API (\texttt{/refund}) can ``undo'' a deposit if the merchant gave their signature, and the aggregation deadline
+ for the payment has not occurred yet.
+ \item[Emergency payback] The emergency payback API (\texttt{/payback}) allows customers to be compensated
+ for coins whose denomination key has been revoked. Customers must send either a full withdrawal transcript that
+ includes their private blinding factor, or a refresh transcript (of a refresh that had the revoked denominations as one of the targets)
+ that includes blinding factors. In the former case, the reserve is credited, in the latter case, the source coin of the
+ refresh is refunded and can be refreshed again.
+\end{description}
+
+New denomination and signing keys are generated and signed with the exchange's master
+secret key using the \texttt{taler-exchange-keyup} utility, according to a key schedule
+defined in the exchange's configuration. This process should be done on an air-gapped
+offline machine that has access to the exchange's master signing key.
+
+Generating new keys with \texttt{taler-exchange-keyup} also generates an
+auditing request file, which the exchange should send its auditors. The auditors then
+certify these keys with the \texttt{taler-auditor-sign} tool.
+
+\begin{figure}
+ \includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{diagrams/taler-diagram-keyup.png}
+ \caption{Data flow for updating the exchange's keys.}
+ \label{figure:keyup}
+\end{figure}
+
+This process is illustrated in Figure~\ref{figure:keyup}.
+
+\section{Auditor}
+The auditor consists of two processes that are regularly run and generate
+auditing reports. Both processes access the exchange's database, either
+directly (for exchange-internal auditing as part if its operational security)
+or over a replica (in the case of external auditors).
+
+The \texttt{taler-wire-auditor} process checks that the incoming and outgoing
+transfers recorded in the exchange's database match wire transfers of the
+underlying bank account. To access the transaction history (typically recorded
+by the bank), the wire auditor uses a wire plugin, with the same interface and
+implementation as the exchange's wire plugins.
+
+The \texttt{taler-auditor} process generates a report with the following information:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item Do the operations stored in a reserve's history match the reserve's balance?
+ \item Did the exchange record outgoing transactions to the right merchant for
+ deposits after the deadline for the payment was reached?
+ \item Do operations recorded on coins (deposit, refresh, refund) match the remaining
+ value on the coin?
+ \item Do operations respect the expiration of denominations?
+ \item For a denomination, is the number of pairwise different coin public
+ keys recorded in deposit/refresh operations smaller or equal to the number
+ of blind signatures recorded in withdraw/refresh operations?
+ If this invariant is violated, the corresponding denomination must be revoked.
+ %\item Are signatures made by the exchange correct? (no, apparently we don't store signatures)
+ \item What is the income if the exchange from different fees?
+\end{itemize}
+
+The operation of both auditor processes is incremental. There is a separate
+database to checkpoint the auditing progress and to store intermediate results
+for the incremental computation. Most database tables used by the exchange are
+append-only: rows are only added but never removed or changed. Tables that
+are destructively modified by the exchange only store cached computations based
+on the append-only tables. Each append-only table has a monotonically
+increasing row ID. Thus, the auditor's checkpoint simply consists of the set of
+row IDs that were last seen.
+
+The auditor exposes a web server with the \texttt{taler-auditor-httpd} process.
+Currently, it only shows a website that allows the customer to add the auditor
+to the list of trusted auditors in their wallet. In future versions, the
+auditor will also have HTTP endpoints that allow merchants to submit samples of
+deposit confirmations, which will be checked against the deposit permissions in
+the exchange's database to detect compromised signing keys or missing writes.
+Furthermore, in deployments that require the merchant to register with the
+exchange beforehand, the auditor also offers a list of exchanges it audits, so that
+the merchant backend can automatically register with all exchanges it transitively trusts.
+
+\section{Merchant Backend}
+\begin{figure}
+ \includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{diagrams/taler-diagram-merchant.png}
+ \caption{Architecture of the merchant reference implementation}
+\end{figure}
+
+The Taler merchant backend is a component that abstracts away the details of
+processing Taler payments and provides a simple HTTP API. The merchant backend
+handles cryptographic operations (signature verification, signing), secret
+management and communication with the exchange.
+
+The backend API\footnote{See \url{https://docs.taler.net/api/} for the full documentation}
+is divided into two types of HTTP endpoints:
+\begin{enumerate}
+ \item Functionality that is accessed internally by the merchant. These APIs typically
+ require authentication and/or are only accessible from within the private
+ network of the merchant.
+ \item Functionality that is exposed publicly on the Internet and accessed by the customer's wallet and browser.
+ % FIXME: talk about proxying
+\end{enumerate}
+
+A typical merchant has a \emph{storefront} component that customers visit with
+their browser, as well as a \emph{back office} component that allows the
+merchant to view information about payments that customers made and that integrates
+with other components such as order processing and shipping.
+
+\subsection{Processing payments}\label{sec:processing-payments}
+To process a payment, the storefront first instructs the backend to create an
+\emph{order}. The order contains information relevant to the purchase, and is
+in fact a subset of the information contained in the contract terms. The
+backend automatically adds missing information to the order details provided by
+the storefront. The full contract terms can only be signed once the customer
+provides the claim public key for the contract.
+
+Each order is uniquely identified by an order ID, which can be chosen by the
+storefront or automatically generated by the backend.
+
+The order ID can be used to query the status of the payment. If the customer
+did not pay for an order ID yet, the response from the backend includes a
+payment redirect URL. The storefront can redirect the customer to this
+payment redirect URL; visiting the URL will trigger the customer's
+browser/wallet to prompt for a payment.
+
+To simplify the implementation of the storefront, the merchant backend can
+serve a page to the customer's browser that triggers the payment via the HTTP
+402 status code and the corresponding headers, and provides a fallback (in the
+form of a \texttt{taler:pay} link) for loosely integrated browsers.
+When checking the status of a payment that is not settled yet, the response from the merchant backend
+will contains a payment redirect URL. The storefront redirects the browser to this URL,
+which is served by the merchant backend and triggers the payment.
+
+The code snippet shown in Figure~\ref{fig:merchant-donations-code} implements
+the core functionality of a merchant frontend that prompts the customer for a
+donation (upon visiting \texttt{/donate} with the right query parameters) and
+shows a donation receipt on the fulfillment page with URL \texttt{/receipt}.
+The code snippet is written in Python and uses the Flask library\footnote{\url{http://flask.pocoo.org/}} to process HTTP requests.
+The helper functions \texttt{backend\_post}
+and \texttt{backend\_get} make an HTTP \texttt{POST}/\texttt{GET} request to the merchant backend, respectively,
+with the given request body / query parameters.
+
+\begin{figure}
+\lstinputlisting[language=Python,basicstyle=\footnotesize]{snippets/donations.py}
+\caption[Code snippet for merchant frontend]{Code snippet with core functionality of a merchant frontend to accept donations.}
+\label{fig:merchant-donations-code}
+\end{figure}
+
+
+\subsection{Back Office APIs}
+The back office API allows the merchant to query information about the history
+and status of payments, as well as correlate wire transfers to the merchant's
+bank account with the respective GNU Taler payment. This API is necessary to
+allow integration with other parts of the merchant's e-commerce infrastructure.
+
+%\subsection{Instances}
+%Merchant instances allow one deployment of the merchant backend to host more
+%than one logical merchant.
+
+\subsection{Example Merchant Frontends}
+We implemented the following applications using the merchant backend API.
+
+\begin{description}
+ \item[Blog Merchant] The blog merchant's landing page has a list of article titles with a teaser.
+ When following the link to the article, the customer is asked to pay to view the article.
+ \item[Donations] The donations frontend allows the customer to select a project to donate to.
+ The fulfillment page shows a donation receipt.
+ \item[Codeless Payments] The codeless payment frontend is a prototype for a
+ user interface that allows merchants to sell products on their website
+ without having to write code to integrate with the merchant backend.
+ Instead, the merchant uses a web interface to manage products and their
+ available stock. The codeless payment frontend then creates an HTML snippet with a payment
+ button that the merchant can copy-and-paste integrate into their storefront.
+ \item[Survey] The survey frontend showcases the tipping functionality of GNU Taler.
+ The user fills out a survey and receives a tip for completing it.
+ \item[Back office] The example back-office application shows the history and
+ status of payments processed by the merchant.
+\end{description}
+
+The code for these examples is available at \url{https://git.taler.net/} in the
+repositories \texttt{blog}, \texttt{donations}, \texttt{codeless}, \texttt{survey}
+and \texttt{backoffice} respectively.
+
+\section{Wallet}
+\begin{figure}
+ \includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{diagrams/taler-diagram-wallet.png}
+ \caption{Architecture of the wallet reference implementation}
+\end{figure}
+
+The wallet manages the customer's reserves and coins, lets the customer view
+and pay for contracts from merchants. It can be seen in operation in
+Section~\ref{sec:intro:ux}.
+
+The reference implementation of the GNU Taler wallet is written in the
+TypeScript language against the WebExtension API%
+\footnote{\url{https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Mozilla/Add-ons/WebExtensions}}, a cross-browser mechanism for
+browser extensions. The reference wallet is a ``tightly integrated'' wallet, as it directly hooks into
+the browser to process responses with the HTTP status code ``402 Payment Required''.
+
+Many cryptographic operations needed to implement the wallet are not commonly
+available in a browser environment. We cross-compile the GNU Taler utility
+library written in C as well as its dependencies (such as libgcrypt) to asm.js
+(and WebAssembly on supported platforms) using the LLVM-based emscripten
+toolchain \cite{zakai2011emscripten}.
+
+Cryptographic operations run in an isolated process implemented as a
+WebWorker.\footnote{\url{https://html.spec.whatwg.org/}} This design allows
+the relatively slow cryptographic operations to run concurrently in the
+background in multiple threads. Since the crypto WebWorkers are started on-demand,
+the wallet only uses minimal resources when not actively used.
+
+\subsection{Optimizations}\label{sec:wallet-optimizations}
+To improve the perceived performance of cryptographic operations,
+the wallet optimistically creates signatures in the background
+while the user is looking at the ``confirm payment'' dialog. If the user does
+not accept the contract, these signatures are thrown away instead of being sent
+to the merchant. This effectively hides the latency of the
+most expensive cryptographic operations, as they are done while the user
+consciously needs to make a decision on whether to proceed with a payment.
+
+
+\subsection{Coin Selection}
+The wallet hides the implementation details of fractionally spending different
+denomination from the user, and automatically selects which denominations to
+use for withdrawing a given amount, as well as which existing coins to
+(partially) spend for a payment.
+
+Denominations for withdrawal are greedily selected, starting with the largest
+denomination that fits into the remaining amount to withdraw. Coin selection
+for spending proceeds similarly, but first checks if there is a single coin
+that can be partially spent to cover the whole amount. After each payment, the
+wallet automatically refreshes coins with a remaining amount large enough to be
+refreshed. We discuss a simple simulation of the current coin selection algorithm
+in Section~\ref{sec:coins-per-transaction}.
+
+A more advanced coin selection would also consider the fee structure of the
+exchange, minimizing the number of coins as well as the fees incurred by the
+various operations. The wallet could additionally learn typical amounts that
+the user spends, and adjust withdrawn denominations accordingly to further
+minimize costs. An opposing concern to the financial cost is the anonymity of
+customers, which is improved when the spending behavior of wallets is as
+similar as possible.
+
+% FIXME: what about anonymity effects of coin selection?
+
+\subsection{Wallet Detection}
+When websites such as merchants or banks try to signal the Taler wallet---for example,
+to request a payment or trigger reserve creation---it is possible that the
+customer simply has no Taler wallet installed. To accommodate for this situation in a
+user-friendly way, the HTTP response containing signaling to wallet should
+contain as response body an HTML page with (1) a \texttt{taler:} link to
+manually open loosely integrated wallets and (2) instructions on how to install
+a Taler wallet if the user does not already have one.
+
+It might seem useful to dynamically update page content depending on whether
+the Taler wallet is installed, for example, to hide or show a ``Pay with Taler''
+or ``Withdraw to Taler wallet'' option. This functionality cannot be provided
+in general, as only the definitive presence of a wallet can be detected, but
+not its absence when the wallet is only loosely integrated in the user's
+browser via a handler for the \texttt{taler:} URI scheme.
+
+We nevertheless consider the ability to know whether a customer has definitely
+installed a Taler wallet useful (if only for the user to confirm that the
+installation was successful), and expose two APIs to query this. The first one
+is JavaScript-based and allows to register a callback for the when
+presence/absence of the wallet is detected. The second method works without
+any JavaScript on the merchant's page, and uses CSS~\cite{sheets1998level} to dynamically show/hide
+element on the page marked with the special \texttt{taler-installed-show} and
+\texttt{taler-installed-hide} CSS classes, whose visibility is changed when
+a wallet browser extension is loaded.
+
+Browser fingerprinting \cite{mulazzani2013fast} is a concern with any
+additional APIs made available to websites, either by the browser itself or by
+browser extensions. Since a website can simply try to trigger a payment to
+determine whether a tightly integrated Taler wallet is installed, one bit of
+additional fingerprinting information is already available through the usage of
+Taler. The dynamic detection methods do not, however, expose any information
+that is not already available to websites by signaling the wallet through HTTP
+headers.
+
+\subsection{Backup and Synchronization}
+While users can manually import and export the state of the wallet, at the time
+of writing this, automatic backup and synchronization between wallets is not
+implemented yet. We discuss the challenges with implementing backup and
+synchronization in a privacy-preserving manner in
+Chapter~\ref{sec:future-work-backup-sync}.
+
+
+\subsection{Wallet Liquidation}
+If a customer wishes to stop using GNU Taler, they can deposit the remaining
+coins in their wallet back to their own bank account. We call this process
+\emph{liquidation}.
+
+In deployments with relatively lenient KYC regulation, the normal deposit
+functionality used by merchants is used for wallet liquidation. The wallet
+simply acts as a merchant for one transaction, and asks the exchange to deposit
+the coins into the customer's bank account.
+
+However in deployments with strict KYC regulations, the customer would first
+have to register and complete a KYC registration procedure with the exchange.
+To avoid this, liquidation can be implemented as a modified deposit, which
+restricts the payment to the bank account that was used to create a reserve of
+the customer.
+
+The exchange cannot verify that a coin that is being liquidated actually
+originated the reserve that the customer claims it originated from, unless the
+user reveals the protocol transcripts for withdrawal and refresh operations on
+that coin, violating their privacy. Instead, each reserve tracks the amount
+that was liquidated into it, and the exchange rejects a liquidation request if
+the liquidated amount exceeds the amount that was put into the reserve. Note
+that liquidation does not refill the funds of a reserve, but instead triggers a
+bank transfer of the liquidated amount to the bank account that
+created the reserve.
+
+
+\subsection{Wallet Signaling}
+We now define more precisely the algorithm that the wallet executes when a
+website signals to that wallet that an operation related to payments should be
+triggered, either by opening a \texttt{taler:pay} URL or by responding
+with HTTP 402 and at least one Taler-specific header.
+
+% FIXME: need to specify what happens when gateway_origin="", for example when triggered
+% via URL
+The steps to process a payment trigger are as follows. The algorithm takes the
+following parameters: \texttt{current\_url} (the URL of the page that
+raises the 402 status or \texttt{null} if triggered by a \texttt{taler:pay} URL),
+\texttt{contract\_url}, \texttt{resource\_url}, \texttt{session\_id},
+\texttt{offer\_url}, \texttt{refund\_url}, \texttt{tip\_token} (from the
+``Taler-\dots'' headers or \emph{taler:pay} URL parameters respectively)
+\begin{enumerate}
+ \item If \texttt{resource\_url} a non-empty string, set \texttt{target\_url} to \texttt{resource\_url},
+ otherwise set \texttt{target\_url} to \texttt{current\_url}.
+ \item If \texttt{target\_url} is empty, stop.
+ \item If there is an existing payment $p$ whose
+ fulfillment URL equals \texttt{target\_url} and either \texttt{current\_url} is \texttt{null}
+ or \texttt{current\_url} has the same origin as
+ either the fulfillment URL or payment URL in the contract terms, then:
+ \begin{enumerate}[label*=\arabic*.]
+ \item If \texttt{session\_id} is non-empty and the last session ID for payment $p$ was recorded
+ in the wallet with session signature $sig$, construct a fulfillment instance URL from $sig$
+ and the order ID of $p$.
+ \item Otherwise, construct an extended fulfillment URL from the order ID of $p$.
+ \item Navigate to the extended fulfillment URL constructed in the previous step and stop.
+ \end{enumerate}
+ \item If \texttt{contract\_url} is a non-empty URL, execute the steps for
+ processing a contract URL (with \texttt{session\_id}) and stop.
+ \item If \texttt{offer\_url} is a non-empty URL, navigate to it and stop.
+ \item If \texttt{refund\_url} is a non-empty URL, process the refund and stop.
+ \item If \texttt{tip\_url} is a non-empty URL, process the tip and stop.
+\end{enumerate}
+
+For interactive web applications that request payments, such as games or single
+page apps (SPAs), the payments initiated by navigating to a page with HTTP
+status code 402 are not appropriate, since the state of the web application is
+destroyed by the navigation. Instead the wallet can offer a JavaScript-based
+API, exposed as a single function with a subset of the parameters of the
+402-based payment: \texttt{contract\_url}, \texttt{resource\_url},
+\texttt{session\_id} \texttt{refund\_url}, \texttt{offer\_url},
+\texttt{tip\_token}. Instead of navigating away, the result of the operation
+is returned as a JavaScript promise (either a payment receipt, refund
+confirmation, tip success status or error). If user input is required (e.g., to
+ask for a confirmation for a payment), the page's status must not be destroyed.
+Instead, an overlay or separate tab/window displays the prompt to the user.
+% FIXME: should be specify the full algorithm for JS payments?
+
+% FIXME talk about clickjacking
+
+
+
+\newcommand\inecc{\in \mathbb{Z}_{|\mathbb{E}|}}
+\newcommand\inept{\in {\mathbb{E}}}
+\newcommand\inrsa{\in \mathbb{Z}_{|\mathrm{dom}(\FDH_K)|}}
+
+\section{Cryptographic Protocols}
+
+\def\HKDF{\textrm{HKDF}}
+\def\KDF{\textrm{KDF}}
+\def\FDH{\textrm{FDH}}
+\newcommand{\iseq}{\stackrel{?}{=}}
+\newcommand{\iseqv}{\stackrel{?}{\equiv}}
+\newcommand{\pccheck}{\mathbf{check}\ }
+
+In this section, we describe the main cryptographic protocols for Taler in more
+detail. The more abstract, high-level protocols from
+Section~\ref{sec:crypto:instantiation} are instantiated and and embedded in
+concrete protocol diagrams that can hopefully serve as a reference for
+implementors.
+
+For ease of presentation, we do not provide a bit-level description of the
+cryptographic protocol. Some details from the implementation are left out,
+such as fees, additional timestamps in messages and checks for the expiration
+of denominations. Furthermore, we do not specify the exact responses in the
+error cases, which in the actual implementation should include signatures that
+could be used during a legal dispute. Similarly, the actual implementation
+contains some additional signatures on messages sent that allow to prove to a
+third party that a participant did not follow the protocol.
+
+As we are dealing with financial transactions, we explicitly describe whenever
+entities need to safely write data to persistent storage. As long as the data
+persists, the protocol can be safely resumed at any step. Persisting data is
+cumulative, that is an additional persist operation does not erase the
+previously stored information.
+
+The implementation also records additional entries in the exchange's database
+that are needed for auditing.
+
+\subsection{Preliminaries}
+In our protocol definitions, we write $\mathbf{check}\ \mathrm{COND}$ to abort
+the protocol with an error if the condition $\mathrm{COND}$ is false.
+
+We use the following algorithms:
+\begin{itemize}
+\item $\algo{Ed25519.Keygen}() \mapsto \langle \V{sk}, \V{pk} \rangle$
+ to generate an Ed25519 key pair.
+ \item $\algo{Ed25519.GetPub}(\V{sk}) \mapsto \V{pk}$ to derive the public key from
+ an Ed25519 public key.
+ \item $\algo{Ed25519.Sign}(\V{sk}, m) \mapsto \sigma$ to create a signature $\sigma$
+ on message $m$ using secret key $\V{sk}$.
+ \item $\algo{Ed25519.Verify}(\V{pk}, \sigma, m) \mapsto b$ to check if $\sigma$ is
+ a valid signature from $\V{pk}$ on message $m$.
+ \item $\mathrm{HKDF}(n, k, s) \mapsto m$ is the HMAC-based key derivation function \cite{rfc5869},
+ producing an output $m$ of $n$ bits from the input key material $k$ and salt $s$.
+\end{itemize}
+
+We write $\mathbb{Z}^*_N$ for the multiplicative group of integers modulo $N$.
+Given an $r \in \mathbb{Z}^*_N$, we write $r^{-1}$ for the multiplicative
+inverse modulo $N$ of $r$.
+
+We write $H(m)$ for the SHA-512 hash of a bit string,
+and $\FDH(N,m)$ for the full domain hash that maps the bit string $m$ to an element
+of $\mathbb{Z}^*_N$.
+
+The expression $x \randsel X$ denotes uniform random selection of an element
+$x$ from set $X$. We use $\algo{SelectSeeded}(s, X) \mapsto x$ for pseudo-random uniform
+selection of an element $x$ from set $X$ and seed $s$. Here, the result is deterministic for fixed inputs $s$ and $X$.
+
+The exchange's denomination signing key pairs $\{\langle \V{skD}_i, \V{pkD}_i \rangle \}$ are RSA keys pairs,
+and thus $\V{pkD}_i = \langle e_i, N_i \rangle$, $\V{skD_i} = d_i$. We write $D(\V{pkD}_i)$ for the
+financial value of the denomination $\V{pkD}_i$.
+
+% FIXME: explain RSA keys of exchange
+
+
+\subsection{Withdrawing}
+The withdrawal protocol is defined in Figure~\ref{fig:withdraw-protocol}.
+The following additional algorithms are used, which we only define informally here:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item $\algo{CreateBalance}(W_p, v) \mapsto \bot$ is used by the exchange,
+ and has the side-effect of creating a reserve record with balance $v$
+ and reserve public key (effectively the identifier of the reserve) $W_p$.
+ \item $\algo{GetWithdrawR}(\rho) \mapsto \{\bot,\overline{\sigma}_C\}$
+ is used by the exchange, and checks
+ if there is an existing withdraw request $\rho$. If the existing request
+ exists, the existing blind signature $\overline{\sigma}_C$ over
+ coin $C$ is returned. On a fresh request, $\bot$ is
+ returned.
+ \item $\algo{BalanceSufficient}(W_s,\V{pkD}_t) \mapsto b$ is used by the exchange, and
+ returns true if the balance in the reserve identified by $W_s$ is sufficient to
+ withdraw at least one coin if denomination $\V{pkD}_t$.
+ \item $\algo{DecreaseBalance}(W_s,\V{pkD}_t) \mapsto \bot$ is used by the exchange, and
+ decreases the amount left in the reserve identified by $W_s$ by the amount $D(\V{pkD}_t)$
+ that the denomination $\V{pkD}_t$ represents.
+\end{itemize}
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centering
+\fbox{%
+\pseudocode[codesize=\small]{%
+\textbf{Customer} \< \< \textbf{Exchange} \\
+ \text{Knows } \{ \langle e_i,N_i \rangle \} = \{\V{pkD}_i\} \< \< \text{Knows } \{ \langle \V{skD}_i, \V{pkD}_i \rangle \} \pclb
+\pcintertext[dotted]{Create Reserve}
+\langle w_s, W_p \rangle \leftarrow \algo{Ed25519.Keygen}() \< \< \\
+\text{Persist reserve } \langle w_s,v \rangle \< \< \\
+ \< \sendmessageright{top={Bank transfer}, bottom={(subject: $W_p$, amount: $v$)},style=dashed} \< \\
+ \< \< \algo{CreateBalance}(W_p, v) \pclb
+\pcintertext[dotted]{Prepare Withdraw}
+\text{Choose $t$ with $\V{pkD}_t \in \{\V{pkD}_i\}$} \< \< \\
+\langle c_s, C_p \rangle \leftarrow \algo{Ed25519.Keygen}() \< \< \\
+ r \randsel \mathbb{Z}^*_N \< \< \\
+ \text{Persist planchet } \langle c_s, r \rangle \< \< \pclb
+\pcintertext[dotted]{Execute Withdraw}
+\overline{m} := \FDH(N_t, C_p) \cdot r^{e_t} \bmod N_t \< \< \\
+\rho_W := \langle \V{pkD}_t, \overline{m} \rangle \< \< \\
+\sigma_W := \algo{Ed25519.Sign}(w_s, \rho_W) \< \< \\
+\< \sendmessageright*{\rho := \langle W_p, \sigma_W, \rho_W \rangle} \< \\
+ \< \< \pccheck \V{pkD}_t \in \{ \V{pkD}_i \} \\
+\< \< \pccheck \algo{Ed25519.Verify}(W_p,\rho_W,\sigma_W) \\
+\< \< x \leftarrow \algo{GetWithdraw}(\rho) \\
+\< \< \pcif x \iseq \bot \\
+\< \< \t \pccheck \algo{BalanceSufficient}(W_p,\V{pkD}_t) \\
+\< \< \t \algo{DecreaseBalance}(W_p, \V{pkD}_t) \\
+\< \< \t \text{Persist withdrawal $\rho$} \\
+\< \< \t \overline{\sigma}_C := (\overline{m})^{\V{skD}_t} \bmod N_t \\
+\< \< \pcelse \\
+\< \< \t \overline{\sigma}_C := x \\
+\< \sendmessageleft*{\overline{\sigma}_C} \< \\
+\sigma_C := r^{-1}\overline{\sigma}_C \< \< \\
+\pccheck \sigma_C^{e_t} \iseqv_{N_t} \FDH(N_t, C_p) \< \< \\
+\text{Persist coin $\langle \V{pkD}_t, c_s, C_p, \sigma_C \rangle$} \< \< \\
+}
+}
+\caption[Withdraw protocol diagram.]{Withdrawal protocol diagram.}
+\label{fig:withdraw-protocol}
+\end{figure}
+
+\subsection{Payment transactions}
+The payment protocol is defined in two parts. First, the spend protocol in
+Figure~\ref{fig:payment-spend} defines the interaction between a merchant and
+a customer. The customer obtains the contract terms (as $\rho_P$) from the
+merchant, and sends the merchant deposit permissions as a payment. The deposit protocol
+in Figure~\ref{fig:payment-deposit} defines how subsequently the merchant sends the
+deposit permissions to the exchange to detect double-spending and ultimately
+to receive a bank transfer from the exchange.
+
+Note that in practice the customer can also execute the deposit
+protocol on behalf of the merchant. This is useful in situations where
+the customer has network connectivity but the merchant does not. It
+also allows the customer to complete a payment before the payment
+deadline if a merchant unexpectedly becomes unresponsive, allowing the
+customer to later prove that they paid on time.
+
+We limit the description to one exchange here, but in practice, the merchant
+communicates to the customer the exchanges that it supports, in addition to the
+account information $A_M$ that might differ between exchanges.
+
+We use the following algorithms, defined informally here:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item $\algo{SelectPayCoins}(v, E_M) \mapsto \{ \langle \V{coin}_i, f_i \rangle \}$ selects
+ fresh coins (signed with denomination keys from exchange $E_M$)
+ to pay for the amount $v$. The result is a set of coins
+ together with the fraction of each coin that must be spent such that
+ the amounts contributed by all coins sum up to $v$.
+ \item $\algo{MarkDirty}(\V{coin}, f) \mapsto \bot$ subtracts the fraction $f$ from the
+ available amount left on a coin, and marks the coin as dirty (to trigger refreshing
+ in case $f$ is below the denomination value). Thus, assuming the coin has
+ any residual value, the customer's wallet will do a refresh on $\V{coin}$
+ and not use it for further payments. This provides unlinkability of transactions
+ made with change arising from paying with fractions of a coin's denomination.
+ \item $\algo{Deposit}(E_M, D_i) \mapsto b$ executes the second part of the payment protocol
+ (i.e., the deposit) with exchange $E_M$, using deposit permission $D_i$.
+ \item $\algo{GetDeposit}(C_p, h) \mapsto \{\bot,\rho_{(D,i)}\}$ checks in the exchange's database
+ for an existing processed deposit permission on coin $C_p$ for the contract
+ identified by $h$. The algorithm returns the existing deposit permission $\rho_{(D,i)}$, or $\bot$ if a
+ matching deposit permission is not recorded.
+ \item $\algo{IsOverspending}(C_p, \V{pkD}, f) \mapsto b$ checks in the exchange's database
+ if there if at least the fraction $f$ of the coin $C_p$ of denomination $\V{pkD}$ is still available
+ for use, based on existing spend/withdraw records of the exchange.
+ \item $\algo{MarkFractionalSpend}(C_p, f) \mapsto \bot$ adds a spending
+ record to the exchanges database, indicating
+ that fraction $f$ of coin $C_p$ has been spent (in addition to
+ existing spending/refreshing records).
+ \item $\algo{ScheduleBankTransfer}(A_M, f, \V{pkD}, h_c) \mapsto \bot$
+ schedules a bank transfer from the exchange to
+ the account identified by $A_M$, for subject $h_c$ and for the amount $f\cdot D(\V{pkD})$.
+ % NOTE: actual implementation avoids multiplication (messy!) and would
+ % simply require f \le D(\V{pkD})!
+\end{itemize}
+
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centering
+\fbox{%
+\pseudocode[codesize=\footnotesize]{%
+\textbf{Customer} \< \< \textbf{Merchant} \\
+\text{Knows } \V{pkM} \< \< \text{Knows } \langle \V{pkM}, \V{skM} \rangle \\
+\< \sendmessageright{top={Select product/service},style=dashed} \< \\
+\< \< \text{Determine:} \\
+\< \< \text{$\bullet$ } v \text{ (price) } \\
+\< \< \text{$\bullet$ } E_M \text{ (exchange) } \\
+\< \< \text{$\bullet$ } A_M \text{ (acct.) } \\
+\< \< \text{$\bullet$ } \V{info} \text{ (free-form details) } \\
+\< \sendmessageleft{top={Request payment},style=dashed} \< \\
+\langle p_s, P_p \rangle \leftarrow \algo{Ed25519.Keygen}() \< \< \\
+\text{Persist ownership identifier } p_s \< \< \\
+\< \sendmessageright*{P_p} \< \\
+ \< \< \rho_P := \langle E_M, A_M, \V{pkM}, H(\langle v, \V{info}\rangle), P_p \rangle \\
+\< \< \sigma_P := \V{Ed25519.Sign}(\V{skM}, \rho_P) \\
+\< \sendmessageleft*{\rho_P, \sigma_P, v, \V{info}} \< \\
+ \langle M, A_M, \V{pkM}, h', P_p' \rangle := \rho_P \< \< \\
+\pccheck \algo{Ed25519.Verify}(pkM, \sigma_P, \rho_P) \< \< \\
+\pccheck P_p' \iseq P_p \< \< \\
+\pccheck h' \iseq H(\langle v, \V{info} \rangle ) \< \< \\
+\V{cf} \leftarrow \algo{SelectPayCoins}(v, E_M) \< \< \\
+\pcfor \langle \V{coin_i,f_i} \rangle \in \V{cf} \< \< \\
+\t \algo{MarkDirty}(\V{coin}_i, f_i) \< \< \\
+\t \langle c_s, C_p, \V{pkD}, \sigma_C \rangle := \V{coin}_i \< \< \\
+ \t \rho_{(D,i)} := \langle C_p, \V{pkD}, \sigma_C, f_i, H(\rho_P), A_M, \V{pkM} \rangle \< \< \\
+\t \sigma_{(D,i)} := \V{Ed25519.Sign}(c_s, \rho_{(D,i)}) \< \< \\
+ \text{Persist } \langle \sigma_P, \V{cf}, \rho_P, \rho_{(D,i)}, \sigma_{(D,i)}, v, \V{info} \rangle \< \<\\
+\< \sendmessageright*{ \mathcal{D} := \{\langle \rho_{(D,i)}, \sigma_{(D,i)}\rangle \}} \< \\
+\< \< \pcfor D_i \in \mathcal{D} \\
+\< \< \t \pccheck \algo{Deposit}(E_M, D_i) \\
+}
+}
+\caption[Spend protocol diagram.]{Spend Protocol executed between customer and merchant for the purchase
+ of an article of price $v$ using coins from exchange $E_M$. The merchant has
+ provided his account details to the exchange under an identifier $A_M$.
+ The customer can identify themselves as the one who received the offer
+ using $p_s$.
+ %This prevents multiple customers from legitimately paying for the
+ %same article and potentially exhausting stocks.
+}
+\label{fig:payment-spend}
+\end{figure}
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centering
+\fbox{%
+\pseudocode[codesize=\small]{%
+\textbf{Customer/Merchant} \< \< \textbf{Exchange} \\
+\text{Knows } \V{pkESig} \< \< \text{Knows } \V{skESig}, \V{pkESig}, \{ \V{pkD}_i \} \\
+\text{Knows } D_i = \langle \rho_{(D,i)}, \sigma_{(D,i)} \rangle \< \< \\
+\< \sendmessageright*{ D_i } \< \\
+\< \< \langle \rho_{(D,i)}, \sigma_{(D,i)} \rangle := D_i \\
+ \< \< \langle C_p, \V{pkD}, \sigma_C, f_i, h, A_M, \V{pkM} \rangle := \rho_{(D,i)} \\
+\< \< \pccheck \V{pkD} \in \{ \V{pkD}_i \} \\
+\< \< \langle e, N \rangle := \V{pkD} \\
+\< \< \pccheck \algo{Ed25519.Verify}(C_p, \sigma_{(D,i)}, \rho_{(D,i)}) \\
+\< \< x \leftarrow \algo{GetDeposit}(C_p, h) \\
+\< \< \pcif x \iseq \bot \\
+\< \< \t \pccheck \sigma_C^{e} \iseqv_N \FDH(N, C_p) \\
+\< \< \t \pccheck \neg\algo{IsOverspending}(C_p, \V{pkD}, f) \\
+\< \< \t \text{Persist deposit-record } D_i \\
+\< \< \t \algo{MarkFractionalSpend}(C_p, f) \\
+\< \< \t \algo{ScheduleBankTransfer}(A_M, f, \V{pkD}, h_c) \\
+\< \< \pcelse \\
+\< \< \t \pccheck x \iseq \rho_{(D,i)} \\
+\< \< \sigma_{DC} \leftarrow \algo{Ed25519.Sign}(\V{pkESig}, \rho_{(D,i)}) \\
+\< \sendmessageleft*{ \sigma_{DC} } \< \\
+\pccheck \algo{Ed25519.Verify} \\{}\qquad(\V{pkESig}, \sigma_{DC}, \rho_{(D,i)}) \< \< \\
+}
+}
+\caption[Deposit protocol diagram.]{Deposit Protocol run for each deposited coin $D_i \in {\cal D}$ with the
+ exchange that signed the coin.}
+\label{fig:payment-deposit}
+\end{figure}
+
+
+\subsection{Refreshing and Linking}
+The refresh protocol is defined in Figures~\ref{fig:refresh-part1} and
+\ref{fig:refresh-part2}. The refresh protocol allows the customer to
+obtain change for the remaining fraction of the value of a coin. The
+change is generated as a fresh coin that is unlinkable to the dirty
+coin to anyone except for the owner of the dirty coin.
+
+A na\"ive implementation of a refresh protocol that just gives the customer a
+new coin could be used for peer-to-peer transactions that hides income from tax
+authorities. Thus, (with probability $(1-1/\kappa)$) the refresh protocol
+records information that allows the owner of the original coin to obtain the
+refreshed coin from the original coin via the linking protocol (illustrated in
+Figure~\ref{fig:link}).
+
+We use the following algorithms, defined informally here:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item \algo{RefreshDerive} is defined in Figure~\ref{fig:refresh-derive}.
+ \item $\algo{GetOldRefresh}(\rho_{RC}) \mapsto \{\bot,\gamma\}$ returns the past
+ choice of $\gamma$ if $\rho_{RC}$ is a refresh commit message that has been seen before,
+ and $\bot$ otherwise.
+ \item $\algo{IsConsistentChallenge}(\rho_{RC}, \gamma) \mapsto \{ \bot,\top \}$ returns
+ $\top$ if no refresh-challenge has been persisted for the refresh operation by commitment
+ $\rho_{RC}$ or $\gamma$ is consistent with the persisted (and thus previously received) challenge;
+ returns $\bot$ otherwise.
+ \item $\algo{LookupLink}(C_p) \mapsto \{ \langle \rho_{L}^{(i)}, \sigma_L^{(i)},
+ \overline{\sigma}_C^{(i)} \rangle \}$ looks up refresh records on coin with public key $C_p$ in
+ the exchange's database and returns the linking message $\rho_L^{(i)}$, linking
+ signature $\sigma_L^{(i)}$ and blinded signature $\overline{\sigma}_C^{(i)}$ for each refresh
+ record $i$.
+\end{itemize}
+
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centering
+\fbox{%
+\procedure[codesize=\small]{$\algo{RefreshDerive}(s, \langle e, N \rangle, C_p)$}{%
+t := \HKDF(256, s, \texttt{"t"}) \\
+T := \algo{Curve25519.GetPub}(t) \\
+x := \textrm{ECDH-EC}(t, C_p) \\
+r := \algo{SelectSeeded}(x, \mathbb{Z}^*_{N}) \\
+c_s := \HKDF(256, x, \texttt{"c"}) \\
+C_p := \algo{Ed25519.GetPub}(c_s) \\
+\overline{m} := r^{e}\cdot C_p \mod N \\
+\pcreturn \langle t, T, x, c_s, C_p, \overline{m} \rangle
+}
+}
+\caption[RefreshDerive algorithm]{The RefreshDerive algorithm running with the seed $s$ on dirty coin $C_p$ to
+ generate a fresh coin to be later signed with denomination key $pkD := \langle e,N\rangle$.}
+\label{fig:refresh-derive}
+\end{figure}
+
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centerline{
+\fbox{%
+\pseudocode[codesize=\footnotesize]{%
+\textbf{Customer} \< \< \textbf{Exchange} \\
+\text{Knows } \{ \V{pkD}_i \} \< \< \text{Knows } \{\langle \V{skD}_i, \V{pkD}_i \rangle \} \\
+\text{Knows } \V{coin}_0 = \langle \V{pkD}_0, c_s^{(0)}, C_p^{(0)}, \sigma_{C}^{(0)} \rangle \< \< \\
+\text{Select } \langle N_t, e_t \rangle := \V{pkD}_t \in \{ \V{pkD}_i \} \< \< \\
+\pcfor i = 1,\dots,\kappa \< \< \\
+\t s_i \randsel \{0,1\}^{256} \< \< \\
+\t X_i := \algo{RefreshDerive}(s_i, \V{pkD}_t, C_p^{(0)}) \< \< \\
+\t (t_i, T_i, x_i, c_s^{(i)}, C_p^{(i)}, \overline{m}_i) := X_i \< \< \\
+h_T := H(T_1,\dots,T_\kappa) \< \< \\
+h_{\overline{m}} := H(\overline{m}_1,\dots,\overline{m}_\kappa) \< \< \\
+h_C := H(h_t, h_{\overline{m}}) \< \< \\
+\rho_{RC} := \langle h_C, \V{pkD}_t, \V{pkD}_0, C_p^{(0)}, \sigma_{C}^{(0)} \rangle \< \< \\
+\sigma_{RC} := \algo{Ed25519.Sign}(c_s^{(0)}, \rho_{RC}) \< \< \\
+\text{Persist refresh-request } \langle \rho_{RC}, \sigma_{RC} \rangle \< \< \\
+\< \sendmessageright*{ \rho_{RC}, \sigma_{RC} } \< \\
+\< \< (h_C, \V{pkD}_t, \V{pkD}_0, C_p^{(0)}, \sigma_{C}^{(0)}) := \rho_{RC} \\
+\< \< \pccheck \algo{Ed25519.Verify}(C_p^{(0)}, \sigma_{RC}, \rho_{RC}) \\
+\< \< x \leftarrow \algo{GetOldRefresh}(\rho_{RC}) \\
+\< \< \pcif x \iseq \bot \\
+\< \< \t v := D(\V{pkD}_t) \\
+\< \< \t \langle e_0, N_0 \rangle := \V{pkD}_0 \\
+\< \< \t \pccheck \neg\algo{IsOverspending}(C_p^{(0)}, \V{pkD}_0, v) \\
+\< \< \t \pccheck \V{pkD}_t \in \{ \V{pkD}_i \} \\
+\< \< \t \pccheck \FDH(N_0, C_p^{(0)}) \iseqv_{N_0} (\sigma_0^{(0)})^{e_0} \\
+\< \< \t \algo{MarkFractionalSpend}(C_p^{(0)}, v) \\
+\< \< \t \gamma \randsel \{1,\dots,\kappa\} \\
+\< \< \t \text{Persist refresh-record } \langle \rho_{RC},\gamma \rangle \\
+\< \< \pcelse \\
+\< \< \t \gamma := x \\
+\< \sendmessageleft*{ \gamma } \< \pclb
+\pcintertext[dotted]{(Continued in Figure~\ref{fig:refresh-part2})}
+}}}
+\caption{Refresh Protocol (Commit Phase)}
+\label{fig:refresh-part1}
+\end{figure}
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centerline{
+\fbox{%
+\pseudocode[codesize=\footnotesize]{%
+\textbf{Customer} \< \< \textbf{Exchange} \pclb
+\pcintertext[dotted]{(Continuation of \ref{fig:refresh-part1})} \\
+\< \sendmessageleft*{ \gamma } \< \\
+\pccheck \algo{IsConsistentChallenge}(\rho_{RC}, \gamma) \< \< \\
+\text{Persist refresh-challenge $\langle \rho_{RC}, \gamma \rangle$} \< \< \\
+S := \langle s_1,\dots,s_{\gamma-1},s_{\gamma+1},\dots,s_\kappa \rangle \< \< \\
+\rho_{L} = \langle C_p^{(0)}, \V{pkD}_t, T_\gamma, \overline{m}_\gamma \rangle \< \< \\
+\rho_{RR} = \langle T_\gamma, \overline{m}_\gamma, S \rangle \< \< \\
+\sigma_{L} = \algo{Ed25519.Sign}(c_s^{(0)}, \rho_{L}) \< \< \\
+\< \sendmessageright*{ \rho_{RR}, \rho_{L}, \sigma_{L} } \< \\
+\< \< \langle T'_\gamma, \overline{m}'_\gamma, S \rangle := \rho_{RR} \\
+\< \< \langle s_1,\dots,s_{\gamma-1},s_{\gamma+1},\dots,s_\kappa \rangle ) := S \\
+\< \< \pccheck \algo{Ed25519.Verify}(C_p^{(0)}, \sigma_L, \rho_L) \\
+\< \< \pcfor i = 1,\dots,\gamma-1,\gamma+1,\dots,\kappa \\
+\< \< \t X_i := \algo{RefreshDerive}(s_i, \V{pkD}_t, C_p^{(0)}) \\
+\< \< \t \langle t_i, T_i, x_i, c_s^{(i)}, C_p^{(i)}, \overline{m}_i \rangle := X_i \\
+\< \< h_T' = H(T_1,\dots,T_{\gamma-1},T'_{\gamma},T_{\gamma+1},\dots,T_\kappa) \\
+\< \< h_{\overline{m}}' = H(\overline{m}_1,\dots,\overline{m}_{\gamma-1},\overline{m}'_{\gamma},\overline{m}_{\gamma+1},\dots,\overline{m}_\kappa) \\
+\< \< h_C' = H(h_T', h_{\overline{m}}') \\
+\< \< \pccheck h_C \iseq h_C' \\
+\< \< \overline{\sigma}_C^{(\gamma)} := \overline{m}^{skD_t} \\
+\< \sendmessageleft*{\overline{\sigma}_C^{(\gamma)}} \< \\
+\sigma_C^{(\gamma)} := r^{-1}\overline{\sigma}_C^{(\gamma)} \< \< \\
+\pccheck (\sigma_C^{(\gamma)})^{e_t} \iseqv_{N_t} C_p^{(\gamma)} \< \< \\
+\text{Persist coin $\langle \V{pkD}_t, c_s^{(\gamma)}, C_p^{(\gamma)}, \sigma_C^{(\gamma)} \rangle$} \< \< \\
+}}}
+\caption{Refresh Protocol (Reveal Phase)}
+\label{fig:refresh-part2}
+\end{figure}
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centering
+\fbox{%
+\pseudocode[codesize=\footnotesize]{%
+\textbf{Customer} \< \< \textbf{Exchange} \\
+\text{Knows } \V{coin}_0 = \langle \V{pkD}_0, c_s^{(0)}, C_p^{(0)}, \sigma_{C}^{(0)} \rangle \< \< \\
+\< \sendmessageright*{C_p^{(0)}} \< \\
+\< \< L := \algo{LookupLink}(C_p^{(0)}) \\
+\< \sendmessageleft*{L} \< \\
+\pcfor \langle \rho_{L}^{(i)}, \overline{\sigma}_L^{(i)}, \sigma_C^{(i)} \rangle \in L \< \< \\
+\t \langle \hat{C}_p^{(i)}, \V{pkD}_t^{(i)}, T_\gamma^{(i)}, \overline{m}_\gamma^{(i)} \rangle := \rho_L^{(i)} \< \< \\
+\t \langle e_t^{(i)}, N_t^{(i)} \rangle := \V{pkD}_t^{(i)} \< \< \\
+\t \pccheck \hat{C}_p^{(i)} \iseq C_p^{(0)} \< \< \\
+\t \pccheck \algo{Ed25519.Verify}(C_p^{(0)}, \rho_{L}^{(i)}, \sigma_L^{(i)})\< \< \\
+\t x_i := \algo{ECDH}(c_s^{(0)}, T_\gamma^{(i)}) \< \< \\
+\t r_i := \algo{SelectSeeded}(x_i, \mathbb{Z}^*_{N_t}) \\
+\t c_s^{(i)} := \HKDF(256, x_i, \texttt{"c"}) \\
+\t C_p^{(i)} := \algo{Ed25519.GetPub}(c_s^{(i)}) \\
+\t \sigma_C^{(i)} := (r_i)^{-1} \cdot \overline{m}_\gamma^{(i)} \\
+\t \pccheck (\sigma_C^{(i)})^{e_t^{(i)}} \iseqv_{N_t^{(i)}} C_p^{(i)} \\
+\t \text{(Re-)obtain coin } \langle \V{pkD}_t^{(i)}, c_s^{(i)}, C_p^{(i)}, \sigma_C^{(i)} \rangle
+}
+}
+\caption{Linking protocol}
+\label{fig:link}
+\end{figure}
+
+\clearpage
+
+\subsection{Refunds}
+The refund protocol is defined in Figure~\ref{fig:refund}. The customer
+requests from the merchant that a deposit should be ``reversed'', and if the
+merchants allows the refund, it authorizes the exchange to apply the refund and
+sends the refund confirmation back to the customer. Note that in practice,
+refunds are only possible before the refund deadline, which is not considered
+here.
+
+We use the following algorithms, defined informally here:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item $\algo{ShouldRefund}(\rho_P, m) \mapsto \{ \top, \bot \}$ is used by the merchant to
+ check whether a refund with reason $m$ should be given for the purchase identified by the
+ contract terms $\rho_P$. The decision is made according to the merchant's business rules.
+ \item $\algo{LookupDeposits}(\rho_P, m) \mapsto \{ \langle \rho_{(D,i)},
+ \sigma_{(D,i)} \rangle \}$ is used by the merchant to retrieve deposit
+ permissions that were previously sent by the customer and already deposited
+ with the exchange.
+ \item $\algo{RefundDeposit}(C_p, h, f, \V{pkM})$ is used by the exchange to
+ modify its database. It (partially) reverses the amount $f$ of a deposit
+ of coin $C_p$ to the merchant $\V{pkM}$ for the contract identified by $h$.
+ The procedure is idempotent, and subsequent invocations with a larger $f$
+ increase the refund.
+\end{itemize}
+
+\begin{figure}
+\centerline{
+\fbox{%
+\pseudocode[codesize=\footnotesize]{%
+\< \< \pclb
+\pcintertext[dotted]{Request refund} \\
+\textbf{Customer} \< \< \textbf{Merchant} \\
+\text{Knows } \V{pkM}, \V{pkESig} \< \< \text{Knows } \langle \V{pkM}, \V{skM} \rangle, \V{pkESig} \\
+\< \sendmessageright{top={Ask for refund},bottom={(Payment $\rho_P$, reason $m$)},style=dashed} \< \\
+\< \< \pccheck \algo{ShouldRefund}(\rho_P,m) \pclb
+\pcintertext[dotted]{Execute refund} \\
+\textbf{Exchange} \< \< \textbf{Merchant} \\
+\text{Knows } \langle \V{skESig}, \V{pkESig} \rangle \< \< \\
+ \< \< \pcfor \langle \rho_{(D,i)}, \cdot \rangle \in \algo{LookupDeposits}(\rho_P) \\
+ \< \< \t \rho_{(X,i)} := \langle \mathtt{"refund"}, \rho_D \rangle \\
+ \< \< \t \sigma_{(X,i)} := \algo{Ed25519.Sign}(\V{skM}, \rho_{(X,i)}) \\
+ \< \sendmessageleft*{X := \{ \rho_{(X,i)}, \sigma_{(X,i)} \} } \< \\
+\pcfor \langle \rho_{(X,i)}, \sigma_{(X,i)} \rangle \in X \< \< \\
+\t \pccheck \langle \mathtt{"refund"}, \rho_D \rangle := \rho_X \< \< \\
+\t \pccheck \langle C_p, \V{pkD}, \sigma_C, f, h, A_M, \V{pkM} \rangle := \rho_D \\
+\t \pccheck \algo{Ed25519.Verify}(\V{pkM}, \rho_X, \sigma_X) \< \< \\
+\t \algo{RefundDeposit}(C_p, h, f, \V{pkM}) \< \< \\
+\t \rho_{(XC,i)} := \langle \mathtt{"refunded"}, \rho_D \rangle \< \< \\
+\t \sigma_{(XC,i)} := \algo{Ed25519.Sign}(\V{skESig}, \rho_{(XC,i)}) \< \< \\
+\< \sendmessageright*{XC := \{ \rho_{(XC,i)}, \sigma_{(XC,i)} \} } \< \pclb
+\pcintertext[dotted]{Confirm refund} \\
+\textbf{Customer} \< \< \textbf{Merchant} \\
+\< \sendmessageleft*{XC} \< \\
+\pcfor \langle \rho_{(XC,i)}, \sigma_{(XC,i)} \rangle \in XC \< \< \\
+ \t \pccheck \algo{Ed25519.Verify}(\V{pkESig}, \rho_{(XC,i)}, \sigma_{(XC,i)}) \< \< \\
+}
+}
+}
+\caption{Refund protocol}
+\label{fig:refund}
+\end{figure}
+
+\clearpage
+\section{Experimental results}
+We now evaluate the performance of the core components of the reference
+implementation of GNU Taler. No separate benchmarks are provided for the
+merchant backend, as the work done by the merchant per transaction is
+relatively negligible compared to the work done by the exchange, and one exchange needs
+to provide service many merchants and all of their customers. Thus, the exchange
+is the bottleneck for the performance of the system.
+
+We provide a microbenchmark for the performance of cryptographic operations in
+the wallet (Table~\ref{table:wallet-benchmark}. Even on a low-end smartphone
+device, the most expensive cryptographic operations remain well under
+$150ms$, a threshold for user-interface latency under which user happiness and
+productivity is considered to be unaffected \cite{tolia2006quantifying}.
+
+\begin{table}
+ \centering
+ \begin{subtable}[t]{0.4\linewidth}
+ \centering{
+ \begin{tabular}{lr}
+ \toprule
+ Operation & Time (ms) \\
+ \midrule
+ eddsa create & 9.69 \\
+ eddsa sign & 22.31 \\
+ eddsa verify & 19.28 \\
+ hash big & 0.05 \\
+ hash small & 0.13 \\
+ rsa 2048 blind & 3.35 \\
+ rsa 2048 unblind & 4.94 \\
+ rsa 2048 verify & 1.97 \\
+ rsa 4096 blind & 10.38 \\
+ rsa 4096 unblind & 16.13 \\
+ rsa 4096 verify & 6.57 \\
+ \bottomrule
+ \end{tabular}}
+ \caption{Wallet microbenchmark on a Laptop (Intel i7-4600U) with Firefox}
+ \end{subtable}
+ \qquad
+ \begin{subtable}[t]{0.4\linewidth}
+ \centering{
+ \begin{tabular}{lr}
+ \toprule
+ Operation & Time (ms) \\
+ \midrule
+ eddsa create & 34.80 \\
+ eddsa sign & 78.55 \\
+ eddsa verify & 72.50 \\
+ hash big & 0.51 \\
+ hash small & 1.37 \\
+ rsa 2048 blind & 14.35 \\
+ rsa 2048 unblind & 19.78 \\
+ rsa 2048 verify & 9.10 \\
+ rsa 4096 blind & 47.86 \\
+ rsa 4096 unblind & 69.91 \\
+ rsa 4096 verify & 29.02 \\
+ \bottomrule
+ \end{tabular}}
+ \caption{Wallet microbenchmark on Android Moto G3 with Firefox}
+ \end{subtable}
+ \caption{Wallet microbenchmarks}
+ \label{table:wallet-benchmark}
+\end{table}
+
+
+We implemented a benchmarking tool that starts a single (multi-threaded)
+exchange and a bank process for the taler-test wire transfer protocol. It then
+generates workload on the exchange with a configurable number of concurrent
+clients and operations. The benchmarking tool is able to run the exchange on a
+different machine (via SSH\footnote{\url{https://www.openssh.com/}}) than the benchmark driver, mock bank and clients.
+At the end, the benchmark outputs the number of deposited coins per second and
+latency statistics.
+
+\subsection{Hardware Setup}
+We used two server machines (\texttt{firefly} and \texttt{gv}) with the following
+hardware specifications for our tests:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item \texttt{firefly} has a 96-core AMD EPYC 7451 CPU and 256GiB DDR4\@2667 MHz RAM.
+ \item \texttt{gv} has a 16-core Intel(R) Xeon X5550 (2.67GHz) CPU and 128GiB DDR3\@1333 MHz RAM.
+\end{itemize}
+
+We used $2048$-bit RSA denomination keys for all of our exchange benchmarks. We
+used a development version of the exchange (with git commit hash
+5fbda29b76c24d\dots). PostgreSQL version 11.3 was used as the database.
+As our server machines have only slower hard-disk drives instead of faster solid-state drives,
+we ran the benchmarks with an in-memory database.
+
+
+\subsection{Coins Per Transaction}\label{sec:coins-per-transaction}
+The transaction rate is an important characteristic of a payment system. Since
+GNU Taler internally operates on the level of coins instead of transactions, we
+need to define what actually consititutes one transaction in our measurements.
+This includes both how many coins are used per transaction on average, as well
+as how often refresh operations are run.
+
+We ran a simple simulation to determine rather conservative upper bounds for
+the parameters that characterize the average transaction. The source code for
+the simulation can be found in Appendix \ref{appendix:coinsim}.
+
+In the simulation, thirteen denominations of values $2^0,\dots,2^{12}$ are
+available. Customers repeatedly select a random value to be spent between $4$ and $5000$.
+When customers do not have enough coins for a transaction, they withdraw a
+uniform random amount between the minimum amount to complete the transaction
+and $10000$. The denominations selected for withdrawal are chosen by greedy
+selection of the largest possible denomination. When spending, the customer
+first tries to use one coin, namely the smallest coin larger than the
+requested amount. If no such coin exists in the customer's wallet, the
+customer pays with multiple coins, spending smallest coins first.
+
+Choosing a random uniform amount for withdrawal could be considered
+unrealistic, as customers in practice likely would select from a fixed list of
+common withdrawal amounts, just like most ATMs operate.
+Thus, we also implemented a variation of the simulation that withdraws a constant
+amount of $1250$ (i.e., $1/4$ of the maximum transaction value) if it is sufficient
+for the transaction, and the exact required amount otherwise.
+
+We obtained the following results for the number of average operations
+executed for one ``business transaction'':
+
+\begin{table}[H]
+\centering
+\begin{tabular}{lSS}
+ \toprule
+ & {random withdraw} & {constant withdraw} \\
+ \midrule
+ \#spend operations & 8.3 & 7.0 \\
+ \#refresh operations & 1.3 & 0.51 \\
+ \#refresh output coins & 4.2 & 3.62 \\
+ \bottomrule
+\end{tabular}
+\end{table}
+
+Based on these results, we chose the parameters for our benchmark: for every
+spend operation we run a refresh operation with probability $1/10$, where each
+refresh operation produces $4$ output coins. In order to arrive at the
+transaction rate, the rate of spend operations should be divided by $10$.
+
+Note that this is a rather conservative analysis. In practice, the coin
+selection for withdrawal/spending can use more sophisticated optimization
+algorithms, rather than using greedy selection. Furthermore, we expect that the
+amounts paid in real-world transactions will have more predictable
+distributions, and thus the offered denominations can be adjusted to typical
+amounts.
+
+\subsubsection{Baseline Sequential Resource Usage}
+To obtain a baseline for the resource usage of the exchange, we ran the benchmark on
+\texttt{firefly} with a single client that executes sequential requests to
+withdraw and spend $10000$ coins, with $10\%$ refresh probability.
+
+% FIXME: talk about TFO, compression and keep-alive
+
+Table~\ref{table:benchmark:ops-baseline} shows the time used for cryptographic
+operations, together with the number of times they are executed by the clients
+(plus the mock bank and benchmark setup) and exchange, respectively. Note that
+while we measured the wall-clock time for these operations, the averages should
+correspond to the actual CPU time required for the respective operations, as
+the benchmark with one client runs significantly fewer processes/threads than
+the number of available CPUs on our machine.
+
+The benchmark completed in $15.10$ minutes on $\texttt{firefly}$. We obtained the total CPU usage of
+the benchmark testbed and exchange. The refresh operations are rather slow in comparison
+to spends and deposits, as the benchmark with a refresh probability of $0\%$ only took $8.84$
+minutes to complete.
+
+\begin{table}
+ \centering
+ \begin{tabular}{lSSS}
+ \toprule
+ Operation & {Time/Op (\si{\micro\second})} & {Count (exchange)} & {Count (clients)} \\
+ \midrule
+ecdh eddsa & 1338.62 & 2430 & 3645 \\
+ecdhe key create & 1825.38 & 0 & 3645 \\
+ecdhe key get public & 1272.64 & 2430 & 4860 \\
+eddsa ecdh & 1301.78 & 0 & 4860 \\
+eddsa key create & 1896.27 & 0 & 12180 \\
+eddsa key get public & 1729.69 & 9720 & 80340 \\
+eddsa sign & 5182.33 & 13393 & 25608 \\
+eddsa verify & 3976.96 & 25586 & 25627 \\
+hash & 1.41 & 165608 & 169445 \\
+hash context finish & 0.28 & 1215 & 1227 \\
+hash context read & 0.81 & 25515 & 25655 \\
+hash context start & 11.38 & 1215 & 1227 \\
+hkdf & 40.61 & 65057 & 193506 \\
+rsa blind & 695.25 & 9720 & 31633 \\
+rsa private key get public & 5.30 & 0 & 40 \\
+rsa sign blinded & 5284.88 & 17053 & 0 \\
+rsa unblind & 1348.62 & 0 & 21898 \\
+rsa verify & 421.19 & 13393 & 29216 \\
+ \bottomrule
+ \end{tabular}
+ \caption{Cryptographic operations in the benchmark with one client and $10000$ operations.}
+ \label{table:benchmark:ops-baseline}
+\end{table}
+
+
+\begin{table}
+ \centering
+ \begin{tabular}{lSSS}
+ \toprule
+ \textbf{Relation} &
+ {\textbf{Table (\si{\mebi\byte})}} &
+ {\textbf{Indexes (\si{\mebi\byte})}} &
+ {\textbf{Total (\si{\mebi\byte})}} \\
+ \midrule
+ denominations & 0.02 & 0.03 & 0.05 \\
+ reserves\_in & 0.01 & 0.08 & 0.09 \\
+ reserves & 0.02 & 0.25 & 0.27 \\
+ refresh\_commitments & 0.36 & 0.28 & 0.64 \\
+ refresh\_transfer\_keys & 0.38 & 0.34 & 0.73 \\
+ refresh\_revealed\_coins & 4.19 & 0.91 & 5.14 \\
+ known\_coins & 7.37 & 0.70 & 8.07 \\
+ deposits & 4.85 & 6.80 & 11.66 \\
+ reserves\_out & 8.95 & 4.48 & 13.43 \\
+ \midrule
+ \emph{Sum} & 26.14 & 13.88 & 40.02 \\
+ \bottomrule
+ \end{tabular}
+ \caption{Space usage by database table for $10000$ deposits with $10\%$ refresh probability.}
+ \label{table:exchange-db-size}
+\end{table}
+
+The size of the exchange's database after the experiment (starting from an empty database)
+is shown in Table~\ref{table:exchange-db-size}.
+We measured the size of tables and indexes using the \texttt{pg\_relation\_size} /
+\texttt{pg\_indexes\_size} functions of PostgreSQL.
+
+We observe that even though the refresh operations account for about half of
+the time taken by the benchmark, they contribute to only $\approx 16\%$ of the
+database's size. The computational costs for refresh are higher than the
+storage costs (compared to other operations), as the database stores only needs
+to store one commitment, one transfer key and the blinded coins that are
+actually signed.
+
+In our sequential baseline benchmark run, only one reserve was used to withdraw
+coins, and thus the tables that store the reserves are very small. In
+practice, information for multiple reserves would be tracked for each active
+cutomers.
+
+The TCP/IP network traffic between the exchange, clients and the mock bank was
+$\SI{57.95}{\mebi\byte}$, measured by the Linux kernel's statistics for
+transmitted/received bytes on the relevant network interface. As expected, the
+traffic is larger than the size of the database, since some data (such as
+signatures) is only verified/generated and not stored in the database.
+
+\subsection{Transaction Rate and Scalability}
+Figure~\ref{fig:benchmark-throughput} shows the mean time taken to process one
+coin for different numbers of parallel clients. With increasing parallelism,
+the throughput continues to rise roughly until after the number of parallel
+clients saturates the number of available CPU cores (96). There is no
+significant decrease in throughput even when the system is under rather high
+load, as clients whose requests cannot be handled in parallel are either
+waiting in the exchange's listen backlog or waiting in a retry timeout
+(with randomized, truncated, exponential back-off) after being refused when the
+exchange's listen backlog is full.
+
+
+Figure~\ref{fig:benchmark-cpu} shows the CPU time (sum of user and system time)
+of both the exchange and the whole benchmark testbed (including the exchange)
+in relation to the wall-clock time the benchmark took to complete.
+We can see that the gap between the wall-clock time and CPU time used by the
+benchmark grows with an increase in the number of parallel clients. This can
+be explained by the CPU usage of the database (whose CPU usage is not measured
+as part of the benchmark). With a growing number of parallel transactions, the
+database runs into an increasing number of failed commits due to read/write
+conflicts, leading to retries of the corresponding transactions.
+
+To estimate the time taken up by cryptographic operations in the exchange, we
+first measured a baseline with a single client, where the wall-clock time for
+cryptographic operations is very close to the actual CPU time, as virtually no
+context switching occurs. We then extrapolated these timings to experiment
+runs with parallelism by counting the number of times each operation is
+executed and multiplying with the baseline. As seen in the dot-and-dash line
+in Figure~\ref{fig:benchmark-cpu}, by our extrapolation slightly more than half
+of the time is spent in cryptographic routines.
+
+We furthermore observe in Figure~\ref{fig:benchmark-cpu} that under full load,
+less than $1/3$ of the CPU time is spent by the exchange. A majority of the
+CPU time in the benchmark is used by the simulation of clients.
+As we did not have a machine available that is powerful enough to generate
+traffic that can saturate a single exchange running on \texttt{firefly}, we
+estimate the throughput that would be possible if the machine only ran the
+exchange. The highest rate of spends was $780$ per second. Thus, the
+theoretically achievable transaction rate on our single test machine (and a
+dedicated machine for the database) would be $780 \cdot 3 / 10 = 234$ transactions
+per second under the relatively pessimistic assumptions we made about what
+consitutes a transaction.
+
+If a GNU Taler deployment was used to pay for items of fixed price (e.g., online
+news articles), the overhead of multiple coins and refresh operations (which
+accounts for $\approx 50\%$ of spent time as measured earlier) and multiple
+coins per payment would vanish, giving an estimated maximum transaction rate of
+$742 \cdot 2 = 1484$ transactions per second.
+
+\begin{figure}
+ \includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{plots/speed.pdf}
+ \caption[Coin throughput.]{Coin throughput in relation to number of parallel clients, with $1000$ coins per client per experiment run.}
+ \label{fig:benchmark-throughput}
+\end{figure}
+
+\begin{figure}
+ \includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{plots/cpu.pdf}
+ \caption[Comparison of components' CPU usage for the benchmark.]{Comparison of real time, the CPU time for the exchange and the whole benchmark.}
+ \label{fig:benchmark-cpu}
+\end{figure}
+
+\subsection{Latency}
+We connected \texttt{firefly} and \texttt{gv} directly with a patch cable, and
+introduced artificial network latency by configuring the Linux packet scheduler
+with the \texttt{tc} tool. The goal of this experiment was to observe the
+network latency characteristics of the implementation. Note that we do not consider
+the overhead of TLS in our experiments, as we assume that TLS traffic is
+already terminated before it reaches the exchange service, and exchanges can be
+operated securely even without TLS.
+
+The comparison between no additional delay and a \SI{100}{\milli\second} delay
+is shown in Table~\ref{table:latency}. TCP Fast Open~\cite{rfc7413} was
+enabled on both \texttt{gv} and \texttt{firefly}. Since for all operations
+except \texttt{/refresh/reveal}, both request and response fit into one TCP
+segment, these operations complete within one round-trip time. This explains the
+additional delay of $\approx \SI{200}{\milli\second}$ when the artificial delay
+is introduced. Without TCP Fast Open, we would observe an extra round trip for
+the SYN and SYN/ACK packages without any payload. The \texttt{/refresh/reveal}
+operation takes an extra roundtrip due to the relatively large size of the
+request (as show in Table~\ref{table:api-size}), which exceeds the MTU of 1500
+for the link between \texttt{gv} and \texttt{firefly}, and thus does not fit
+into the first TCP Fast Open packet.
+
+Figure~\ref{fig:latencies} shows the latency for the exchange's HTTP endpoints
+in relation to different network delays. As expected, the additional delay
+grows linearly for a single client. We note that in larger benchmarks with
+multiple parallel clients, the effect of additional delay would likely not just
+be linear, due to timeouts raised by clients.
+
+\newcommand{\specialcell}[2][c]{%
+ \begin{tabular}[#1]{@{}c@{}}#2\end{tabular}}
+
+\begin{table}
+ \centering
+ \begin{tabular}{lSSSS}
+ \toprule
+ Endpoint &
+ {\specialcell[c]{Base latency\\(\si{\milli\second})}} &
+ {\specialcell[c]{Latency with\\\SI{100}{\milli\second} delay\\(\si{\milli\second})}} \\
+ \midrule
+ \texttt{/keys} & 1.14 & 201.25 \\
+ \texttt{/reserve/withdraw} & 22.68 & 222.46 \\
+ \texttt{/deposit} & 22.36 & 223.22 \\
+ \texttt{/refresh/melt} & 20.71 & 223.9 \\
+ \texttt{/refresh/reveal} & 63.64 & 466.30 \\
+ \bottomrule
+ \end{tabular}
+ \caption{Effects of \SI{100}{\milli\second} symmetric network delay on total latency.}
+ \label{table:latency}
+\end{table}
+
+\begin{table}
+ \centering
+ \begin{tabular}{lSSSS}
+ \toprule
+ Endpoint &
+ {\specialcell[c]{Request size\\2048-bit RSA\\(\si{\kilo\byte})}} &
+ {\specialcell[c]{Response size\\2048-bit RSA\\(\si{\kilo\byte})}} &
+ {\specialcell[c]{Request size\\1024-bit RSA\\(\si{\kilo\byte})}} &
+ {\specialcell[c]{Response size\\1024-bit RSA\\(\si{\kilo\byte})}} \\
+ \midrule
+ \texttt{/keys} & 0.14 & 3.75 & 0.14 & 3.43 \\
+ \texttt{/reserve/withdraw} & 0.73 & 0.71 & 0.60 & 0.49 \\
+ \texttt{/deposit} & 1.40 & 0.34 & 1.14 & 0.24 \\
+ \texttt{/refresh/melt} & 1.06 & 0.35 & 0.85 & 0.35 \\
+ \texttt{/refresh/reveal} & 1.67 & 2.11 & 1.16 & 1.23 \\
+ \bottomrule
+ \end{tabular}
+ \caption[Request and response sizes for the exchange's API.]{Request and response sizes for the exchange's API.
+ In addition to the sizes for 2048-bit RSA keys (used throughout the benchmark), the sizes for 1024-bit RSA keys are also provided.}
+ \label{table:api-size}
+\end{table}
+
+\begin{figure}
+ \includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{plots/latencies.pdf}
+ \caption[Effect of artificial network delay on exchange's latency.]{Effect of artificial network delay on exchange's latency.}
+ \label{fig:latencies}
+\end{figure}
+
+% Missing benchmarks:
+% overall Taler tx/s
+% db io+tx/s
+% If I have time:
+% traffic/storage depending on key size?
+
+
+\section{Current Limitations and Future Improvements}\label{sec:implementation-improvements}
+Currently the auditor does not support taking samples of deposit confirmations that
+merchants receive. The API and user interface to receive and process proofs
+of misbehavior of the exchange/merchant generated by the wallet is not implemented yet.
+
+As a real-world deployment of electronic cash has rather high requirements for
+the operational security, the usage of hardware security modules for generation
+of signatures should be considered. Currently, a single process has access to
+all key material. For a lower-cost improvement that decreases the performance
+of the system, a threshold signature scheme could be used.
+
+The current implementation is focused on web payments. To use GNU Taler for
+payments in brick-and-mortar stores, hardware wallets and smartphone apps for
+devices with near-field-communication (NFC) must be developed. In some
+scenarios, either the customer or the merchant might not have an Internet
+connection, and this must be considered in the protocol design. In typical
+western brick-and-mortar stores, it is currently more likely that the merchant
+has Internet connectivity, and thus the protocol must allow operations of the
+wallet (such as refreshing) to be securely routed over the merchant's
+connection. In other scenarios, typically in developing countries, the
+merchant (for example, a street vendor) might not have Internet connection. If
+the vendor has a smartphone, the connection to the merchant can be routed
+through the customer. In other cases, street vendors only have a ``dumb
+phone'' that can receive text messages, and the payment goes through a provider
+trusted by the merchant that sends text messages as confirmation for payments.
+All these possibilities must be considered both from the perspective of the procotol and APIs
+as well as the user experience.
+
+% FIXME: explain that exchange does threading
+
+Our experiments were only done with single exchange process and a single
+database on the same machine. There are various ways to horizontally scale the
+exchange:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item Multiple exchange processes can be run on multiple machines and access
+ the database that runs a separate machine. Requests are directed to the
+ machines running the exchange process via a load balancer. In this
+ scenario, the throughput of the database is likely to be the bottleneck.
+ \item To avoid having the database as a bottleneck, the contents can be
+ partitioned into shards. For this technique to be effective, data in the
+ shards should not have any dependencies in other shards. A natural way to
+ do sharding for the Taler exchange is to give each shard the sole
+ responsibility for a subset of all available denominations.
+ \item If the transaction volume on one denomination is too high to handle for
+ a single shard, transactions can be further partitioned based on the coin's
+ public key. Each would maintain the database of spent/refreshed coins for
+ a subset of all possible coin public keys. This approach has been
+ suggested for a centrally-banked cryprocurrency by Danezis and Meiklejohn
+ \cite{danezis2016rscoin}.
+\end{itemize}
+
+% paranoid wallet (permissions!)
+
+% FIXME: I want to mention PADs for auditing/transparency somewhere, just
+% because they're cool
+
+
+% FIXME: coin locking not implemented!
diff --git a/doc/system/taler/security.tex b/doc/system/taler/security.tex
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..99c8e052
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/taler/security.tex
@@ -0,0 +1,1729 @@
+\chapter{Security of Income-Transparent Anonymous E-Cash}\label{chapter:security}
+
+\def\Z{\mathbb{Z}}
+
+\def\mathperiod{.}
+\def\mathcomma{,}
+
+\newcommand*\ST[5]%
+{\left#1\,#4\vphantom{#5} \;\right#2 \left. #5 \vphantom{#4}\,\right#3}
+
+% uniform random selection from set
+\newcommand{\randsel}[0]{\ensuremath{\xleftarrow{\text{\$}}}}
+
+\newcommand{\Exp}[1]{\ensuremath{E\left[#1\right]}}
+
+% oracles
+\newcommand{\ora}[1]{\ensuremath{\mathcal{O}\mathsf{#1}}}
+% oracle set
+\newcommand{\oraSet}[1]{\ensuremath{\mathcal{O}\textsc{#1}}}
+% algorithm
+\newcommand{\algo}[1]{\ensuremath{\mathsf{#1}}}
+% party
+\newcommand{\prt}[1]{\ensuremath{\mathcal{#1}}}
+% long-form variable
+\let\V\relax % clashes with siunitx volt
+\newcommand{\V}[1]{\ensuremath{\mathsf{#1}}}
+
+% probability with square brackets of the right size
+\newcommand{\Prb}[1]{\ensuremath{\Pr\left [#1 \right ]}}
+
+\newcommand{\mycomment}[1]{~\\ {\small \textcolor{blue}{({#1})}}}
+
+\theoremstyle{definition}
+\newtheorem{definition}{Definition}[section]
+\theoremstyle{corollary}
+\newtheorem{corollary}{Corollary}[section]
+
+
+%%%%%%%%%
+% TODOS
+%%%%%%%%
+%
+% * our theorems don't really mention the security parameters "in the output",
+% shouldn't we be able to talk about the bounds of the reduction?
+
+We so far discussed Taler's protocols and security properties only informally.
+In this chapter, we model a slightly simplified version of the system that we
+have implemented (see Chapter~\ref{chapter:implementation}), make our desired
+security properties more precise, and prove that our protocol instantiation
+satisfies those properties.
+
+\section{Introduction to Provable Security}
+Provable security
+\cite{goldwasser1982probabilistic,pointcheval2005provable,shoup2004sequences,coron2000exact} is a common
+approach for constructing formal arguments that support the security of a cryptographic
+protocol with respect to specific security properties and underlying
+assumptions on cryptographic primitives.
+
+The adversary we consider is computationally bounded, i.e., the run time is
+typically restricted to be polynomial in the security parameters (such as key
+length) of the protocol.
+
+Contrary to what the name might suggest, a protocol that is ``provably secure''
+is not necessarily secure in practice
+\cite{koblitz2007another,damgaard2007proof}. Instead, provable security
+results are typically based on reductions of the form \emph{``if there is an
+effective adversary~$\mathcal{A}$ against my protocol $P$, then I can use
+$\mathcal{A}$ to construct an effective adversary~$\mathcal{A}'$ against
+$Q$''} where $Q$ is a protocol or primitive that is assumed to be secure or a
+computational problem that is assumed to be hard. The practical value of a
+security proof depends on various factors:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item How well-studied is $Q$? Some branches of cryptography, for example,
+ some pairing-based constructions, rely on rather complex and exotic
+ underlying problems that are assumed to be hard (but might not be)
+ \cite{koblitz2010brave}.
+ \item How tight is the reduction of $Q$ to $P$? A security proof may only
+ show that if $P$ can be solved in time $T$, the underlying problem $Q$ can
+ be solved (using the hypothetical $\mathcal{A}$) in time, e.g., $f(T) = T^2$.
+ In practice, this might mean that for $P$ to be secure, it needs to be deployed
+ with a much larger key size or security parameter than $Q$ to be secure.
+ \item What other assumptions are used in the reduction? A common and useful but
+ somewhat controversial
+ assumption is the Random Oracle Model (ROM) \cite{bellare1993random}, where
+ the usage of hash functions in a protocol is replaced with queries to a
+ black box (called the Random Oracle), which is effectively a trusted third
+ party that returns a truly random value for each input. Subsequent queries
+ to the Random Oracle with the same value return the same result. While
+ many consider ROM a practical assumption
+ \cite{koblitz2015random,bellare1993random}, it has been shown that there
+ exist carefully constructed protocols that are secure under the ROM, but
+ are insecure with any concrete hash function \cite{canetti2004random}. It
+ is an open question whether this result carries over to practical
+ protocols, or just certain classes of artificially constructed protocols of
+ theoretical interest.
+\end{itemize}
+Furthermore, a provably secure protocol does not always lend itself easily to a secure
+implementation, since side channels and fault injection attacks \cite{hsueh1997fault,lomne2011side} are
+usually not modeled. Finally, the security properties stated might
+not be sufficient or complete for the application.
+
+For our purposes, we focus on game-based provable security
+\cite{bellare2006code,pointcheval2005provable,shoup2004sequences,guo2018introduction}
+as opposed to simulation-based provable security \cite{goldwasser1989knowledge,lindell2017simulate},
+which is another approach to provable security typically used for
+zero-knowledge proofs and secure multiparty computation protocols.
+
+\subsection{Algorithms, Oracles and Games}
+In order to analyze the security of a protocol, the protocol and its desired
+security properties against an adversary with specific capabilities must first
+be modeled formally. This part is independent of a concrete instantiation of
+the protocol; the protocol is only described on a syntactic level.
+
+The possible operations of a protocol (i.e., the protocol syntax) are abstractly
+defined as the signatures of \emph{algorithms}. Later, the protocol will be
+instantiated by providing a concrete implementation (formally a program for a
+probabilistic Turing machine) of each algorithm. A typical public key signature
+scheme, for example, might consist of the following algorithms:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item $\algo{KeyGen}(1^\lambda) \mapsto (\V{sk}, \V{pk})$, a probabilistic algorithm
+ which on input $1^\lambda$ generates a fresh key pair consisting of secret key $\V{sk}$ of length $\lambda$ and
+ and the corresponding public key $\V{pk}$. Note that $1^\lambda$ is the unary representation of $\lambda$.\footnote{%
+ This formality ensures that the size of the input of the Turing machine program implementing the algorithm will
+ be as least as big as the security parameter. Otherwise the run-time complexity cannot be directly expressed
+ in relation to the size of the input tape.}
+ \item $\algo{Sign}(\V{sk}, m) \mapsto \sigma$, an algorithm
+ that signs the bit string $m$ with secret key $\V{sk}$ to output the signature $\sigma$.
+ \item $\algo{Verify}(\V{pk}, \sigma, m) \mapsto b$, an algorithm
+ that determines whether $\sigma$ is a valid signature on $m$ made with the secret key corresponding to the
+ public key $\V{pk}$. It outputs the flag $b \in \{0, 1\}$ to indicate whether the signature
+ was valid (return value $1$) or invalid (return value $0$).
+\end{itemize}
+The abstract syntax could be instantiated with various concrete signature protocols.
+
+In addition to the computational power given to the adversary, the capabilities
+of the adversary are defined via oracles. The oracles can be thought of as the
+API\footnote{In the modern sense of application programming interface (API),
+where some system exposes a service with well-defined semantics.} that is given
+to the adversary and allows the adversary to interact with the environment it
+is running in. Unlike the algorithms, which the adversary has free access to,
+the access to oracles is often restricted, and oracles can keep state that is
+not accessible directly to the adversary. Oracles typically allow the
+adversary to access information that it normally would not have direct access
+to, or to trigger operations in the environment running the protocol.
+
+Formally, oracles are an extension to the Turing machine that runs the
+adversary, which allow the adversary to submit queries to interact with the
+environment that is running the protocol.
+
+
+For a signature scheme, the adversary could be given access to an \ora{Sign}
+oracle, which the adversary uses to make the system produce signatures, with
+secret keys that the adversary does not have direct access to. Different
+definitions of \ora{Sign} lead to different capabilities of the adversary and
+thus to different security properties later on:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item If the signing oracle $\ora{Sign}(m)$ is defined to take a message $m$ and return
+ a signature $\sigma$ on that message, the adversary gains the power to do chosen message attacks.
+ \item If $\ora{Sign}(\cdot)$ was defined to return a pair $(\sigma, m)$ of a signature $\sigma$
+ on a random message $m$, the power of the adversary would be reduced to a known message attack.
+\end{itemize}
+
+While oracles are used to describe the possible interactions with a system, it
+is more convenient to describe complex, multi-round interactions involving
+multiple parties as a special form of an algorithm, called an \emph{interactive
+protocol}, that takes the identifiers of communicating parties and their
+(private) inputs as a parameter, and orchestrates the interaction between them.
+The adversary will then have an oracle to start an instance of that particular
+interactive protocol and (if desired by the security property being modeled)
+the ability to drop, modify or inject messages in the interaction. The
+typically more cumbersome alternative would be to introduce one algorithm and
+oracle for every individual interaction step.
+
+Security properties are defined via \emph{games}, which are experiments that
+challenge the adversary to act in a way that would break the desired security
+property. Games usually consist multiple phases, starting with the setup phase
+where the challenger generates the parameters (such as encryption keys) for the
+game. In the subsequent query/response phase, the adversary is given some of
+the parameters (typically including public keys but excluding secrets) from the
+setup phase, and runs with access to oracles. The challenger\footnote{ The
+challenger is conceptually the party or environment that runs the
+game/experiment.} answers oracle queries during that phase. After the
+adversary's program terminates, the challenger invokes the adversary again with
+a challenge. The adversary must now compute a final response to the
+challenger, sometimes with access to oracles. Depending on the answer, the
+challenger decides if the adversary wins the game or not, i.e., the game returns
+$0$ if the adversary loses and $1$ if the adversary wins.
+
+A game for the existential unforgeability of signatures could be formulated like this:
+
+\bigskip
+\noindent $\mathit{Exp}_{\prt{A}}^{EUF}(1^\lambda)$:
+\vspace{-0.5\topsep}
+\begin{enumerate}
+ \setlength\itemsep{0em}
+ \item $(\V{sk}, \V{pk}) \leftarrow \algo{KeyGen}(1^\lambda)$
+ \item $(\sigma, m) \leftarrow \prt{A}^{\ora{Sign(\cdot)}}(\V{pk})$
+
+ (Run the adversary with input $\V{pk}$ and access to the $\ora{Sign}$ oracle.)
+ \item If the adversary has called $\ora{Sign}(\cdot)$ with $m$ as argument,
+ return $0$.
+ \item Return $\algo{Verify}(\V{pk}, \sigma, m)$.
+\end{enumerate}
+Here the adversary is run once, with access to the signing oracle. Depending
+on which definition of $\ora{Sign}$ is chosen, the game models existential
+unforgeability under chosen message attack (EUF-CMA) or existential
+unforgeability under known message attack (EUF-KMA)
+
+The following modification to the game would model selective unforgeability
+(SUF-CMA / SUF-KMA):
+
+\bigskip
+\noindent $\mathit{Exp}_{\prt{A}}^{SUF}(1^\lambda)$:
+\vspace{-0.5\topsep}
+\begin{enumerate}
+ \setlength\itemsep{0em}
+ \item $m \leftarrow \prt{A}()$
+ \item $(\V{sk}, \V{pk}) \leftarrow \algo{KeyGen}(1^\lambda)$
+ \item $\sigma \leftarrow \prt{A}^{\ora{Sign(\cdot)}}(\V{pk}, m)$
+ \item If the adversary has called $\ora{Sign}(\cdot)$ with $m$ as argument,
+ return $0$.
+ \item Return $\algo{Verify}(\V{pk}, \sigma, m)$.
+\end{enumerate}
+Here the adversary has to choose a message to forge a signature for before
+knowing the message verification key.
+
+After having defined the game, we can now define a security property based on
+the probability of the adversary winning the game: we say that a signature
+scheme is secure against existential unforgeability attacks if for every
+adversary~\prt{A} (i.e., a polynomial-time probabilistic Turing machine
+program), the success probability
+\begin{equation*}
+ \Prb{\mathit{Exp}_{\prt{A}}^{EUF}(1^\lambda) = 1 }
+\end{equation*}
+of \prt{A} in the EUF game is \emph{negligible} (i.e., grows less fast with
+$\lambda$ than the inverse of any polynomial in $\lambda$).
+
+Note that the EUF and SUF games are related in the following way: an adversary
+against the SUF game can be easily transformed into an adversary against the
+EUF game, while the converse does not necessarily hold.
+
+Often security properties are defined in terms of the \emph{advantage} of the
+adversary. The advantage is a measure of how likely the adversary is to win
+against the real cryptographic protocol, compared to a perfectly secure version
+of the protocol. For example, let $\mathit{Exp}_{\prt{A}}^{BIT}()$ be a game
+where the adversary has to guess the next bit in the output of a pseudo-random number
+generator (PRNG). The idealized functionality would be a real random number generator,
+where the adversary's chance of a correct guess is $1/2$. Thus, the adversary's advantage is
+\begin{equation*}
+ \left|\Prb{\mathit{Exp}_{\prt{A}}^{BIT}()} - 1/2\right|.
+\end{equation*}
+Note that the definition of advantage depends on the game. The above
+definition, for example, would not work if the adversary had a way to
+``voluntarily'' lose the game by querying an oracle in a forbidden way
+
+
+\subsection{Assumptions, Reductions and Game Hopping}
+The goal of a security proof is to transform an attacker against
+the protocol under consideration into an attacker against the security
+of an underlying assumption. Typical examples for common assumptions might be:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item the difficulty of the decisional/computational Diffie--Hellman problem (nicely described by~\cite{boneh1998decision})
+ \item existential unforgeability under chosen message attack (EUF-CMA) of a signature scheme \cite{goldwasser1988digital}
+ \item indistinguishability against chosen-plaintext attacks (IND-CPA) of a symmetric
+ encryption algorithm \cite{bellare1998relations}
+\end{itemize}
+
+To construct a reduction from an adversary \prt{A} against $P$ to an adversary
+against $Q$, it is necessary to specify a program $R$ that both interacts as an
+adversary with the challenger for $Q$, but at the same time acts as a
+challenger for the adversary against $P$. Most importantly, $R$ can chose how
+to respond to oracle queries from the adversary, as long as $R$ faithfully
+simulates a challenger for $P$. The reduction must be efficient, i.e., $R$ must
+still be a polynomial-time algorithm.
+
+A well-known example for a non-trivial reduction proof is the security proof of
+FDH-RSA signatures \cite{coron2000exact}.
+% FIXME: I think there's better reference, pointcheval maybe?
+
+In practice, reduction proofs are often complex and hard to verify.
+Game hopping has become a popular technique to manage the complexity of
+security proofs. The idea behind game hopping proofs is to make a sequence of
+small modifications starting from initial game, until you arrive at a game
+where the success probability for the adversary becomes obvious, for example,
+because the winning state for the adversary becomes unreachable in the code
+that defines the final game, or because all values the adversary can observe to
+make a decision are drawn from a truly random and uniform distribution. Each
+hop modifies the game in a way such that the success probability of game
+$\mathbb{G}_n$ and game $\mathbb{G}_{n+1}$ is negligibly close.
+
+Useful techniques for hops are, for example:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item Bridging hops, where the game is syntactically changed but remains
+ semantically equivalent, i.e., $\Prb{\mathbb{G}_n = 1} = \Prb{\mathbb{G}_n = 1}$.
+ \item Indistinguishability hops, where some distribution is changed in a way that
+ an adversary that could distinguish between two adjacent games could be turned
+ into an adversary that distinguishes the two distributions. If the success probability
+ to distinguish between those two distributions is $\epsilon$, then
+ $\left|\Prb{\mathbb{G}_n = 1} - \Prb{\mathbb{G}_n = 1}\right| \le \epsilon$
+ \item Hops based on small failure events. Here adjacent games proceed
+ identically, until in one of the games a detectable failure event $F$ (such
+ as an adversary visibly forging a signature) occurs. Both games most proceed
+ the same if $F$ does not occur. Then it is easy to show \cite{shoup2004sequences}
+ that $\left|\Prb{\mathbb{G}_n = 1} - \Prb{\mathbb{G}_n = 1}\right| \le \Prb{F}$
+\end{itemize}
+
+A tutorial introduction to game hopping is given by Shoup \cite{shoup2004sequences}, while a more formal
+treatment with a focus on ``games as code'' can be found in \cite{bellare2006code}. A
+version of the FDH-RSA security proof based on game hopping was generated with an
+automated theorem prover by Blanchet and Pointcheval \cite{blanchet2006automated}.
+
+% restore-from-backup
+
+% TODO:
+% - note about double spending vs overspending
+
+\subsection{Notation}
+We prefix public and secret keys with $\V{pk}$ and $\V{sk}$, and write $x
+\randsel S$ to randomly select an element $x$ from the set $S$ with uniform
+probability.
+
+\section{Model and Syntax for Taler}
+
+We consider a payment system with a single, static exchange and multiple,
+dynamically created customers and merchants. The subset of the full Taler
+protocol that we model includes withdrawing digital coins, spending them with
+merchants and subsequently depositing them at the exchange, as well as
+obtaining unlinkable change for partially spent coins with an online
+``refresh'' protocol.
+
+The exchange offers digital coins in multiple denominations, and every
+denomination has an associated financial value; this mapping is not chosen by
+the adversary but is a system parameter. We mostly ignore the denomination
+values here, including their impact on anonymity, in keeping with existing
+literature \cite{camenisch2007endorsed,pointcheval2017cut}. For anonymity, we
+believe this amounts to assuming that all customers have similar financial
+behavior. We note logarithmic storage, computation and bandwidth demands
+denominations distributed by powers of a fixed constant, like two.
+
+We do not model fees taken by the exchange. Reserves\footnote{%
+ ``Reserve'' is Taler's terminology for funds submitted to the exchange that
+ can be converted to digital coins.
+}
+are also omitted.
+Instead of maintaining a reserve balance, withdrawals of different
+denominations are tracked, effectively assuming every customer has unlimited funds.
+
+Coins can be partially spent by specifying a fraction $0 < f \le 1$ of the
+total value associated with the coin's denomination. Unlinkable change below
+the smallest denomination cannot be given. In
+practice the unspendable, residual value should be seen as an additional fee
+charged by the exchange.
+
+Spending multiple coins is modeled non-atomically: to spend (fractions
+of) multiple coins, they must be spent one-by-one. The individual
+spend/deposit operations are correlated by a unique identifier for the
+transaction. In practice, this identifier is the hash $\V{transactionId} =
+H(\V{contractTerms})$ of the contract terms\footnote{The contract terms
+are a digital representation of an individual offer for a certain product or service the merchant sells
+for a certain price.}. Contract terms include a nonce to make them
+unique, that merchant and customer agreed upon. Note that this transaction
+identifier and the correlation between multiple spend operations for one
+payment need not be disclosed to the exchange (it might, however, be necessary
+to reveal during a detailed tax audit of the merchant): When spending the $i$-th coin
+for the transaction with the identifier $\V{transactionId}$, messages to the
+exchange would only contain $H(i \Vert \V{transactionId})$. This is preferable
+for merchants that might not want to disclose to the exchange the individual
+prices of products they sell to customers, but only the total transaction
+volume over time. For simplicity, we do not include this extra feature in our
+model.
+
+Our system model tracks the total amount ($\equiv$ financial value) of coins
+withdrawn by each customer.
+Customers are identified by their public key $\V{pkCustomer}$. Every
+customer's wallet keeps track of the following data:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item $\V{wallet}[\V{pkCustomer}]$ contains sets of the customer's coin records,
+ which individually consist of the coin key pair, denomination and exchange's signature.
+ \item $\V{acceptedContracts}[\V{pkCustomer}]$ contains the sets of
+ transaction identifiers accepted by the customer during spending
+ operations, together with coins spent for it and their contributions $0 < f
+ \le 1$.
+ \item $\V{withdrawIds}[\V{pkCustomer}]$ contains the withdraw identifiers of
+ all withdraw operations that were created for this customer.
+ \item $\V{refreshIds}[\V{pkCustomer}]$ contains the refresh identifiers of
+ all refresh operations that were created for this customer.
+\end{itemize}
+
+
+The exchange in our model keeps track of the following data:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item $\V{withdrawn}[\V{pkCustomer}]$ contains the total amount withdrawn by
+ each customer, i.e., the sum of the financial value of the denominations for
+ all coins that were withdrawn by $\V{pkCustomer}$.
+ \item The overspending database of the exchange is modeled by
+ $\V{deposited}[\V{pkCoin}]$ and $\V{refreshed}[\V{pkCoin}]$, which record
+ deposit and refresh operations respectively on each coin. Note that since
+ partial deposits and multiple refreshes to smaller denominations are
+ possible, one deposit and multiple refresh operations can be recorded for a
+ single coin.
+\end{itemize}
+
+We say that a coin is \emph{fresh} if it appears in neither the $\V{deposited}$
+or $\V{refreshed}$ lists nor in $\V{acceptedContracts}$. We say that a coin is
+being $\V{overspent}$ if recording an operation in $\V{deposited}$ or
+$\V{refreshed}$ would cause the total spent value from both lists to exceed
+the value of the coin's denomination.
+Note that the adversary does not have direct read or write access to these
+values; instead the adversary needs to use the oracles (defined later) to
+interact with the system.
+
+We parameterize our system with two security parameters: The general security
+parameter $\lambda$, and the refresh security parameter $\kappa$. While
+$\lambda$ determines the length of keys and thus the security level, using a
+larger $\kappa$ will only decrease the success chance of malicious merchants
+conspiring with customers to obtain unreported (and thus untaxable) income.
+
+\subsection{Algorithms}\label{sec:security-taler-syntax}
+
+The Taler e-cash scheme is modeled by the following probabilistic\footnote{Our
+Taler instantiations are not necessarily probabilistic (except, e.g., key
+generation), but we do not want to prohibit this for other instantiations}
+polynomial-time algorithms and interactive protocols. The notation $P(X_1,\dots,X_n)$
+stands for a party $P \in \{\prt{E}, \prt{C}, \prt{M}\}$ (Exchange, Customer
+and Merchant respectively) in an interactive protocol, with $X_1,\dots,X_n$
+being the (possibly private) inputs contributed by the party to the protocol.
+Interactive protocols can access the state maintained by party $P$.
+
+While the adversary can freely execute the interactive protocols by creating
+their own parties, the adversary is not given direct access to the private data
+of parties maintained by the challenger in the security games we define later.
+
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item $\algo{ExchangeKeygen}(1^{\lambda}, 1^{\kappa}, \mathfrak{D}) \mapsto (\V{sksE}, \V{pksE})$:
+ Algorithm executed to generate keys for the exchange, with general security
+ parameter $\lambda$ and refresh security parameter $\kappa$, both given as
+ unary numbers. The denomination specification $\mathfrak{D} = d_1,\dots,d_n$ is a
+ finite sequence of positive rational numbers that defines the financial
+ value of each generated denomination key pair. We henceforth use $\mathfrak{D}$ to
+ refer to some appropriate denomination specification, but our analysis is
+ independent of a particular choice of $\mathfrak{D}$.
+
+ The algorithm generates the exchange's master signing key pair
+ $(\V{skESig}, \V{pkESig})$ and denomination secret and public keys
+ $(\V{skD}_1, \dots, \V{skD}_n), (\V{pkD}_1, \dots, \V{pkD}_n)$. We write
+ $D(\V{pkD}_i)$, where $D : \{\V{pkD}_i\} \rightarrow \mathfrak{D}$ to look
+ up the financial value of denomination $\V{pkD_i}$.
+
+ We collectively refer to the exchange's secrets by $\V{sksE}$ and to the exchange's
+ public keys together with $\mathfrak{D}$ by $\V{pksE}$.
+
+ \item $\algo{CustomerKeygen}(1^\lambda,1^\kappa) \mapsto (\V{skCustomer}, \V{pkCustomer})$:
+ Key generation algorithm for customers with security parameters $\lambda$
+ and $\kappa$.
+
+ \item $\algo{MerchantKeygen}(1^\lambda,1^\kappa) \mapsto (\V{skMerchant},
+ \V{pkMerchant})$: Key generation algorithm for merchants. Typically the
+ same as \algo{CustomerKeygen}.
+
+ \item $\algo{WithdrawRequest}(\prt{E}(\V{sksE}, \V{pkCustomer}),
+ \prt{C}(\V{skCustomer}, \V{pksE}, \V{pkD})) \mapsto (\mathcal{T}_{WR},
+ \V{wid})$: Interactive protocol between the exchange and a customer that
+ initiates withdrawing a single coin of a particular denomination.
+
+ The customer obtains a withdraw identifier $\V{wid}$ from the protocol
+ execution and stores it in $\V{withdrawIds}[\V{pkCustomer}]$.
+
+ The \algo{WithdrawRequest} protocol only initiates a withdrawal. The coin
+ is only obtained and stored in the customer's wallet by executing the
+ \algo{WithdrawPickup} protocol on the withdraw identifier \V{wid}.
+
+ The customer and exchange persistently store additional state (if required
+ by the instantiation) such that the customer can use
+ $\algo{WithdrawPickup}$ to complete withdrawal or to complete a previously
+ interrupted or unfinished withdrawal.
+
+ Returns a protocol transcript $\mathcal{T}_{WR}$ of all messages exchanged
+ between the exchange and customer, as well as the withdraw identifier
+ \V{wid}.
+
+ \item $\algo{WithdrawPickup}(\prt{E}(\V{sksE}, \V{pkCustomer}),
+ \prt{C}(\V{skCustomer}, \V{pksE}, \V{wid})) \mapsto (\mathcal{T}_{WP},
+ \V{coin})$: Interactive protocol between the exchange and a customer to
+ obtain the coin from a withdraw operation started with
+ $\algo{WithdrawRequest}$, identified by the withdraw identifier $\V{wid}$.
+
+ The first time $\algo{WithdrawPickup}$ is run with a particular withdraw
+ identifier $\V{wid}$, the exchange increments
+ $\V{withdrawn}[\V{pkCustomer}]$ by $D(\V{pkD})$, where $\V{pkD}$ is the
+ denomination requested in the corresponding $\algo{WithdrawRequest}$
+ execution. How exactly $\V{pkD}$ is restored depends on the particular instantiation.
+
+ The resulting coin
+ \[ \V{coin} = (\V{skCoin}, \V{pkCoin}, \V{pkD}, \V{coinCert}), \]
+ consisting of secret key $\V{skCoin}$, public key
+ $\V{pkCoin}$, denomination public key $\V{pkD}$ and certificate $\V{coinCert}$ from the exchange, is stored
+ in the customers wallet $\V{wallet}[\V{pkCustomer}]$.
+
+ Executing the $\algo{WithdrawPickup}$ protocol multiple times with the same
+ customer and the same withdraw identifier does not result in any change of
+ the customer's withdraw balance $\V{withdrawn}[\V{pkCustomer}]$,
+ and results in (re-)adding the same coin to the customer's wallet.
+
+ Returns a protocol transcript $\mathcal{T}_{WP}$ of all messages exchanged
+ between the exchange and customer.
+
+ \item $\algo{Spend}(\V{transactionId}, f, \V{coin}, \V{pkMerchant}) \mapsto \V{depositPermission}$:
+ Algorithm to produce and sign a deposit permission \V{depositPermission}
+ for a coin under a particular transaction identifier. The fraction $0 < f \le 1$ determines the
+ fraction of the coin's initial value that will be spent.
+
+ The contents of the deposit permission depend on the instantiation, but it
+ must be possible to derive the public coin identifier $\V{pkCoin}$ from
+ them.
+
+ \item $\algo{Deposit}(\prt{E}(\V{sksE}, \V{pkMerchant}), \prt{M}(\V{skMerchant}, \V{pksE}, \V{depositPermission})) \mapsto \mathcal{T}_D$:
+ Interactive protocol between the exchange and a merchant.
+
+ From the deposit permission we obtain the $\V{pkCoin}$ of the coin to be
+ deposited. If $\V{pkCoin}$ is being overspent, the protocol is aborted with
+ an error message to the merchant.
+
+ On success, we add $\V{depositPermission}$ to $\V{deposited}[\V{pkCoin}]$.
+
+ Returns a protocol transcript $\mathcal{T}_D$ of all messages exchanged
+ between the exchange and merchant.
+
+ \item $\algo{RefreshRequest}(\prt{E}(\V{sksE}), \prt{C}(\V{pkCustomer}, \V{pksE}, \V{coin}_0, \V{pkD}_u))
+ \rightarrow (\mathcal{T}_{RR}, \V{rid})$
+ Interactive protocol between exchange and customer that initiates a refresh
+ of $\V{coin}_0$. Together with $\algo{RefreshPickup}$, it allows the
+ customer to convert $D(\V{pkD}_u)$ of the remaining value on coin \[
+ \V{coin}_0 = (\V{skCoin}_0, \V{pkCoin}_0, \V{pkD}_0, \V{coinCert}_0) \]
+ into a new, unlinkable coin $\V{coin}_u$ of denomination $\V{pkD}_u$.
+
+ Multiple refreshes on the same coin are allowed, but each run subtracts the
+ respective financial value of $\V{coin}_u$ from the remaining value of
+ $\V{coin}_0$.
+
+ The customer only records the refresh operation identifier $\V{rid}$ in
+ $\V{refreshIds}[\V{pkCustomer}]$, but does not yet obtain the new coin. To
+ obtain the new coin, \algo{RefreshPickup} must be used.
+
+ Returns the protocol transcript $\mathcal{T}_{RR}$ and a refresh identifier $\V{rid}$.
+
+ \item $\algo{RefreshPickup}(\prt{E}(\V{sksE}, \V{pkCustomer}),
+ \prt{C}(\V{skCustomer}, \V{pksE}, \V{rid})) \rightarrow (\mathcal{T}_{RP}, \V{coin}_u)$:
+ Interactive protocol between exchange and customer to obtain the new coin
+ for a refresh operation previously started with \algo{RefreshRequest},
+ identified by the refresh identifier $\V{rid}$.
+
+ The exchange learns the target denomination $\V{pkD}_u$ and signed
+ source coin $(\V{pkCoin}_0, \V{pkD}_0, \V{coinCert}_0)$. If the source
+ coin is invalid, the exchange aborts the protocol.
+
+ The first time \algo{RefreshPickup} is run for a particular refresh
+ identifier, the exchange records a refresh operation of value
+ $D(\V{pkD}_u)$ in $\V{refreshed}[\V{pkCoin}_0]$. If $\V{pkCoin}_0$ is
+ being overspent, the refresh operation is not recorded in
+ $\V{refreshed}[\V{pkCoin}_0]$, the exchange sends the customer the protocol
+ transcript of the previous deposits and refreshes and aborts the protocol.
+
+ If the customer \prt{C} plays honestly in \algo{RefreshRequest} and
+ \V{RefreshPickup}, the unlinkable coin $\V{coin}_u$ they obtain as change
+ will be stored in their wallet $\V{wallet}[\V{pkCustomer}]$. If \prt{C} is
+ caught playing dishonestly, the \algo{RefreshPickup} protocol aborts.
+
+ An honest customer must be able to repeat a \algo{RefreshPickup} with the
+ same $\V{rid}$ multiple times and (re-)obtain the same coin, even if
+ previous $\algo{RefreshPickup}$ executions were aborted.
+
+ Returns a protocol transcript $\mathcal{T}_{RP}$.
+
+ \item $\algo{Link}(\prt{E}(\V{sksE}), \prt{C}(\V{skCustomer}, \V{pksE}, \V{coin}_0)) \rightarrow (\mathcal{T}, (\V{coin}_1, \dots, \V{coin}_n))$:
+ Interactive protocol between exchange and customer. If $\V{coin}_0$ is a
+ coin that was refreshed, the customer can recompute all the coins obtained
+ from previous refreshes on $\V{coin}_0$, with data obtained from the
+ exchange during the protocol. These coins are added to the customer's
+ wallet $\V{wallet}[\V{pkCustomer}]$ and returned together with the protocol
+ transcript.
+
+\end{itemize}
+
+\subsection{Oracles}
+We now specify how the adversary can interact with the system by defining
+oracles. Oracles are queried by the adversary, and upon a query the challenger
+will act according to the oracle's specification. Note that the adversary for
+the different security games is run with specific oracles, and does not
+necessarily have access to all oracles simultaneously.
+
+We refer to customers in the parameters to an oracle query simply by their
+public key. The adversary needs the ability to refer to coins to trigger
+operations such as spending and refresh, but to model anonymity we cannot give
+the adversary access to the coins' public keys directly. Therefore we allow
+the adversary to use the (successful) transcripts of the withdraw, refresh and
+link protocols to indirectly refer to coins. We refer to this as a coin handle
+$\mathcal{H}$. Since the execution of a link protocol results in a transcript
+$\mathcal{T}$ that can contain multiple coins, the adversary needs to select a
+particular coin from the transcript via the index $i$ as $\mathcal{H} =
+(\mathcal{T}, i)$. The respective oracle tries to find the coin that resulted
+from the transcript given by the adversary. If the transcript has not been
+seen before in the execution of a link, refresh or withdraw protocol; or the
+index for a link transcript is invalid, the oracle returns an error to the
+adversary.
+
+In oracles that trigger the execution of one of the interactive protocols
+defined in Section \ref{sec:security-taler-syntax}, we give the adversary the
+ability to actively control the communication channels between the exchange,
+customers and merchants; i.e., the adversary can effectively record, drop,
+modify and inject messages during the execution of the interactive protocol.
+Note that this allows the adversary to leave the execution of an interactive
+protocol in an unfinished state, where one or more parties are still waiting
+for messages. We use $\mathcal{I}$ to refer to a handle to interactive
+protocols where the adversary can send and receive messages.
+
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item $\ora{AddCustomer}() \mapsto \V{pkCustomer}$:
+ Generates a key pair $(\V{skCustomer}, \V{pkCustomer})$ using the
+ \algo{CustomerKeygen} algorithm, and sets
+ \begin{align*}
+ \V{withdrawn}[\V{pkCustomer}] &:= 0\\
+ \V{acceptedContracts}[\V{pkCustomer}] &:= \{ \}\\
+ \V{wallet}[\V{pkCustomer}] &:= \{\} \\
+ \V{withdrawIds}[\V{pkCustomer}] &:= \{\} \\
+ \V{refreshIds}[\V{pkCustomer}] &:= \{\}.
+ \end{align*}
+ Returns the public key of the newly created customer.
+
+ \item $\ora{AddMerchant}() \mapsto \V{pkMerchant}$:
+ Generate a key pair $(\V{skMerchant}, \V{pkMerchant})$ using the
+ \algo{MerchantKeygen} algorithm.
+
+ Returns the public key of the newly created merchant.
+
+ \item $\ora{SendMessage}(\mathcal{I}, P_1, P_2, m) \mapsto ()$:
+ Send message $m$ on the channel from party $P_1$ to party $P_2$ in the
+ execution of interactive protocol $\mathcal{I}$. The oracle does not have
+ a return value.
+
+ \item $\ora{ReceiveMessage}(\mathcal{I}, P_1, P_2) \mapsto m$:
+ Read message $m$ in the channel from party $P_1$ to party $P_2$ in the execution
+ of interactive protocol $\mathcal{I}$. If no message is queued in the channel,
+ return $m = \bot$.
+
+ \item $\ora{WithdrawRequest}(\V{pkCustomer}, \V{pkD}) \mapsto \mathcal{I}$:
+ Triggers the execution of the \algo{WithdrawRequest} protocol. the
+ adversary full control of the communication channels between customer and
+ exchange.
+
+ \item $\ora{WithdrawPickup}(\V{pkCustomer}, \V{pkD}, \mathcal{T}) \mapsto \mathcal{I}$:
+ Triggers the execution of the \algo{WithdrawPickup} protocol, additionally giving
+ the adversary full control of the communication channels between customer and exchange.
+
+ The customer and withdraw identifier $\V{wid}$ are obtained from the \algo{WithdrawRequest} transcript $\mathcal{T}$.
+
+ \item $\ora{RefreshRequest}(\mathcal{H}, \V{pkD}) \mapsto \mathcal{I}$: Triggers the execution of the
+ \algo{RefreshRequest} protocol with the coin identified by coin handle
+ $\mathcal{H}$, additionally giving the adversary full control over the communication channels
+ between customer and exchange.
+
+ \item $\ora{RefreshPickup}(\mathcal{T}) \mapsto \mathcal{I}$:
+ Triggers the execution of the \algo{RefreshPickup} protocol, where the customer and refresh identifier $\V{rid}$
+ are obtained from the $\algo{RefreshRequest}$ protocol transcript $\mathcal{T}$.
+
+ Additionally gives the adversary full control over the communication channels
+ between customer and exchange.
+
+ \item $\ora{Link}(\mathcal{H}) \mapsto \mathcal{I}$: Triggers the execution of the
+ \algo{Link} protocol for the coin referenced by handle $\mathcal{H}$,
+ additionally giving the adversary full control over the communication channels
+ between customer and exchange.
+
+ \item $\ora{Spend}(\V{transactionId}, \V{pkCustomer}, \mathcal{H}, \V{pkMerchant}) \mapsto \V{depositPermission}$:
+ Makes a customer sign a deposit permission over a coin identified by handle
+ $\mathcal{H}$. Returns the deposit permission on success, or $\bot$ if $\mathcal{H}$
+ is not a coin handle that identifies a coin.
+
+ Note that $\ora{Spend}$ can be used to generate deposit permissions that,
+ when deposited, would result in an error due to overspending
+
+ Adds $(\V{transactionId}, \V{depositPermission})$ to $\V{acceptedContracts}[\V{pkCustomer}]$.
+
+ \item $\ora{Share}(\mathcal{H}, \V{pkCustomer}) \mapsto ()$:
+ Shares a coin (identified by handle $\mathcal{H}$) with the customer
+ identified by $\V{pkCustomer}$, i.e., puts the coin identified by $\mathcal{H}$
+ into $\V{wallet}[\V{pkCustomer}]$. Intended to be used by the adversary in attempts to
+ violate income transparency. Does not have a return value.
+
+ Note that this trivially violates anonymity (by sharing with a corrupted customer), thus the usage must
+ be restricted in some games.
+
+ % the share oracle is the reason why we don't need a second withdraw oracle
+
+ \item $\ora{CorruptCustomer}(\V{pkCustomer})\mapsto
+ \newline{}\qquad (\V{skCustomer}, \V{wallet}[\V{pkCustomer}],\V{acceptedContracts}[\V{pkCustomer}],
+ \newline{}\qquad \phantom{(}\V{refreshIds}[\V{pkCustomer}], \V{withdrawIds}[\V{pkCustomer}])$:
+
+ Used by the adversary to corrupt a customer, giving the adversary access to
+ the customer's secret key, wallet, withdraw/refresh identifiers and accepted contracts.
+
+ Permanently marks the customer as corrupted. There is nothing ``special''
+ about corrupted customers, other than that the adversary has used
+ \ora{CorruptCustomer} on them in the past. The adversary cannot modify
+ corrupted customer's wallets directly, and must use the oracle again to
+ obtain an updated view on the corrupted customer's private data.
+
+ \item $\ora{Deposit}(\V{depositPermission}) \mapsto \mathcal{I}$:
+ Triggers the execution of the \algo{Deposit} protocol, additionally giving
+ the adversary full control over the communication channels between merchant and exchange.
+
+ Returns an error if the deposit permission is addressed to a merchant that was not registered
+ with $\ora{AddMerchant}$.
+
+ This oracle does not give the adversary new information, but is used to
+ model the situation where there might be multiple conflicting deposit
+ permissions generated via $\algo{Spend}$, but only a limited number can be
+ deposited.
+\end{itemize}
+
+We write \oraSet{Taler} for the set of all the oracles we just defined,
+and $\oraSet{NoShare} := \oraSet{Taler} - \ora{Share}$ for all oracles except
+the share oracle.
+
+The exchange does not need to be corrupted with an oracle. A corrupted exchange
+is modeled by giving the adversary the appropriate oracles and the exchange
+secret key from the exchange key generation.
+
+If the adversary determines the exchange's secret key during the setup,
+invoking \ora{WithdrawRequest}, \ora{WithdrawPickup}, \ora{RefreshRequest},
+\ora{RefreshPickup} or \ora{Link} can be seen as the adversary playing the
+exchange. Since the adversary is an active man-in-the-middle in these oracles,
+it can drop messages to the simulated exchange and make up its own response.
+If the adversary calls these oracles with a corrupted customer, the adversary
+plays as the customer.
+
+%\begin{mdframed}
+%The difference between algorithms and interactive protocols
+%is that the ``pure'' algorithms only deal with data, while the interactive protocols
+%take ``handles'' to parties that are communicating in the protocol. The adversary can
+%always execute algorithms that don't depend on handles to communication partners.
+%However the adversary can't run the interactive protocols directly, instead it must
+%rely on the interaction oracles for it. Different interaction oracles might allow the
+%adversary to play different roles in the same interactive protocol.
+%
+%While most algorithms in Taler are not probabilistic, we still say that they are, since
+%somebody else might come up with an instantiation of Taler that uses probabilistic algorithms,
+%and then the games should still apply.
+%
+%
+%While we do have a \algo{Deposit} protocol that's used in some of the games, having a deposit oracle is not necessary
+%since it does not give the adversary any additional power.
+%\end{mdframed}
+
+\section{Games}
+
+We now define four security games (anonymity, conservation, unforgeability and
+income transparency) that are later used to define the security properties for
+Taler. Similar to \cite{bellare2006code} we assume that the game and adversary
+terminate in finite time, and thus random choices made by the challenger and
+adversary can be taken from a finite sample space.
+
+All games except income transpacency return $1$ to indicate that the adversary
+has won and $0$ to indicate that the adversary has lost. The income
+transparency game returns $0$ if the adversary has lost, and a positive
+``laundering ratio'' if the adversary won.
+
+\subsection{Anonymity}
+Intuitively, an adversary~$\prt{A}$ (controlling the exchange and merchants) wins the
+anonymity game if they have a non-negligible advantage in correlating spending operations
+with the withdrawal or refresh operations that created a coin used in the
+spending operation.
+
+Let $b$ be the bit that will determine the mapping between customers and spend
+operations, which the adversary must guess.
+
+We define a helper procedure
+\begin{equation*}
+ \algo{Refresh}(\prt{E}(\V{sksE}), \prt{C}(\V{pkCustomer}, \V{pksE}, \V{coin}_0)) \mapsto \mathfrak{R}
+\end{equation*}
+that refreshes the whole remaining amount on $\V{coin}_0$ with repeated application of $\algo{RefreshRequest}$
+and $\algo{RefreshPickup}$ using the smallest possible set of target denominations, and returns all protocol transcripts
+in $\mathfrak{R}$.
+
+\begin{mdframed}
+\small
+\noindent $\mathit{Exp}_{\prt{A}}^{anon}(1^\lambda, 1^\kappa, b)$:
+\vspace{-0.5\topsep}
+\begin{enumerate}
+ \setlength\itemsep{0em}
+ \item $(\V{sksE}, \V{pksE}, \V{skM}, \V{pkM}) \leftarrow {\prt{A}}()$
+ \item $(\V{pkCustomer}_0, \V{pkCustomer}_1, \V{transactionId}_0, \V{transactionId}_1, f) \leftarrow {\prt{A}}^{\oraSet{NoShare}}()$
+ \item Select distinct fresh coins
+ \begin{align*}
+ \V{coin}_0 &\in \V{wallet}[\V{pkCustomer}_0]\\
+ \V{coin}_1 &\in \V{wallet}[\V{pkCustomer}_1]
+ \end{align*}
+ Return $0$ if either $\V{pkCustomer}_0$ or $\V{pkCustomer}_1$ are not registered customers with sufficient fresh coins.
+ \item For $i \in \{0,1\}$ run
+ \begin{align*}
+ &\V{dp_i} \leftarrow \algo{Spend}(\V{transactionId}_i, f, \V{coin}_{i-b}, \V{pkM}) \\
+ &\algo{Deposit}(\prt{A}(), \prt{M}(\V{skM}, \V{pksE}, \V{dp}_i)) \\
+ &\mathfrak{R}_i \leftarrow \algo{Refresh}(\prt{A}(), \prt{C}(\V{pkCustomer}_i, \V{pksE}, \V{coin}_{i-b}))
+ \end{align*}
+ \item $b' \leftarrow {\cal A}^{\oraSet{NoShare}}(\mathfrak{R}_0, \mathfrak{R}_1)$ \\
+ \item Return $0$ if $\ora{Spend}$ was used by the adversary on the coin handles
+ for $\V{coin}_0$ or $\V{coin}_1$ or $\ora{CorruptCustomer}$ was used on $\V{pkCustomer}_0$ or $\V{pkCustomer}_1$.
+ \item If $b = b'$ return $1$, otherwise return $0$.
+\end{enumerate}
+\end{mdframed}
+
+Note that unlike some other anonymity games defined in the literature (such as
+\cite{pointcheval2017cut}), our anonymity game always lets both customers spend
+in order to avoid having to hide the missing coin in one customer's wallet
+from the adversary.
+
+\subsection{Conservation}
+The adversary wins the conservation game if it can bring an honest customer in a
+situation where the spendable financial value left in the user's wallet plus
+the value spent for transactions known to the customer is less than the value
+withdrawn by the same customer through by the exchange.
+
+In practice, this property is necessary to guarantee that aborted or partially
+completed withdrawals, payments or refreshes, as well as other (transient)
+misbehavior from the exchange or merchant do not result in the customer losing
+money.
+
+\begin{mdframed}
+\small
+\noindent $\mathit{Exp}_{\cal A}^{conserv}(1^\lambda, 1^\kappa)$:
+\vspace{-0.5\topsep}
+\begin{enumerate}
+ \setlength\itemsep{0em}
+ \item $(\V{sksE}, \V{pksE}) \leftarrow \mathrm{ExchangeKeygen}(1^\lambda, 1^\kappa, M)$
+ \item $\V{pkCustomer} \leftarrow {\cal A}^{\oraSet{NoShare}}(\V{pksE})$
+ \item Return $0$ if $\V{pkCustomer}$ is a corrupted user.
+ \item \label{game:conserv:run} Run $\algo{WithdrawPickup}$ for each withdraw identifier $\V{wid}$
+ and $\algo{RefreshPickup}$ for each refresh identifier $\V{rid}$ that the user
+ has recorded in $\V{withdrawIds}$ and $\V{refreshIds}$. Run $\algo{Deposit}$
+ for all deposit permissions in $\V{acceptedContracts}$.
+ \item Let $v_{C}$ be the total financial value left on valid coins in $\V{wallet}[\V{pkCustomer}]$,
+ i.e., the denominated values minus the spend/refresh operations recorded in the exchange's database.
+ Let $v_{S}$ be the total financial value of contracts in $\V{acceptedContracts}[\V{pkCustomer}]$.
+ \item Return $1$ if $\V{withdrawn}[\V{pkCustomer}] > v_{C} + v_{S}$.
+\end{enumerate}
+\end{mdframed}
+
+
+Hence we ensure that:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item if a coin was spent, it was spent for a contract that the customer
+ knows about, i.e., in practice the customer could prove that they ``own'' what they
+ paid for,
+ \item if a coin was refreshed, the customer ``owns'' the resulting coins,
+ even if the operation was aborted, and
+ \item if the customer withdraws, they can always obtain a coin whenever the
+ exchange accounted for a withdrawal, even when protocol executions are
+ intermittently aborted.
+\end{itemize}
+
+Note that we do not give the adversary access to the \ora{Share} oracle, since
+that would trivially allow the adversary to win the conservation game. In
+practice, conservation only holds for customers that do not share coins with
+parties that they do not fully trust.
+
+\subsection{Unforgeability}
+
+Intuitively, adversarial customers win if they can obtain more valid coins than
+they legitimately withdraw.
+
+\begin{mdframed}
+\small
+\noindent $\mathit{Exp}_{\cal A}^{forge}(1^\lambda, 1^\kappa)$:
+\vspace{-0.5\topsep}
+\begin{enumerate}
+ \setlength\itemsep{0em}
+ \item $(skE, pkE) \leftarrow \mathrm{ExchangeKeygen}()$
+ \item $(C_0, \dots, C_\ell) \leftarrow \mathcal{A}^{\oraSet{All}}(pkExchange)$
+ \item Return $0$ if any $C_i$ is not of the form $(\V{skCoin}, \V{pkCoin}, \V{pkD}, \V{coinCert})$
+ or any $\V{coinCert}$ is not a valid signature by $\V{pkD}$ on the respective $\V{pkCoin}$.
+ \item Return $1$ if the sum of the unspent value of valid coins in $C_0
+ \dots, C_\ell$ exceeds the amount withdrawn by corrupted
+ customers, return $0$ otherwise.
+\end{enumerate}
+\end{mdframed}
+
+
+\subsection{Income Transparency}
+
+Intuitively, the adversary wins if coins are in exclusive control of corrupted
+customers, but the exchange has no record of withdrawal or spending for them.
+This presumes that the adversary cannot delete from non-corrupted customer's
+wallets, even though it can use oracles to force protocol interactions of
+non-corrupted customers.
+
+For practical e-cash systems, income transparency disincentivizes the emergence
+of ``black markets'' among mutually distrusting customers, where currency
+circulates without the transactions being visible. This is in contrast to some
+other proposed e-cash systems and cryptocurrencies, where disintermediation is
+an explicit goal. The Link protocol introduces the threat of losing exclusive
+control of coins (despite having the option to refresh them) that were received
+without being visible as income to the exchange.
+
+\begin{mdframed}
+\small
+\noindent $\mathit{Exp}_{\cal A}^{income}(1^\lambda, 1^\kappa)$:
+\vspace{-0.5\topsep}
+\begin{enumerate}
+ \setlength\itemsep{0em}
+ \item $(skE, pkE) \leftarrow \mathrm{ExchangeKeygen}()$
+ \item $(\V{coin}_1, \dots, \V{coin}_\ell) \leftarrow \mathcal{A}^{\oraSet{All}}(pkExchange)$
+
+ (The $\V{coin}_i$ must be coins, including secret key and signature by the
+ denomination, for the adversary to win. However these coins need not be
+ present in any honest or corrupted customer's wallet.)
+ \item\label{game:income:spend} Augment the wallets of all non-corrupted customers with their
+ transitive closure using the \algo{Link} protocol.
+ Mark all remaining value on coins in wallets of non-corrupted customers as
+ spent in the exchange's database.
+ \item Let $L$ denote the sum of unspent value on valid coins in $(\V{coin}_1, \dots\, \V{coin}_\ell)$,
+ after accounting for the previous update of the exchange's database.
+ Also let $w'$ be the sum of coins withdrawn by corrupted customers.
+ Then $p := L - w'$ gives the adversary's untaxed income.
+ \item Let $w$ be the sum of coins withdrawn by non-corrupted customers, and
+ $s$ be the value marked as spent by non-corrupted customers, so that
+ $b := w - s$ gives the coins lost during refresh, that is the losses incurred attempting to hide income.
+ \item If $b+p \ne 0$, return $\frac{p}{b + p}$, i.e., the laundering ratio for attempting to obtain untaxed income. Otherwise return $0$.
+\end{enumerate}
+\end{mdframed}
+
+\section{Security Definitions}\label{sec:security-properties}
+We now give security definitions based upon the games defined in the previous
+section. Recall that $\lambda$ is the general security parameter, and $\kappa$ is the
+security parameter for income transparency. A polynomial-time adversary is implied to
+be polynimial in $\lambda+\kappa$.
+
+\begin{definition}[Anonymity]
+ We say that an e-cash scheme satisfies \emph{anonymity} if the success
+ probability $\Prb{b \randsel \{0,1\}: \mathit{Exp}_{\cal A}^{anon}(1^\lambda,
+ 1^\kappa, b) = 1}$ of the anonymity game is negligibly close to $1/2$ for any
+ polynomial-time adversary~$\mathcal{A}$.
+\end{definition}
+
+\begin{definition}[Conservation]
+ We say that an e-cash scheme satisfies \emph{conservation} if
+ the success probability $\Prb{\mathit{Exp}_{\cal A}^{conserv}(1^\lambda, 1^\kappa) = 1}$
+ of the conservation game is negligible for any polynomial-time adversary~$\mathcal{A}$.
+\end{definition}
+
+\begin{definition}[Unforgeability]
+ We say that an e-cash scheme satisfies \emph{unforgeability} if the success
+ probability $\Prb{\mathit{Exp}_{\cal A}^{forge}(1^\lambda, 1^\kappa) = 1}$ of
+ the unforgeability game is negligible for any polynomial-time adversary
+ $\mathcal{A}$.
+\end{definition}
+
+\begin{definition}[Strong Income Transparency]
+ We say that an e-cash scheme satisfies \emph{strong income transparency} if
+ the success probability $\Prb{\mathit{Exp}_{\cal A}^{income}(1^\lambda, 1^\kappa) \ne 0}$
+ for the income transparency game is negligible for any polynomial-time adversary~$\mathcal{A}$.
+\end{definition}
+The adversary is said to win one execution of the strong income transparency
+game if the game's return value is non-zero, i.e., there was at least one
+successful attempt to obtain untaxed income.
+
+
+\begin{definition}[Weak Income Transparency]
+ We say that an e-cash scheme satisfies \emph{weak income transparency}
+ if, for any polynomial-time adversary~$\mathcal{A}$,
+ the return value of the income transparency game satisfies
+ \begin{equation}\label{eq:income-transparency-expectation}
+ E\left[\mathit{Exp}_{\cal A}^{income}(1^\lambda, 1^\kappa)\right] \le {\frac{1}{\kappa}} \mathperiod
+ \end{equation}
+ In (\ref{eq:income-transparency-expectation}), the expectation runs over
+ any probability space used by the adversary and challenger.
+\end{definition}
+
+For some instantiations, e.g., ones based on zero-knowledge proofs, $\kappa$
+might be a security parameter in the traditional sense. However for an e-cash
+scheme to be useful in practice, the adversary does not need to have only
+negligible success probability to win the income transparency game. It
+suffices that the financial losses of the adversary in the game are a
+deterrent, after all our purpose of the game is to characterize tax evasion.
+
+Taler does not fulfill strong income transparency, since for Taler $\kappa$ must
+be a small cut-and-choose parameter, as the complexity of our cut-and-choose
+protocol grows linearly with $\kappa$. Instead we show that Taler satisfies
+weak income transparency, which is a statement about the adversary's financial
+loss when winning the game instead of the winning probability. The
+return-on-investment (represented by the game's return value) is bounded by
+$1/\kappa$.
+
+We still characterize strong income transparency, since it might be useful
+for other instantiations that provide more absolute guarantees.
+
+\section{Instantiation}
+We give an instantiation of our protocol syntax that is generic over
+a blind signature scheme, a signature scheme, a combined signature scheme / key
+exchange, a collision-resistant hash function and a pseudo-random function family (PRF).
+
+\subsection{Generic Instantiation}\label{sec:crypto:instantiation}
+Let $\textsc{BlindSign}$ be a blind signature scheme with the following syntax, where the party $\mathcal{S}$
+is the signer and $\mathcal{R}$ is the signature requester:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item $\algo{KeyGen}_{BS}(1^\lambda) \mapsto (\V{sk}, \V{pk})$ is the key generation algorithm
+ for the signer of the blind signature protocol.
+ \item $\algo{Blind}_{BS}(\mathcal{S}(\V{sk}), \mathcal{R}(\V{pk}, m)) \mapsto (\overline{m}, r)$ is a possibly interactive protocol
+ to blind a message $m$ that is to be signed later. The result is a blinded message $\overline{m}$ and
+ a residual $r$ that allows to unblind a blinded signature on $m$ made by $\V{sk}$.
+ \item $\algo{Sign}_{BS}(\mathcal{S}(\V{sk}), \mathcal{R}(\overline{m})) \mapsto
+ \overline{\sigma}$ is an algorithm to sign a blinded message $\overline{m}$.
+ The result $\overline{\sigma}$ is a blinded signature that must be unblinded
+ using the $r$ returned from the corresponding blinding operation before
+ verification.
+ \item $\algo{UnblindSig}_{BS}(r, m, \overline{\sigma}) \mapsto \sigma$
+ is an algorithm to unblind a blinded signature.
+ \item $\algo{Verify}_{BS}(\V{pk}, m, \sigma) \mapsto b$ is an algorithm to
+ check the validity of an unblinded blind signature. Returns $1$ if the
+ signature $\sigma$ was valid for $m$ and $0$ otherwise.
+\end{itemize}
+
+Note that this syntax excludes some blind signature protocols, such as those
+with interactive/probabilistic verification or those without a ``blinding
+factor'', where the $\algo{Blind}_{BS}$ and $\algo{Sign}_{BS}$ and
+$\algo{UnblindSig}_{BS}$ would be merged into one interactive signing protocol.
+Such blind signature protocols have already been used to construct e-cash
+\cite{camenisch2005compact}.
+
+We require the following two security properties for $\textsc{BlindSign}$:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item \emph{blindness}: It should be computationally infeasible for a
+ malicious signer to decide which of two messages has been signed first
+ in two executions with an honest user. The corresponding game can be defined as
+ in Abe and Okamoto \cite{abe2000provably}, with the additional enhancement
+ that the adversary generates the signing key \cite{schroder2017security}.
+ \item \emph{unforgeability}: An adversary that requests $k$ signatures with $\algo{Sign}_{BS}$
+ is unable to produce $k+1$ valid signatures with non-negligible probability.
+\end{itemize}
+For more generalized notions of the security of blind signatures see, e.g.,
+\cite{fischlin2009security,schroder2017security}.
+
+Let $\textsc{CoinSignKx}$ be combination of a signature scheme and key exchange protocol:
+
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item $\algo{KeyGenSec}_{CSK}(1^\lambda) \mapsto \V{sk}$ is a secret key generation algorithm.
+ \item $\algo{KeyGenPub}_{CSK}(\V{sk}) \mapsto \V{pk}$ produces the corresponding public key.
+ \item $\algo{Sign}_{CSK}(\V{sk}, m) \mapsto \sigma$ produces a signature $\sigma$ over message $m$.
+ \item $\algo{Verify}_{CSK}(\V{pk}, m, \sigma) \mapsto b$ is a signature verification algorithm.
+ Returns $1$ if the signature $\sigma$ is a valid signature on $m$ by $\V{pk}$, and $0$ otherwise.
+ \item $\algo{Kx}_{CSK}(\V{sk}_1, \V{pk}_2) \mapsto x$ is a key exchange algorithm that computes
+ the shared secret $x$ from secret key $\V{sk}_1$ and public key $\V{pk}_2$.
+\end{itemize}
+
+We occasionally need these key generation algorithms separately, but
+we usually combine them into $\algo{KeyGen}_{CSK}(1^\lambda) \mapsto (\V{sk}, \V{pk})$.
+
+We require the following security properties to hold for $\textsc{CoinSignKx}$:
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item \emph{unforgeability}: The signature scheme $(\algo{KeyGen}_{CSK}, \algo{Sign}_{CSK}, \algo{Verify}_{CSK})$
+ must satisfy existential unforgeability under chosen message attacks (EUF-CMA).
+
+ \item \emph{key exchange completeness}:
+ Any probabilistic polynomial-time adversary has only negligible chance to find
+ a degenerate key pair $(\V{sk}_A, \V{pk}_A)$ such that for some
+ honestly generated key pair
+ $(\V{sk}_B, \V{pk}_B) \leftarrow \algo{KeyGen}_{CSK}(1^\lambda)$
+ the key exchange fails, that is
+ $\algo{Kex}_{CSK}(\V{sk}_A, \V{pk}_B) \neq \algo{Kex}_{CSK}(\V{sk}_B, \V{pk}_A)$,
+ while the adversary can still produce a pair $(m, \sigma)$ such that $\algo{Verify}_{BS}(\V{pk}_A, m, \sigma) = 1$.
+
+ \item \emph{key exchange security}: The output of $\algo{Kx}_{CSK}$ must be computationally
+ indistinguishable from a random shared secret of the same length, for inputs that have been
+ generated with $\algo{KeyGen}_{CSK}$.
+\end{itemize}
+
+Let $\textsc{Sign} = (\algo{KeyGen}_{S}, \algo{Sign}_{S}, \algo{Verify}_{S})$ be a signature
+scheme that satisfies selective unforgeability under chosen message attacks (SUF-CMA).
+
+Let $\V{PRF}$ be a pseudo-random function family and $H : \{0,1\}^* \rightarrow \{0,1\}^\lambda$
+a collision-resistant hash function.
+
+Using these primitives, we now instantiate the syntax of our income-transparent e-cash scheme:
+
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item $\algo{ExchangeKeygen}(1^{\lambda}, 1^{\kappa}, \mathfrak{D})$:
+
+ Generate the exchange's signing key pair $\V{skESig} \leftarrow \algo{KeyGen}_{S}(1^\lambda)$.
+
+ For each element in the sequence $\mathfrak{D} = d_1,\dots,d_n$, generate
+ denomination key pair $(\V{skD}_i, \V{pkD}_i) \leftarrow \algo{KeyGen}_{BS}(1^\lambda)$.
+ \item $\algo{CustomerKeygen}(1^\lambda,1^\kappa)$:
+ Return key pair $\algo{KeyGen}_S(1^\lambda)$.
+ \item $\algo{MerchantKeygen}(1^\lambda,1^\kappa)$:
+ Return key pair $\algo{KeyGen}_S(1^\lambda)$.
+
+ \item $\algo{WithdrawRequest}(\prt{E}(\V{sksE}, \V{pkCustomer}), \prt{C}(\V{skCustomer}, \V{pksE}, \V{pkD}))$:
+
+ Let $\V{skD}$ be the exchange's denomination secret key corresponding to $\V{pkD}$.
+
+ \begin{enumerate}
+ \item \prt{C} generates coin key pair $(\V{skCoin}, \V{pkCoin}) \leftarrow \algo{KeyGen}_{CSK}(1^\lambda)$
+ \item \prt{C} runs $(\overline{m}, r) \leftarrow \algo{Blind}_{CSK}(\mathcal{E}(\V{skCoin}), \mathcal{C}(m))$ with the exchange
+ \end{enumerate}
+
+ The withdraw identifier is then
+ \begin{equation*}
+ \V{wid} := (\V{skCoin}, \V{pkCoin}, \overline{m}, r)
+ \end{equation*}
+
+
+ \item $\algo{WithdrawPickup}(\prt{E}(\V{sksE}, \V{pkCustomer}), \prt{C}(\V{skCustomer}, \V{pksE}, \V{wid}))$:
+
+ The customer looks up $\V{skCoin}$, $\V{pkCoin}$, \V{pkD} $\overline{m}$
+ and $r$ via the withdraw identifier $\V{wid}$.
+
+ \begin{enumerate}
+ \item \prt{C} runs $\overline{\sigma} \leftarrow \algo{Sign}_{BS}(\mathcal{E}(\V{skD}), \mathcal{C}(\overline{m}))$ with the exchange
+ \item \prt{C} unblinds the signature $\sigma \leftarrow \algo{UnblindSig}_{BS}(\overline{\sigma}, r, \overline{m})$
+ and stores the coin $(\V{skCoin}, \V{pkCoin}, \V{pkD}, \sigma)$ in their wallet.
+ \end{enumerate}
+
+ \item $\algo{Spend}(\V{transactionId}, f, \V{coin}, \V{pkMerchant})$:
+ Let $(\V{skCoin}, \V{pkCoin}, \V{pkD}, \sigma_C) := \V{coin}$.
+ The deposit permission is computed as
+ \begin{equation*}
+ \V{depositPermission} := (\V{pkCoin}, \sigma_D, m),
+ \end{equation*}
+ where
+ \begin{align*}
+ m &:= (\V{pkCoin}, \V{pkD}, \V{sigma}_C, \V{transactionId}, f, \V{pkMerchant}) \\
+ \sigma_D &\leftarrow \algo{Sign}_{CSK}(\V{skCoin}, m).
+ \end{align*}
+
+ \item $\algo{Deposit}(\prt{E}(\V{sksE}, \V{pkMerchant}), \prt{M}(\V{skMerchant}, \V{pksE}, \V{depositPermission}))$:
+ The merchant sends \V{depositPermission} to the exchange.
+
+ The exchange checks that the deposit permission is well-formed and sets
+ \begin{align*}
+ (\V{pkCoin}, \V{pkD}, \sigma_C, \sigma_D, \V{transactionId}, f, \V{pkMerchant})) &:= \V{depositPermission}
+ \end{align*}
+
+ The exchange checks the signature on the deposit permission and the validity of the coin with
+ \begin{align*}
+ b_1 := \algo{Verify}_{CSK}(\V{pkCoin}, \sigma_D, m) \\
+ b_2 := \algo{Verify}_{BS}(\V{pkD}, \sigma_C, \V{pkCoin})
+ \end{align*}
+ and aborts of $b_1 = 0$ or $b_2=0$.
+
+ The exchange aborts if spending $f$ would result in overspending
+ $\V{pkCoin}$ based on existing deposit/refresh records, and otherwise marks
+ $\V{pkCoin}$ as spent for $D(\V{pkD})$.
+
+ \item $\algo{RefreshRequest}(\prt{E}(\V{sksE}, \V{pkCustomer}), \prt{C}(\V{skCustomer}, \V{pksE}, \V{coin}_0, \V{pkD}_u))$:
+
+ Let $\V{skD}_u$ be the secret key corresponding to $\V{pkD}_u$.
+
+ We write
+ \[ \algo{Blind}^*_{BS}(\mathcal{S}(\V{sk}, \V{skESig}), \mathcal{R}(R, \V{skR}, \V{pk}, m)) \mapsto (\overline{m}, r, \mathcal{T}_{B*}) \]
+ for a modified version of $\algo{Blind}_{BS}$ where the signature requester
+ $\mathcal{R}$ takes all randomness from the sequence
+ $\left(\V{PRF}(R,\texttt{"blind"}\Vert n)\right)_{n>0}$, the messages from
+ the exchange are recorded in transcript $\mathcal{T}_{B*}$, all
+ messages sent by $\mathcal{R}$ are signed with $\V{skR}$ and all messages sent by $\mathcal{S}$
+ are signed with $\V{skESig}$.
+
+ Furthermore, we write \[ \algo{KeyGen}^*_{CSK}(R, 1^\lambda) \mapsto
+ (\V{sk}, \V{pk}) \] for a modified version of the key generation algorithm
+ that takes randomness from the sequence $\left(\V{PRF}(R,\texttt{"key"}\Vert
+ n)\right)_{n>0}$.
+
+ For each $i\in \{1,\dots,\kappa \}$, the customer
+ \begin{enumerate}
+ \item generates seed $s_i \randsel \{1, \dots, 1^\lambda\}$
+ \item generates transfer key pair $(t_i, T_i) \leftarrow \algo{KeyGen}^*_{CSK}(s_i, 1^\lambda)$
+ \item computes transfer secret $x_i \leftarrow \algo{Kx}(t_i, \V{pkCoin}_0)$
+ \item computes coin key pair $(\V{skCoin}_i, \V{pkCoin}_i) \leftarrow
+ \algo{KeyGen}^*_{CSK}(x_i, 1^\lambda)$
+ \item and executes the modified blinding protocol
+ \[
+ (\overline{m}_i, r_i, \mathcal{T}_{(B*,i)}) \leftarrow
+ \algo{Blind}^*_{BS}(\mathcal{E}(\V{skD_u}), \mathcal{C}(x_i, \V{skCoin}_0, \V{pkD}_u, \V{pkCoin}_i))
+ \]
+ with the exchange.
+ \end{enumerate}
+
+ The customer stores the refresh identifier
+ \begin{equation}
+ \V{rid} := (\V{coin}_0, \V{pkD}_u, \{ s_i \}, \{ \overline{m}_i \}, \{r_i\}, \{\mathcal{T}_{(B*,i)}\} ).
+ \end{equation}
+
+ \item $\algo{RefreshPickup}(\prt{E}(\V{sksE}, \V{pkCustomer}), \prt{C}(\V{skCustomer}, \V{pksE}, \V{rid})) \rightarrow \mathcal{T}$:
+ The customer looks up the refresh identifier $\V{rid}$ and recomputes the transfer key pairs,
+ transfer secrets and new coin key pairs.
+
+ Then customer sends the commitment $\pi_1 = (\V{pkCoin}_0, \V{pkD}_u, h_C)$ together with signature $\V{sig}_1
+ \leftarrow \algo{Sign}_{CSK}(\V{skCoin}_0, \pi_1)$ to the exchange, where
+ \begin{align*}
+ h_T &:= H(T_1, \dots, T_\kappa)\\
+ h_{\overline{m}} &:= H(\overline{m}_1, \dots, \overline{m}_\kappa)\\
+ h_C &:= H(h_T \Vert h_{\overline{m}})
+ \end{align*}
+
+ The exchange checks the signature $\V{sig}_1$, and aborts if invalid. Otherwise,
+ depending on the commitment:
+ \begin{enumerate}
+ \item If the exchange did not see $\pi_1$ before, it marks $\V{pkCoin}_0$
+ as spent for $D(\V{pkD}_u)$, chooses a uniform random $0 \le \gamma < \kappa$, stores it,
+ and sends this choice in a signed message $(\gamma, \V{sig}_2)$ to the customer,
+ where $\V{sig}_2 \leftarrow \algo{Sign}_{S}(\V{skESig}, \gamma)$.
+ \item Otherwise, the exchange sends back the same $\pi_2$ as it sent for the last
+ equivalent $\pi_1$.
+ \end{enumerate}
+
+ The customer checks if $\pi_2$ differs from a previously received $\pi_2'$ for the same
+ request $\pi_1$, and aborts if such a conflicting response was found.
+ Otherwise, the customer in response to $\pi_2$ sends the reveal message
+ \begin{equation*}
+ \pi_3 = T_\gamma, \overline{m}_\gamma,
+ (s_1, \dots, s_{\gamma-1}, s_{\gamma+1}, \dots, s_\kappa)
+ \end{equation*}
+ and signature
+ \begin{equation*}
+ \V{sig}_{3'} \leftarrow \algo{Sign}_{CSK}(\V{skCoin}_0, (\V{pkCoin}_0,
+ \V{pkD}_u, \mathcal{T}_{(B*,\gamma)}, T_\gamma, \overline{m}_\gamma))
+ \end{equation*} to the exchange. Note that $\V{sig}_{3'}$ is not a signature
+ over the full reveal message, but is primarily used in the linking protocol for
+ checks by the customer.
+
+ The exchange checks the signature $\V{sig}_{3'}$ and then computes for $i \ne \gamma$:
+ \begin{align*}
+ (t_i', T_i') &\leftarrow \algo{KeyGen}^*_{CSK}(s_i, 1^\lambda)\\
+ x_i' &\leftarrow \algo{Kx}(t_i, \V{pkCoin}_0)\\
+ (\V{skCoin}_i', \V{pkCoin}_i') &\leftarrow
+ \algo{KeyGen}^*_{CSK}(x_i', 1^\lambda) \\
+ h_T' &:= H(T'_1, \dots, T_{\gamma-1}', T_\gamma, T_{\gamma+1}', \dots, T_\kappa')
+ \end{align*}
+ and simulates the blinding protocol with recorded transcripts (without signing each message,
+ as indicated by the dot ($\cdot$) instead of a signing secret key), obtaining
+ \begin{align*}
+ (\overline{m}_i', r_i', \mathcal{T}_i) &\leftarrow
+ \algo{Blind}^*_{BS}(\mathcal{S}(\V{skD}_u), \mathcal{R}(x_i', \cdot, \V{pkD}_u, \V{skCoin}'_i))\\
+ \end{align*}
+ and finally
+ \begin{align*}
+ h_{\overline{m}}' &:= H(\overline{m}_1', \dots, \overline{m}_{\gamma-1}', \overline{m}_\gamma, \overline{m}_{\gamma+1}',\dots, \overline{m}_\kappa')\\
+ h_C' &:= H(h_T' \Vert h_{\overline{m}}').
+ \end{align*}
+
+ Now the exchange checks if $h_C = h_C'$, and aborts the protocol if the check fails.
+ Otherwise, the exchange sends a message back to $\prt{C}$ that the commitment verification succeeded and includes
+ the signature
+ \begin{equation*}
+ \overline{\sigma}_\gamma := \algo{Sign}_{BS}(\mathcal{E}(\V{skD}_u), \mathcal{C}(\overline{m}_\gamma)).
+ \end{equation*}
+
+ As a last step, the customer obtains the signature $\sigma_\gamma$ on the new coin's public key $\V{pkCoin}_u$ with
+ \begin{equation*}
+ \sigma_\gamma := \algo{UnblindSig}(r_\gamma, \V{pkCoin}_\gamma, \overline{\sigma}_\gamma).
+ \end{equation*}
+
+ Thus, the new, unlinkable coin is $\V{coin}_u := (\V{skCoin}_\gamma, \V{pkCoin}_\gamma, \V{pkD}_u, \sigma_\gamma)$.
+
+ \item $\algo{Link}(\prt{E}(\V{sksE}), \prt{C}(\V{skCustomer}, \V{pksE}, \V{coin}_0))$:
+ The customer sends the public key $\V{pkCoin}_0$ of $\V{coin}_0$ to the exchange.
+
+ For each completed refresh on $\V{pkCoin}_0$ recorded in the exchange's
+ database, the exchange sends the following data back to the customer: the
+ signed commit message $(\V{sig}_1, \pi_1)$, the transfer public key
+ $T_\gamma$, the signature $\V{sig}_{3'}$, the blinded signature $\overline{\sigma}_\gamma$, and the
+ transcript $\mathcal{T}_{(B*,\gamma)}$ of the customer's and exchange's messages
+ during the $\algo{Blind}^*_{BS}$ protocol execution.
+
+ The following logic is repeated by the customer for each response:
+ \begin{enumerate}
+ \item Verify the signatures (both from $\V{pkESig}$ and $\V{pkCoin}_0$) on the transcript $\mathcal{T}_{(B*,\gamma)}$,
+ abort otherwise.
+ \item Verify that $\V{sig}_1$ is a valid signature on $\pi_1$ by $\V{pkCoin}_0$, abort otherwise.
+ \item Re-compute the transfer secret and the new coin's key pair as
+ \begin{align*}
+ x_\gamma &\leftarrow \algo{Kx}_{CSK}(\V{skCoin}_0, T_\gamma)\\
+ (\V{skCoin}_\gamma, \V{pkCoin}_\gamma) &\leftarrow \algo{KeyGen}_{CSK}^*(x_\gamma, 1^\lambda).
+ \end{align*}
+ \item Simulate the blinding protocol with the message transcript received from the exchange to obtain
+ $(\overline{m}_\gamma, r_\gamma)$.
+ \item Check that $\algo{Verify}_{CSK}(\V{pkCoin}_0,
+ \V{pkD}_u, \V{skCoin}_0,(\mathcal{T}_{(B*,\gamma)}, \overline{m}_\gamma), \V{sig}_{3'})$
+ indicates a valid signature, abort otherwise.
+ \item Unblind the signature to obtain $\sigma_\gamma \leftarrow \algo{UnblindSig}(r_\gamma, \V{pkCoin}_\gamma, \overline{\sigma}_\gamma)$
+ \item (Re-)add the coin $(\V{skCoin}_\gamma, \V{pkCoin}_\gamma, \V{pkD}_u, \sigma_\gamma)$ to the customer's wallet.
+ \end{enumerate}
+
+\end{itemize}
+
+\subsection{Concrete Instantiation}
+We now give a concrete instantiation that is used in the implementation
+of GNU Taler for the schemes \textsc{BlindSign}, \textsc{CoinSignKx} and \textsc{Sign}.
+
+For \textsc{BlindSign}, we use RSA-FDH blind signatures
+\cite{chaum1983blind,bellare1996exact}. From the information-theoretic
+security of blinding, the computational blindness property follows directly. For
+the unforgeability property, we additionally rely on the RSA-KTI assumption as
+discussed in \cite{bellare2003onemore}. Note that since the blinding step in
+RSA blind signatures is non-interactive, storage and verification of the
+transcript is omitted in refresh and link.
+
+We instantiate \textsc{CoinSignKx} with signatures and key exchange operations
+on elliptic curves in Edwards form, where the same key is used for signatures
+and the Diffie--Hellman key exchange operations. In practice, we use Ed25519
+\cite{bernstein2012high} / Curve25519 \cite{bernstein2006curve25519} for
+$\lambda=256$. We caution that some other elliptic curve key exchange
+implementation might not satisfy the completeness property that we require, due
+to the lack of complete addition laws.
+
+For \textsc{Sign}, we use elliptic-curve signatures, concretely Ed25519. For
+the collision-resistant hash function $H$ we use SHA-512 \cite{rfc4634} and
+HKDF \cite{rfc5869} as a PRF.
+
+%In Taler's refresh, we avoid key exchange failures entirely because the
+%Edwards addition law is complete abelian group operation on the curve,
+%and the signature scheme verifies that the point lies on the curve.
+%% https://safecurves.cr.yp.to/refs.html#2007/bernstein-newelliptic
+%% https://safecurves.cr.yp.to/complete.html
+%We warn however that Weierstrass curves have incomplete addition formulas
+%that permit an adversarial merchant to pick transfer keys that yields failures.
+%There are further implementation mistakes that might enable collaborative
+%key exchange failures, like if the exchange does not enforce the transfer
+%private key being a multiple of the cofactor.
+%
+%In this vein, almost all post-quantum key exchanges suffer from key exchange
+%failures that permit invalid key attacks against non-ephemeral keys.
+%All these schemes support only one ephemeral party by revealing the
+%ephemeral party's private key to the non-ephemeral party,
+% ala the Fujisaki-Okamoto transform~\cite{fujisaki-okamoto} or similar.
+%We cannot reveal the old coin's private key to the exchange when
+%verifying the transfer private keys though, which
+% complicates verifying honest key generation of the old coin's key.
+
+
+\section{Proofs}
+%\begin{mdframed}
+% Currently the proofs don't have any explicit tightess bounds.
+% Because we don't know where to ``inject'' the value that we get from the challenger when carrying out
+% a reduction, we need to randomly guess in which coin/signature we should ``hijack'' our challenge value.
+% Thus for the proofs to work fully formally, we need to bound the total number of oracle invocations,
+% and our exact bound for the tightness of the reduction depends on this limit.
+%\end{mdframed}
+
+We now give proofs for the security properties defined in Section \ref{sec:security-properties}
+with the generic instantiation of Taler.
+
+\subsection{Anonymity}
+
+\begin{theorem}
+ Assuming
+ \begin{itemize}
+ \item the blindness of \textsc{BlindSign},
+ \item the unforgeability and key exchange security of \textsc{CoinSignKx}, and
+ \item the collision resistance of $H$,
+ \end{itemize}
+ our instantiation satisfies anonymity.
+\end{theorem}
+
+\begin{proof}
+ We give a proof via a sequence of games $\mathbb{G}_0(b), \mathbb{G}_1(b),
+ \mathbb{G}_2(b)$, where $\mathbb{G}_0(b)$ is the original anonymity game
+ $\mathit{Exp}_{\cal A}^{anon}(1^\lambda, 1^\kappa, b)$. We show that the
+ adversary can distinguish between subsequent games with only negligible
+ probability. Let $\epsilon_{HC}$ and $\epsilon_{KX}$ be the advantage of an
+ adversary for finding hash collisions and for breaking the security of the
+ key exchange, respectively.
+
+ We define $\mathbb{G}_1$ by replacing the link oracle \ora{Link} with a
+ modified version that behaves the same as \ora{Link}, unless the adversary
+ responds with link data that did not occur in the transcript of a successful
+ refresh operation, but despite of that still passes the customer's
+ verification. In that case, the game is aborted instead.
+
+ Observe that in case this failure event happens, the adversary must have forged a
+ signature on $\V{sig}_{3}$ on values not signed by the customer, yielding
+ an existential forgery. Thus, $\left| \Prb{\mathbb{G}_0 = 1} - \Prb{\mathbb{G}_1 = 1}
+ \right|$ is negligible.
+
+ In $\mathbb{G}_2$, the refresh oracle is modified so that the customer
+ responds with value drawn from a uniform random distribution $D_1$ for the
+ $\gamma$-th commitment instead of using the key exchange function. We must
+ handle the fact that $\gamma$ is chosen by the adversary after seeing the
+ commitments, so the challenger first makes a guess $\gamma^*$ and replaces
+ only the $\gamma^*$-th commitment with a uniform random value. If the
+ $\gamma$ chosen by the adversary does not match $\gamma^*$, then the
+ challenger rewinds \prt{A} to the point where the refresh oracle was called.
+ Note that we only replace the one commitment that
+ will not be opened to the adversary later.
+
+ Since $\kappa \ll \lambda$ and the security property of $\algo{Kx}$
+ guarantees that the adversary cannot distinguish the result of a key exchange
+ from randomness, the runtime complexity of the challenger still stays
+ polynomial in $\lambda$. An adversary that could with high probability
+ choose a $\gamma$ that would cause a rewind, could also distinguish
+ randomness from the output of $\algo{Kx}$.
+
+ %\mycomment{Tighness bound also missing}
+
+ We now show that $\left| \Prb{\mathbb{G}_1 = 1} - \Prb{\mathbb{G}_2 = 1}
+ \right| \le \epsilon_{KX}$ by defining a distinguishing game $\mathbb{G}_{1
+ \sim 2}$ for the key exchange as follows:
+
+ \bigskip
+ \noindent $\mathbb{G}_{1 \sim 2}(b)$:
+ \vspace{-0.5\topsep}
+ \begin{enumerate}
+ \setlength\itemsep{0em}
+ \item If $b=0$, set
+ \[
+ D_0 := \{ (A, B, \V{Kex}(a, B)) \mid (a, A) \leftarrow \V{KeyGen}(1^\lambda),(b, B) \leftarrow \V{KeyGen}(1^\lambda) \}.
+ \]
+ Otherwise, set
+ \[
+ D_1 := \{ (A, B, C) \mid (a, A) \leftarrow \V{KeyGen}(1^\lambda),
+ (b, B) \leftarrow \V{KeyGen}(1^\lambda),
+ C \randsel \{1,\dots,2^\lambda\} \}.
+ \]
+
+ \item Return $\mathit{Exp'}_{\cal A}^{anon}(b, D_b)$
+
+ (Modified anonymity game where the $\gamma$-th commitment in the
+ refresh oracle is drawn uniformly from $D_b$ (using rewinding). Technically, we need to
+ draw from $D_b$ on withdraw for the coin secret key, write it to a table, look it up on refresh and
+ use the matching tuple, so that with $b=0$ we perfectly simulate $\mathbb{G}_1$.)
+ \end{enumerate}
+
+ Depending on the coin flip $b$, we either simulate
+ $\mathbb{G}_1$ or $\mathbb{G}_2$ perfectly for our adversary~$\mathcal{A}$
+ against $\mathbb{G}_1$. At the same time $b$ determines whether \prt{A}
+ receives the result of the key exchange or real randomness. Thus, $\left|
+ \Prb{\mathbb{G}_1 = 1} - \Prb{\mathbb{G}_2 = 1} \right| = \epsilon_{KX}$ is
+ exactly the advantage of $\mathbb{G}_{1 \sim 2}$.
+
+ We observe in $\mathbb{G}_2$ that as $x_\gamma$ is uniform random and not
+ learned by the adversary, the generation of $(\V{skCoin}_\gamma,
+ \V{pkCoin}_\gamma)$ and the execution of the blinding protocol is equivalent (under the PRF assumption)
+ to using the randomized algorithms
+ $\algo{KeyGen}_{CSK}$ and $\algo{Blind}_{BS}$.
+
+ By the blindness of the $\textsc{BlindSign}$ scheme, the adversary is not
+ able to distinguish blinded values from randomness. Thus, the adversary is
+ unable to correlate a $\algo{Sign}_{BS}$ operation in refresh or withdraw
+ with the unblinded value observed during $\algo{Deposit}$.
+
+ We conclude the success probability for $\mathbb{G}_2$ must be $1/2$ and
+ hence the success probability for $\mathit{Exp}_{\cal A}^{anon}(1^\lambda,
+ \kappa, b)$ is at most $1/2 + \epsilon(\lambda)$, where $\epsilon$ is a
+ negligible function.
+\end{proof}
+% RSA ratios vs CDH in BLS below
+
+\subsection{Conservation}
+
+\begin{theorem}
+ Assuming existential unforgeability (EUF-CMA) of \textsc{CoinSignKx}, our instantiation satisfies conservation.
+\end{theorem}
+
+\begin{proof}
+
+% FIXME: argue that reduction is tight when you have malleability
+ In honest executions, we have $\V{withdrawn}[\V{pkCustomer}] = v_C + v_S$, i.e.,
+ the coins withdrawn add up to the coins still available and the coins spent
+ for known transactions.
+
+ In order to win the conservation game, the adversary must increase
+ $\V{withdrawn}[\V{pkCustomer}]$ or decrease $v_C$ or $v_S$. An adversary can
+ abort withdraw operations, thus causing $\V{withdrawn}[\V{pkCustomer}]$ to increase,
+ while the customer does not obtain any coins. However, in step
+ \ref{game:conserv:run}, the customer obtains coins from interrupted withdraw
+ operations. Similarly, for the refresh protocol, aborted \algo{RefreshRequest} / \algo{RefreshPickup}
+ operations that result in a coin's remaining value being reduced are completed
+ in step \ref{game:conserv:run}.
+
+ Thus, the only remaining option for the adversary is to decrease $v_C$ or $v_S$
+ with the $\ora{RefreshPickup}$ and $\ora{Deposit}$ oracles, respectively.
+
+ Since the exchange verifies signatures made by the secret key of the coin
+ that is being spent/refreshed, the adversary must forge this signature or have
+ access to the coin's secret key. As we do not give the adversary access to
+ the sharing oracle, it does not have direct access to any of the honest
+ customer's coin secret keys.
+
+ Thus, the adversary must either compute the coin's secret key from observing
+ the coin's public key (e.g., during a partial deposit operation), or forge
+ signatures directly. Both possibilities allow us to carry out a reduction
+ against the unforgeability property of the $\textsc{CoinSignKx}$ scheme, by
+ injecting the challenger's public key into one of the coins.
+
+\end{proof}
+
+\subsection{Unforgeability}
+
+\begin{theorem}
+Assuming the unforgeability of \textsc{BlindSign}, our instantiation satisfies {unforgeability}.
+\end{theorem}
+
+\begin{proof}
+The adversary must have produced at least one coin that was not blindly
+signed by the exchange.
+In order to carry out a reduction from this adversary to a blind signature
+forgery, we inject the challenger's public key into one randomly chosen
+denomination. Since we do not have access to the corresponding secret key
+of the challenger, signing operations for this denomination are replaced
+with calls to the challenger's signing oracle in \ora{WithdrawPickup} and
+\ora{RefreshPickup}. For $n$ denominations, an adversary against the
+unforgeability game would produce a blind signature forgery with probability $1/n$.
+\end{proof}
+
+%TODO: RSA-KTI
+
+\subsection{Income Transparency}
+\begin{theorem}
+ Assuming
+ \begin{itemize}
+ \item the unforgeability of \textsc{BlindSign},
+ \item the key exchange completeness of \textsc{CoinSignKx},
+ \item the pseudo-random function property of \V{PRF}, and
+ \item the collision resistance of $H$,
+ \end{itemize}
+ our instantiation satisfies {weak income transparency}.
+\end{theorem}
+
+\begin{proof}
+ We consider the directed forest on coins induced by the refresh protocol.
+ It follows from unforgeability that any coin must originate from some
+ customer's withdraw in this graph.
+ We may assume that all $\V{coin}_1, \dots, \V{coin}_l$ originate from
+ non-corrupted users, for some $l \leq \ell$. % So $\ell \leq w + |X|$.
+
+ For any $i \leq l$, there is a final refresh operation $R_i$ in which
+ a non-corrupted user could obtain the coin $C'$ consumed in the refresh
+ via the linking protocol, but no non-corrupted user could obtain the
+ coin provided by the refresh, as otherwise $\V{coin}_i$ gets marked as
+ spent in step step \ref{game:income:spend}.
+ Set $F := \{ R_i \mid i \leq l \}$.
+
+ During each $R_i \in F$, our adversary must have submitted a blinded
+ coin and transfer public key for which the linking protocol fails to
+ produce the resulting coin correctly, otherwise the coin would have
+ been spent in step \ref{game:income:spend}. In this case, we consider
+ several non-exclusive cases
+ \begin{enumerate}
+ \item the execution of the refresh protocol is incomplete,
+ \item the commitment for the $\gamma$-th blinded coin and transfer
+ public key is dishonest,
+ \item a commitment for a blinded coin and transfer public key other
+ than the $\gamma$-th is dishonest,
+ \end{enumerate}
+
+ We show these to be exhaustive by assuming their converses all hold: As the
+ commitment is signed by $\V{skCoin}_0$, our key exchange completeness
+ assumption of $\textsc{CoinSignKx}$ applies to the coin public key.
+ Any revealed values must match our honestly computed commitments,
+ as otherwise a collision in $H$ would have been found.
+ We assumed
+ the revealed $\gamma$-th transfer public key is honest. Hence our key
+ exchange completeness assumption of $\textsc{CoinSignKx}$ yields
+ $\algo{Kex}_{CSK}(t,C') = \algo{Kex}_{CSK}(c',T)$ where $T =
+ \algo{KeyGenPub}_{CSK}(t)$ is the transfer key, thus the customer obtains the
+ correct transfer secret. We assumed the refresh concluded and all
+ submissions besides the $\gamma$-th were honest, so the exchange correctly
+ reveals the signed blinded coin. We assumed the $\gamma$-th blinded coin is
+ correct too, so customer now re-compute the new coin correctly, violating
+ $R_i \in F$.
+
+ We shall prove
+ \begin{equation}\label{eq:income-transparency-proof}
+ \Exp{{\frac{p}{b + p}} \middle| F \neq \emptyset} = {\frac{1}{\kappa}}
+ \end{equation}
+ where the expectation runs over
+ any probability space used by the adversary and challenger.
+
+ We shall now consider executions of the income transparency game with an
+ optimal adversary with respect to maximizing $\frac{p}{b + p}$. Note that this
+ is permissible since we are not carring out a reduction, but are interested
+ in the expectation of the game's return value.
+
+ As a reminder, if a refresh operation is initiated using a false commitment
+ that is detected by the exchange, then the new coin cannot be obtained, and
+ contributes to the lost coins $b := w - s$ instead of the winnings $p := L -
+ w'$. We also note $b + p$ gives the value of
+ refreshes attempted with false commitments. As these are non-negative,
+ $\frac{p}{b + p}$ is undefined if and only if $p = 0$ and $b = 0$, which happens if and
+ only if the adversary does not use false commitments, i.e., $F = \emptyset$.
+
+ We may now assume for optimality that $\mathcal{A}$ submits a false
+ commitment for at most one choice of $\gamma$ in any $R_i \in F$, as
+ otherwise the refresh always fails. Furthermore, for an optimal adversary we
+ can exclude refreshes in $F$ that are incomplete, but that would be possible
+ to complete successfully, as completing such a refresh would only increase the
+ adversaries winnings.
+
+ We emphasize that an adversary that loses an $R_i$ loses the coin that would
+ have resulted from it completely, while an optimal adversary who wins an
+ $R_i$ should not gamble again. Indeed, an adversary has no reason to touch
+ its winnings from an $R_i$.
+
+% There is no way to influence $p$ or $b$ through withdrawals or spends
+% by corrupted users of course. In principle, one could decrease $b$ by
+% sharing from a corrupted user to a non-corrupted users,
+% but we may assume this does not occur either, again by optimality.
+
+ For any $R_i$, there are $\kappa$ game runs identical up through the
+ commitment phase of $R_i$ and exhibiting different outcomes based on the
+ challenger's random choice of $\gamma$.
+ If $v_i$ is the financial value of the coin resulting from refresh operation
+ $R_i$ then one of the possible runs adds $v_i$ to $p$, while the remaining
+ $\kappa-1$ runs add $v_i$ to $b$.
+
+ We define $p_i$ and $b_i$ to be these contributions summed over the $\kappa$ possible
+ runs, i.e.,
+ \begin{align*}
+ p_i &:= v_i\\
+ b_i &= (\kappa - 1)v_i
+ \end{align*}
+ The adversary will succeed in $1/\kappa$ runs ($p_i=v$) and loses in
+ $(\kappa-1)/\kappa$ runs ($p_i=0$). Hence:
+ \begin{align*}
+ \Exp{{\frac{p}{b + p}} \middle| F \neq \emptyset}
+ &= \frac{1}{|F|} \sum_{R_i\in F} {p_i \over b_i + p_i} \\
+ &= \frac{1}{\kappa |F|} \sum_{R_i\in F} {\frac{v_i}{0 + v_i}} + \frac{\kappa-1}{\kappa |F|} \sum_{R_i \in F} {\frac{0}{v_i + 0}} \\
+ &= {\frac{1}{\kappa}},
+ \end{align*}
+ which yields the equality (\ref{eq:income-transparency-proof}).
+
+As for $F = \emptyset$, the return value of the game must be $0$, we conclude
+\begin{equation*}
+ E\left[\mathit{Exp}_{\cal A}^{income}(1^\lambda, 1^\kappa)\right] \le {\frac{1}{\kappa}}.
+\end{equation*}
+
+\end{proof}
+
+\section{Discussion}
+
+\subsection{Limitations}
+Not all features of our implementation are part of the security model and proofs.
+In particular, the following features are left out of the formal discussion:
+
+\begin{itemize}
+ \item Reserves. In our formal model, we effectively assume that every customer has access
+ to exactly one unlimited reserve.
+ \item Offline and online keys. In our implementation, the exchange
+ has one offline master signing key, and online signing keys with
+ a shorter live span.
+ \item Refunds allow merchants to effectively ``undo'' a deposit operation
+ before the exchange settles the transaction with the merchant. This simple
+ extension preserves unlinkability of payments through refresh.
+ %\item Indian merchant scenario. In some markets (such as India), it is more
+ % likely for the customer to have Internet access (via smart phones) than for
+ % merchants, who in the case of street vendors often have simple phones
+ % without Internet access or support for apps. To use Taler in this case,
+ % it must be possible
+ \item Timeouts. In practice, a merchant gives the customer a deadline until
+ which the payment for a contract must have been completed, potentially by
+ using multiple coins.
+
+ If a customer is unable to complete a payment (e.g., because they notice
+ that their coins are already spent after a restore from backup), a refund
+ for this partial payment can be requested from the merchant.
+
+ Should the merchant become unavailable after a partially completed payment,
+ there are two possibilities: Either the customer can deposit the coins on
+ behalf of the merchant to obtain proof of their on-time payment, which can
+ be used in a later arbitration if necessary. Alternatively, the customer
+ can ask the exchange to undo the partial payments, though this requires the
+ exchange to know (or learn from the customer) the exact amount to be payed
+ for the contract.
+
+ %A complication in practice is that merchants may not want to reveal their
+ %full bank account information to the customer, but this information is
+ %necessary for the exchange to process the deposit, since we do not require
+ %merchants to register beforehand the exchange (as the merchant might
+ %support all exchanges audited by a specific auditor). We discuss a protocol
+ %extension that allows customers to deposit coins on behalf of merchants
+ %in~\ref{XXX}.
+
+ \item The fees incurred for operations, the protocols for backup and
+ synchronization as well as other possible extensions like tick payments are
+ not formally modeled.
+
+ %\item FIXME: auditor
+\end{itemize}
+
+We note that customer tipping (see \ref{taler:design:tipping}) basically amounts to an execution
+of the \algo{Withdraw} protocol where the party that generates the coin keys
+and blinding factors (in that case the merchant's customer) is different from
+the party that signs the withdraw request (the merchant with a ``customer'' key
+pair tied to the merchant's bank account). While this is desirable in some
+cases, we discussed in \ref{taler:design:fixing-withdraw-loophole} how this ``loophole'' for a one-hop untaxed
+payment could be avoided.
+
+\subsection{Other Properties}
+
+\subsubsection{Exculpability}
+Exculpability is a property of offline e-cash which guarantees that honest users
+cannot be falsely blamed for misbehavior such as double spending. For online
+e-cash it is not necessary, since coins are spent online with the exchange. In
+practice, even offline e-cash systems that provide exculpability are often
+undesirable, since hardware failures can result in unintentional overspending
+by honest users. If a device crashes after an offline coin has been sent to
+the merchant but before the write operation has been permanently recorded on
+the user's device (e.g., because it was not yet flushed from the cache to a
+hard drive), the next payment will cause a double spend, resulting in anonymity
+loss and a penalty for the customer.
+
+% FIXME: move this to design or implementation
+\subsubsection{Fair Exchange}\label{sec:security:atomic-swaps}
+
+% FIXME: we should mention "atomic swap" here
+
+The Endorsed E-Cash system by Camenisch et al. \cite{camenisch2007endorsed}
+allows for fair exchange---sometimes called atomic swap in the context of
+cryptocurrencies---of online or offline e-cash against digital goods. The
+online version of Camenisch's protocol does not protect the customer against
+loss of anonymity from linkability of aborted fair exchanges.
+
+Taler's refresh protocol can be used for fair exchange of online e-cash against
+digital goods, without any loss of anonymity due to linkability of aborted
+transactions, with the following small extension: The customer asks the
+exchange to \emph{lock coins to a merchant} until a timeout. Until the timeout
+occurs, the exchange provides the merchant with a guarantee that these coins can
+only be spent with this specific merchant, or not at all. The
+fair exchange exchanges the merchant's digital goods against the customer's
+deposit permissions for the locked coins. On aborted fair exchanges,
+the customer refreshes to obtain unlinkable coins.
+
diff --git a/doc/system/taler/snippet-keys.txt b/doc/system/taler/snippet-keys.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..b05c7952
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/system/taler/snippet-keys.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,62 @@
+{
+ "version": "2:0:0",
+ "master_public_key": "CQQZ...",
+ "reserve_closing_delay": "/Delay(2419200)/",
+ "signkeys": [
+ {
+ "stamp_start": "/Date(1522223035)/",
+ "stamp_expire": "/Date(1533109435)/",
+ "stamp_end": "/Date(1585295035)/",
+ "master_sig": "842D...",
+ "key": "05XW..."
+ }
+ ],
+ "payback": [],
+ "denoms": [
+ {
+ "master_sig": "BHG5...",
+ "stamp_start": "/Date(1500450235)/",
+ "stamp_expire_withdraw": "/Date(1595058235)/",
+ "stamp_expire_deposit": "/Date(1658130235)/",
+ "stamp_expire_legal": "/Date(1815810235)/",
+ "denom_pub": "51RD...",
+ "value": "TESTKUDOS:10",
+ "fee_withdraw": "TESTKUDOS:0.01",
+ "fee_deposit": "TESTKUDOS:0.01",
+ "fee_refresh": "TESTKUDOS:0.01",
+ "fee_refund": "TESTKUDOS:0.01"
+ },
+ {
+ "master_sig": "QT0T...",
+ "stamp_start": "/Date(1500450235)/",
+ "stamp_expire_withdraw": "/Date(1595058235)/",
+ "stamp_expire_deposit": "/Date(1658130235)/",
+ "stamp_expire_legal": "/Date(1815810235)/",
+ "denom_pub": "51R7",
+ "value": "TESTKUDOS:0.1",
+ "fee_withdraw": "TESTKUDOS:0.01",
+ "fee_deposit": "TESTKUDOS:0.01",
+ "fee_refresh": "TESTKUDOS:0.01",
+ "fee_refund": "TESTKUDOS:0.01"
+ },
+ ],
+ "auditors": [
+ {
+ "denomination_keys": [
+ {
+ "denom_pub_h": "RNTQ...",
+ "auditor_sig": "6SC2..."
+ },
+ {
+ "denom_pub_h": "CP6B...",
+ "auditor_sig": "0GSE..."
+ }
+ ],
+ "auditor_url": "https://auditor.test.taler.net/",
+ "auditor_pub": "BW9DC..."
+ }
+ ],
+ "list_issue_date": "/Date(1530196508)/",
+ "eddsa_pub": "05XW...",
+ "eddsa_sig": "RXCD..."
+}